by Keyword: Illumination

Farré, R, Rodríguez-Lázaro, MA, Otero, J, Gavara, N, Sunyer, R, Farré, N, Gozal, D, Almendros, I, (2024). Low-cost, open-source device for simultaneously subjecting rodents to different circadian cycles of light, food, and temperature Frontiers In Physiology 15, 1356787

Exposure of experimental rodents to controlled cycles of light, food, and temperature is important when investigating alterations in circadian cycles that profoundly influence health and disease. However, applying such stimuli simultaneously is difficult in practice. We aimed to design, build, test, and open-source describe a simple device that subjects a conventional mouse cage to independent cycles of physiologically relevant environmental variables. The device is based on a box enclosing the rodent cage to modify the light, feeding, and temperature environments. The device provides temperature-controlled air conditioning (heating or cooling) by a Peltier module and includes programmable feeding and illumination. All functions are set by a user-friendly front panel for independent cycle programming. Bench testing with a model simulating the CO2 production of mice in the cage showed: a) suitable air renewal (by measuring actual ambient CO2), b) controlled realistic illumination at the mouse enclosure (measured by a photometer), c) stable temperature control, and d) correct cycling of light, feeding, and temperature. The cost of all the supplies (retail purchased by e-commerce) was <300 US$. Detailed technical information is open-source provided, allowing for any user to reliably reproduce or modify the device. This approach can considerably facilitate circadian research since using one of the described low-cost devices for any mouse group with a given light-food-temperature paradigm allows for all the experiments to be performed simultaneously, thereby requiring no changes in the light/temperature of a general-use laboratory. 1 Introduction

JTD Keywords: Animal experiment, Animal model, Animal research, Article, Circadian alteration, Circadian rhythm, Commercial phenomena, Controlled study, Cycling, Energy consumption, Energy-expenditure, Experimental model, Feeding, Food, Food availability, Illumination, Intermittent fasting, Light, Light cycle, Light dark cycle, Mouse, Nonhuman, Open source technology, Open-source hardware, Performance, Photography, Research, Rhythms, Rodent, Temperature, Temperature cycle

Sans, Jordi, Arnau, Marc, Bosque, Ricard, Turon, Pau, Aleman, Carlos, (2024). Synthesis of urea from CO2 and N2 fixation under mild conditions using polarized hydroxyapatite as a catalyst Sustainable Energy & Fuels 8, 1473-1482

Polarized hydroxyapatite (p-HAp) has been used as a catalyst for the synthesis of urea coupling N-2, CO2 and water under mild reaction conditions when compared to classical nitrogen fixation reactions, such as the Haber-Bosch process. The reaction of 3 bar of N-2 and 3 bar of CO2 under UV illumination at 120 degrees C (for 48 h) results in a urea yield of 1.5 +/- 0.1 mmol per gram of catalyst (g(c)) with a selectivity close to 80%, whereas the reaction is not successful without UV irradiation. However, the addition of small amounts of NO (314 ppm) produces 15.2 +/- 0.6 and 4.6 +/- 0.4 mmol g(c)(-1) with and without UV illumination, respectively, with the selectivity in both cases being close to 100%. As nitrogen fixation without UV irradiation using p-HAp as a catalyst is a challenge, studies with NO have been conducted varying the reaction conditions (time, pressure and temperature). The results suggest a mechanism based on the production of NH4+ through the oxidation of N-2.

JTD Keywords: Carbon dioxide, Carbon,dinitrogen,reduction,nitrogen,ammonia,dioxid, Catalyst selectivity, Condition, Haber-bosch process, Hydroxyapatite, Irradiation, Metabolism, Mild reaction conditions, Nitrogen fixation, Pressure and temperature, Reaction conditions, Time pressures, Time-temperature, Urea, Uv illuminations, Without uv irradiations, ]+ catalyst