by Keyword: rat model

Romero D, Jane R, (2021). Global and Transient Effects of Intermittent Hypoxia on Heart Rate Variability Markers: Evaluation using an Obstructive Sleep Apnea Model Ieee Access 9, 19043-19052

CCBY Intermittent hypoxia (IH) produces autonomic dysfunction that promotes the development of arrhythmia and hypertension in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This paper investigated different heart rate variability (HRV) indices in the context of IH using a rat model for OSA. Linear and non-linear HRV parameters were assessed from ultra-short (15-s segments) and short-term (5 min) analyses of heartbeat time-series. Transient changes observed from pre-apnea segments to hypoxia episodes were evaluated, besides the relative and global impact of IH, as a function of its severity. Results showed an overall increase in ultra-short HRV markers as immediate response to hypoxia: standard deviation of normal RR intervals, SDNN=1.2 ms (IQR: 1.1-2.1) vs 1.4 ms (IQR: 1.2-2.2), p=0.015; root mean square of the successive differences, RMSSD=1.7 ms (IQR: 1.5-2.2) vs 1.9 ms (IQR: 1.6-2.4), p=0.031. The power in the very low frequency (VLF) band also showed a significant increase: 0.09 ms2 (IQR: 0.05-0.20) vs 0.16 ms2 (IQR: 0.12-0.23), p=0.016, probably associated with the potentiation of the carotid body chemo-sensory response to hypoxia. Moreover, a clear link between severity of IH and short-term HRV measures was found in VLF and LF power, besides their progressive increase seen throughout the experiment after each apnea sequence. However, only those markers quantifying fragmentation levels in RR series were significantly affected when the experiment ended, as compared to baseline measures: percentage of inflection points, PIP=49% (IQR: 45-51) vs 53% (IQR: 47-53), p=0.031; percentage of short (≥3 RR intervals) accelerated/decelerated segments, PSS=75% (IQR: 51-81) vs 87% (IQR: 51-90), p=0.046. These findings suggest a significant deterioration of cardiac rhythm with a more erratic behavior beyond the normal sinus arrhythmia, that may lead to a future cardiac condition.

JTD Keywords: artificial intelligence, atmospheric modeling, electrocardiography, heart rate variability, hypoxia rat model, intermittent hypoxia, obstructive apneas, protocols, radio access technologies, Artificial intelligence, Atmospheric modeling, Electrocardiography, Heart rate variability, Hypoxia rat model, Intermittent hypoxia, Obstructive apneas, Protocols, Radio access technologies, Rats

Jané, R., Lazaro, J., Ruiz, P., Gil, E., Navajas, D., Farre, R., Laguna, P., (2013). Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a rat model: Effects of anesthesia on autonomic evaluation from heart rate variability measures CinC 2013 Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC) , IEEE (Zaragoza, Spain) , 1011-1014

Rat model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a realistic approach for studying physiological mechanisms involved in sleep. Rats are usually anesthetized and autonomic nervous system (ANS) could be blocked. This study aimed to assess the effect of anesthesia on ANS activity during OSA episodes. Seven male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized intraperitoneally with urethane (1g/kg). The experiments were conducted applying airway obstructions, simulating 15s-apnea episodes for 15 minutes. Five signals were acquired: respiratory pressure and flow, SaO2, ECG and photoplethysmography (PPG). In total, 210 apnea episodes were studied. Normalized power spectrum of Pulse Rate Variability (PRV) was analyzed in the Low Frequency (LF) and High Frequency (HF) bands, for each episode in consecutive 15s intervals (before, during and after the apnea). All episodes showed changes in respiratory flow and SaO2 signal. Conversely, decreases in the amplitude fluctuations of PPG (DAP) were not observed. Normalized LF presented extremely low values during breathing (median=7,67%), suggesting inhibition of sympathetic system due to anesthetic effect. Subtle increases of LF were observed during apnea. HRV and PPG analysis during apnea could be an indirect tool to assess the effect and deep of anesthesia.

