by Keyword: Immunotherapy

De Lama-Odría, María del Carmen, del Valle, Luis J., Puiggalí, Jordi, (2022). Hydroxyapatite Biobased Materials for Treatment and Diagnosis of Cancer International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 11352

Great advances in cancer treatment have been undertaken in the last years as a consequence of the development of new antitumoral drugs able to target cancer cells with decreasing side effects and a better understanding of the behavior of neoplastic cells during invasion and metastasis. Specifically, drug delivery systems (DDS) based on the use of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAp NPs) are gaining attention and merit a comprehensive review focused on their potential applications. These are derived from the intrinsic properties of HAp (e.g., biocompatibility and biodegradability), together with the easy functionalization and easy control of porosity, crystallinity and morphology of HAp NPs. The capacity to tailor the properties of DLS based on HAp NPs has well-recognized advantages for the control of both drug loading and release. Furthermore, the functionalization of NPs allows a targeted uptake in tumoral cells while their rapid elimination by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) can be avoided. Advances in HAp NPs involve not only their use as drug nanocarriers but also their employment as nanosystems for magnetic hyperthermia therapy, gene delivery systems, adjuvants for cancer immunotherapy and nanoparticles for cell imaging.

JTD Keywords: antitumoral, cell imaging, controlled-release, drug-carrier, efficient drug-delivery, fatty-acid-metabolism, fe3o4 nanoparticles, gene delivery, hydroxyapatite, hyperthermia, immunotherapy, in-vitro, magnetic hydroxyapatite, nano-hydroxyapatite, protein adsorption, tumor-growth, Calcium-phosphate nanoparticles, Cancer

Wauters, Annelies C., Scheerstra, Jari F., Vermeijlen, Irma G., Hammink, Roel, Schluck, Marjolein, Woythe, Laura, Wu, Hanglong, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Figdor, Carl G., Tel, Jurjen, Abdelmohsen, Loai KEA., van Hest, Jan CM., (2022). Artificial Antigen-Presenting Cell Topology Dictates T Cell Activation Acs Nano 16, 15072-15085

Guallar-Garrido, Sandra, Almiñana-Rapún, Farners, Campo-Pérez, Víctor, Torrents, Eduard, Luquin, Marina, Julián, Esther, (2022). BCG Substrains Change Their Outermost Surface as a Function of Growth Media Vaccines 10, 40

Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) efficacy as an immunotherapy tool can be influenced by the genetic background or immune status of the treated population and by the BCG substrain used. BCG comprises several substrains with genetic differences that elicit diverse phenotypic characteristics. Moreover, modifications of phenotypic characteristics can be influenced by culture conditions. However, several culture media formulations are used worldwide to produce BCG. To elucidate the influence of growth conditions on BCG characteristics, five different substrains were grown on two culture media, and the lipidic profile and physico-chemical properties were evaluated. Our results show that each BCG substrain displays a variety of lipidic profiles on the outermost surface depending on the growth conditions. These modifications lead to a breadth of hydrophobicity patterns and a different ability to reduce neutral red dye within the same BCG substrain, suggesting the influence of BCG growth conditions on the interaction between BCG cells and host cells.

JTD Keywords: cell wall, efficacy, glycerol, hydrophobicity, lipid, neutral red, pdim, pgl, protein, strains, viability, virulence, Acylglycerol, Albumin, Article, Asparagine, Bacterial cell wall, Bacterial gene, Bacterium culture, Bcg vaccine, Catalase, Cell wall, Chloroform, Controlled study, Escherichia coli, Gene expression, Genomic dna, Glycerol, Glycerol monomycolate, Hexadecane, Housekeeping gene, Hydrophobicity, Immune response, Immunogenicity, Immunotherapy, Lipid, Lipid fingerprinting, Magnesium sulfate, Mercaptoethanol, Methanol, Methylglyoxal, Molybdatophosphoric acid, Mycobacterium bovis bcg, Neutral red, Nonhuman, Pdim, Petroleum ether, Pgl, Phenotype, Physical chemistry, Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Rna 16s, Rna extraction, Rv0577, Staining, Thin layer chromatography, Unclassified drug

