by Keyword: polarized hydroxyapatite

Sans, J, Arnau, M, Roa, JJ, Turon, P, Alernan, C, (2022). Tailorable Nanoporous Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Electrothermal Catalysis Acs Applied Nano Materials 5, 8526-8536

Polarized hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffolds with customized architecture at the nanoscale have been presented as a green alternative to conventional catalysts used for carbon and dinitrogen fixation. HAp printable inks with controlled nanoporosity and rheological properties have been successfully achieved by incorporating Pluronic hydrogel. Nanoporous scaffolds with good mechanical properties, as demonstrated by means of the nanoindentation technique, have been obtained by a sintering treatment and the posterior thermally induced polarization process. Their catalytic activity has been evaluated by considering three different key reactions (all in the presence of liquid water): (1) the synthesis of amino acids from gas mixtures of N-2, CO2, and CH4; (2) the production of ethanol from gas mixtures of CO2 and CH4; and (3) the synthesis of ammonia from N-2 gas. Comparison of the yields obtained by using nanoporous and nonporous (conventional) polarized HAp catalysts shows that both the nanoporosity and water absorption capacity of the former represent a drawback when the catalytic reaction requires auxiliary coating layers, as for example for the production of amino acids. This is because the surface nanopores achieved by incorporating Pluronic hydrogel are completely hindered by such auxiliary coating layers. On the contrary, the catalytic activity improves drastically for reactions in which the HAp-based scaffolds with enhanced nanoporosity are used as catalysts. More specifically, the carbon fixation from CO2 and CH4 to yield ethanol improves by more than 3000% when compared with nonporous HAp catalyst. Similarly, the synthesis of ammonia by dinitrogen fixation increases by more than 2000%. Therefore, HAp catalysts based on nanoporous scaffolds exhibit an extraordinary potential for scalability and industrial utilization for many chemical reactions, enabling a feasible green chemistry alternative to catalysts based on heavy metals.

JTD Keywords: Amino acids, Amino-acids, Ammonium production, Bone, Carbon fixation, Composites, Constitutive phases, Decarbonization, Dinitrogen, Ditrogen fixation, Elastic-modulus, Electrophotosynthesis, Ethanol production, Hardness, Indentation, Nanoindentation, Pluronic hydrogel, Polarized hydroxyapatite

Sans J, Arnau M, Sanz V, Turon P, Alemán C, (2022). Hydroxyapatite-based biphasic catalysts with plasticity properties and its potential in carbon dioxide fixation Chemical Engineering Journal 433, 133512

The design of catalysts with controlled selectivity at will, also known as catalytic plasticity, is a very attractive approach for the recycling of carbon dioxide (CO2). In this work, we study how catalytically active hydroxyapatite (HAp) and brushite (Bru) interact synergistically, allowing the production of formic acid or acetic acid depending on the HAp/Bru ratio in the catalyst. Raman, wide angle X-ray scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies, combined with an exhaustive revision of the crystalline structure of the catalyst at the atomic level, allowed to discern how the Bru phase can be generated and stabilized at high temperatures. Results clearly indicate that the presence of OH– groups to maintain the crystalline structural integrity in conjunction with Ca2+ ions less bonded to the lattice fixate carbon into C1, C2 and C3 molecules from CO2 and allow the evolution from formic to acetic acid and acetone. In this way, the plasticity of the HAp-Bru system is demonstrated, representing a promising green alternative to the conventional metal-based electrocatalysts used for CO2 fixation. Thus, the fact that no electric voltage is necessary for the CO2 reduction has a very favorable impact in the final energetic net balance of the carbon fixation reaction. © 2021

JTD Keywords:

ethanol production & nbsp, brushite, co2 reduction, conversion, electrocatalytic reduction, electrode, formate, heterogeneous catalysis & nbsp, hydrogen evolution, insights, monetite, polarized hydroxyapatite,

, Acetic acid, Acetone, Biphasic catalyst, Brushite, Calcium phosphate, Carbon dioxide, Carbon dioxide fixation, Catalysis, Catalyst selectivity, Co 2 reduction, Co2 reduction, Electrocatalysts, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Electrochemical reduction, Electrochemical-impedance spectroscopies, Ethanol production, Formic acid, Heterogeneous catalysis, Hydroxyapatite, Ph, Polarized hydroxyapatite, Property, Reduction, Scanning electron microscopy, Temperature programmed desorption, Wide angle x-ray scattering, X ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X ray scattering, ]+ catalyst

Sans, Jordi, Sanz, Vanesa, Turon, Pau, Alemán, Carlos, (2021). Enhanced CO2 Conversion into Ethanol by Permanently Polarized Hydroxyapatite through C-C Coupling Chemcatchem 13, 5025-5033

Sans, J., Armelin, E., Sanz, V., Puiggalí, J., Turon, P., Alemán, C., (2020). Breaking-down the catalyst used for the electrophotosynthesis of amino acids by nitrogen and carbon fixation Journal of Catalysis 389, 646-656

The electrophotocatalytic synthesis of Glycine and Alanine from a simple gas mixture containing N2, CO2, CH4 and H2O under mild reaction conditions (95 °C and 6 bar) was recently developed using a catalyst formed by permanently polarized hydroxyapatite, which is achieved using a thermally stimulated polarization process, coated with two layers of aminotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (ATMP) separated by an intermediate layer of zirconyl chloride (ZC). This work reports the optimization of the ATMP- and ZC-coating content by examining the influence of their concentration of each component in each layer on the structural and electrochemical properties of the catalyst. After exhaustive analyses, such properties have been related with the efficiency of the catalysts prepared using different ATMP- and ZC-concentrations to yield Gly and Ala amino acids by fixing nitrogen from N2 and carbon from CO2 and CH4. Results show that, although the concentrations of ATMP and ZC in the first and the intermediate layers are important, the third layer plays a predominant role as is responsible of the apparition of supramolecular structures on the surface and the capacitive behavior of the coating

JTD Keywords: Carbon dioxide fixation, Electrocatalyst, Heterogeneous catalysis, Phosphonic acid, Photocatalyst, Polarized hydroxyapatite, Surface chemistry, Zirconyl chloride