JTD Keywords: electrocardiography, fluctuations, medical disorders, medical signal detection, medical signal processing, neurophysiology, photoplethysmography, pneumodynamics, sleep, ECG, SaO2 flow, SaO2 signal, airway obstructions, amplitude fluctuations, anesthesia effects, anesthetized nervous system, autonomic evaluation, autonomic nervous system, breathing, heart rate variability, high-frequency bands, low-frequency bands, male Sprague-Dawley rats, normalized power spectrum, obstructive sleep apnea, photoplethysmography, physiological mechanisms, pulse rate variability, rat model, respiratory flow, respiratory pressure, signal acquisition, sympathetic system inhibition, time 15 min, time 15 s, Abstracts, Atmospheric modeling, Computational modeling, Electrocardiography, Rats, Resonant frequency

Guamán, Ana V., Carreras, Alba, Calvo, Daniel, Agudo, Idoya, Navajas, Daniel, Pardo, Antonio, Marco, Santiago, Farré, Ramon, (2012). Rapid detection of sepsis in rats through volatile organic compounds in breath Journal of Chromatography B , 881-882, 76-82

Background: Sepsis is one of the main causes of death in adult intensive care units. The major drawbacks of the different methods used for its diagnosis and monitoring are their inability to provide fast responses and unsuitability for bedside use. In this study, performed using a rat sepsis model, we evaluate breath analysis with Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) as a fast, portable and non-invasive strategy. Methods: This study was carried out on 20 Sprague-Dawley rats. Ten rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli and ten rats were IP injected with regular saline. After a 24-h period, the rats were anaesthetized and their exhaled breaths were collected and measured with IMS and SPME-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) and the data were analyzed with multivariate data processing techniques. Results: The SPME-GC/MS dataset processing showed 92% accuracy in the discrimination between the two groups, with a confidence interval of between 90.9% and 92.9%. Percentages for sensitivity and specificity were 98% (97.5–98.5%) and 85% (84.6–87.6%), respectively. The IMS database processing generated an accuracy of 99.8% (99.7–99.9%), a specificity of 99.6% (99.5–99.7%) and a sensitivity of 99.9% (99.8–100%). Conclusions: IMS involving fast analysis times, minimum sample handling and portable instrumentation can be an alternative for continuous bedside monitoring. IMS spectra require data processing with proper statistical models for the technique to be used as an alternative to other methods. These animal model results suggest that exhaled breath can be used as a point-of-care tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of sepsis.

JTD Keywords: Sepsis, Volatile organic compounds, Ion mobility spectrometer, Rat model, Bedside patient systems, Non-invasive detection

Carreras, A., Rojas, M., Tsapikouni, T., Montserrat, J. M., Navajas, D., Farre, R., (2010). Obstructive apneas induce early activation of mesenchymal stem cells and enhancement of endothelial wound healing Respiratory Research , 11, (91), 1-7

Background: The aim was to test the hypothesis that the blood serum of rats subjected to recurrent airway obstructions mimicking obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) induces early activation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and enhancement of endothelial wound healing. Methods: We studied 30 control rats and 30 rats subjected to recurrent obstructive apneas (60 per hour, lasting 15 s each, for 5 h). The migration induced in MSC by apneic serum was measured by transwell assays. MSC-endothelial adhesion induced by apneic serum was assessed by incubating fluorescent-labelled MSC on monolayers of cultured endothelial cells from rat aorta. A wound healing assay was used to investigate the effect of apneic serum on endothelial repair. Results: Apneic serum showed significant increase in chemotaxis in MSC when compared with control serum: the normalized chemotaxis indices were 2.20 +/- 0.58 (m +/- SE) and 1.00 +/- 0.26, respectively (p < 0.05). MSC adhesion to endothelial cells was greater (1.75 +/- 0.14 -fold; p < 0.01) in apneic serum than in control serum. When compared with control serum, apneic serum significantly increased endothelial wound healing (2.01 +/- 0.24 -fold; p < 0.05). Conclusions: The early increases induced by recurrent obstructive apneas in MSC migration, adhesion and endothelial repair suggest that these mechanisms play a role in the physiological response to the challenges associated to OSA.

JTD Keywords: Induced acute lung, Sleep-apnea, Intermitent hypoxia, Cardiovascular-disease, Progenito Cells, Rat model, Inflammation, Mechanisms, Repair, Blood