Noguera-Ortega, Estela, Secanella-Fandos, Silvia, Eraña, Hasier, Gasión, Jofre, Rabanal, Rosa M., Luquin, Marina, Torrents, Eduard, Julián, Esther, (2016). Nonpathogenic Mycobacterium brumae inhibits bladder cancer growth in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo European Urology Focus , 2, (1), 67-76

Background Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prevents tumour recurrence and progression in non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BC). However, common adverse events occur, including BCG infections. Objective To find a mycobacterium with similar or superior antitumour activity to BCG but with greater safety. Design In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo comparisons of the antitumour efficacy of nonpathogenic mycobacteria and BCG. Intervention The in vitro antitumour activity of a broad set of mycobacteria was studied in seven different BC cell lines. The most efficacious was selected and its ex vivo capacity to activate immune cells and its in vivo antitumour activity in an orthotopic murine model of BC were investigated. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Growth inhibition of BC cells was the primary outcome measurement. Parametric and nonparametric tests were use to analyse the in vitro results, and a Kaplan-Meier test was applied to measure survival in mycobacteria-treated tumour-bearing mice. Results and limitations Mycobacterium brumae is superior to BCG in inhibiting low-grade BC cell growth, and has similar effects to BCG against high-grade cells. M. brumae triggers an indirect antitumour response by activating macrophages and the cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood cells against BC cells. Although no significant differences were observed between BCG and M. brumae treatments in mice, M. brumae treatment prolonged survival in comparison to BCG treatment in tumour-bearing mice. In contrast to BCG, M. brumae does not persist intracellularly or in tumour-bearing mice, so the risk of infection is lower. Conclusions Our preclinical data suggest that M. brumae represents a safe and efficacious candidate as a therapeutic agent for non–muscle-invasive BC. Patient summary We investigated the antitumour activity of nonpathogenic mycobacteria in in vitro and in vivo models of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We found that Mycobacterium brumae effectively inhibits bladder cancer growth and helps the host immune system to eradicate cancer cells, and is a promising agent for antitumour immunotherapy.

JTD Keywords: Animal models, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, Cytokines, Immunomodulation, Immunotherapy, Mycobacteria, Urothelial cell line

Noguera-Ortega, E., Rabanal, R. M., Secanella-Fandos, S., Torrents, E., Luquin, M., Julián, E., (2016). Gamma-irradiated mycobacteria enhance survival in bladder tumor bearing mice although less efficaciously than live mycobacteria Journal of Urology , 195, (1), 198-205

Purpose γ Irradiated Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin has shown in vitro and ex vivo antitumor activity. However, to our knowledge the potential antitumor capacity has not been demonstrated in vivo. We studied the in vivo potential of γ irradiated bacillus Calmette-Guérin and γ irradiated M. brumae, a saprophytic mycobacterium that was recently described as an immunotherapeutic agent. Materials and Methods The antitumor capacity of γ irradiated M. brumae was first investigated by analyzing the in vitro inhibition of bladder tumor cell proliferation and the ex vivo cytotoxic effect of M. brumae activated peripheral blood cells. The effect of γ irradiated M. brumae or bacillus Calmette-Guérin intravesical treatment was then compared to treatment with live mycobacteria in the orthotopic murine model of bladder cancer. Results Nonviable M. brumae showed a capacity to inhibit in vitro bladder cancer cell lines similar to that of live mycobacteria. However, its capacity to induce cytokine production was decreased compared to that of live M. brumae. γ Irradiated M. brumae could activate immune cells to inhibit tumor cell growth, although to a lesser extent than live mycobacteria. Finally, intravesical treatment with γ irradiated M. brumae or bacillus Calmette-Guérin significantly increased survival with respect to that of nontreated tumor bearing mice. Both γ irradiated mycobacteria showed lower survival rates than those of live mycobacteria but the minor efficacy of γ irradiated vs live mycobacteria was only significant for bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Conclusions Our results show that although γ irradiated mycobacteria is less efficacious than live mycobacteria, it induces an antitumor effect in vivo, avoiding the possibility of further mycobacterial infections.

JTD Keywords: BCG vaccine, Gamma rays, Immunotherapy, Mycobacterium, Urinary bladder neoplasms