by Keyword: Cardiac tissue regeneration

Colombi S, Macor LP, Ortiz-Membrado L, Pérez-Amodio S, Jiménez-Piqué E, Engel E, Pérez-Madrigal MM, García-Torres J, Alemán C, (2023). Enzymatic Degradation of Polylactic Acid Fibers Supported on a Hydrogel for Sustained Release of Lactate Acs Applied Bio Materials 6, 3889-3901

The incorporation of exogenous lactate into cardiac tissues is a regenerative strategy that is rapidly gaining attention. In this work, two polymeric platforms were designed to achieve a sustained release of lactate, combining immediate and prolonged release profiles. Both platforms contained electrospun poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers and an alginate (Alg) hydrogel. In the first platform, named L/K(x)/Alg-PLA, lactate and proteinase K (x mg of enzyme per 1 g of PLA) were directly loaded into the Alg hydrogel, into which PLA fibers were assembled. In the second platform, L/Alg-K(x)/PLA, fibers were produced by electrospinning a proteinase K:PLA solution and, subsequently, assembled within the lactate-loaded hydrogel. After characterizing the chemical, morphological, and mechanical properties of the systems, as well as their cytotoxicity, the release profiles of the two platforms were determined considering different amounts of proteinase K (x = 5.2, 26, and 52 mg of proteinase K per 1 g of PLA), which is known to exhibit a broad cleavage activity. The profiles obtained using L/Alg-K(x)/PLA platforms with x = 26 and 52 were the closest to the criteria that must be met for cardiac tissue regeneration. Finally, the amount of lactate directly loaded in the Alg hydrogel for immediate release and the amount of protein in the electrospinning solution were adapted to achieve a constant lactate release of around 6 mM per day over 1 or 2 weeks. In the optimized bioplatform, in which 6 mM lactate was loaded in the hydrogel, the amount of fibers was increased by a factor of ×3, the amount of enzyme was adjusted to 40 mg per 1 g of PLA, and a daily lactate release of 5.9 ± 2.7 mM over a period of 11 days was achieved. Accordingly, the engineered device fully satisfied the characteristics and requirements for heart tissue regeneration.

JTD Keywords: biodegradable fibers, cardiac tissue regeneration, cell, drug-release, elastic-modulus, electrospinning, heart, nanoindentation, plasma treatment, proteinase, scaffold, stiffness, Alginate, Biodegradable fibers, Cardiac tissue regeneration, Electrospinning, Nanoindentation, Plasma treatment, Proteinase, Skeletal-muscle

Puiggali-Jou, A, Ordoño, J, del Valle, LJ, Pérez-Amodio, S, Engel, E, Alemán, C, (2021). Tuning multilayered polymeric self-standing films for controlled release of L-lactate by electrical stimulation Journal Of Controlled Release 330, 669-683

© 2020 Elsevier B.V. We examine different approaches for the controlled release of L-lactate, which is a signaling molecule that participates in tissue remodeling and regeneration, such as cardiac and muscle tissue. Robust, flexible, and self-supported 3-layers films made of two spin-coated poly(lactic acid) (PLA) layers separated by an electropolymerized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) layer, are used as loading and delivery systems. Films with outer layers prepared using homochiral PLA and with nanoperforations of diameter 146 ± 70 experience more bulk erosion, which also contributes to the release of L-lactic acid, than those obtained using heterochiral PLA and with nanoperforations of diameter 66 ± 24. Moreover, the release of L-lactic acid as degradation product is accelerated by applying biphasic electrical pulses. The four approaches used for loading extra L-lactate in the 3-layered films were: incorporation of L-lactate at the intermediate PEDOT layer as primary dopant agent using (1) organic or (2) basic water solutions as reaction media; (3) substitution at the PEDOT layer of the ClO4− dopant by L-lactate using de-doping and re-doping processes; and (4) loading of L-lactate at the outer PLA layers during the spin-coating process. Electrical stimuli were applied considering biphasic voltage pulses and constant voltages (both negative and positive). Results indicate that the approach used to load the L-lactate has a very significant influence in the release regulation process, affecting the concentration of released L-lactate up to two orders of magnitude. Among the tested approaches, the one based on the utilization of the outer layers for loading, approach (4), can be proposed for situations requiring prolonged and sustained L-lactate release over time. The biocompatibility and suitability of the engineered films for cardiac tissue engineering has also been confirmed using cardiac cells.

JTD Keywords: biphasic voltage pulse, cardiac tissue regeneration, cardiomyocytes proliferation, conducting polymer, nanoperforated films, sustained delivery, Biphasic voltage pulse, Cardiac tissue regeneration, Cardiomyocytes proliferation, Conducting polymer, Nanoperforated films, Sustained delivery