by Keyword: Lung fibrosis
Júnior, Constança, Ulldemolins, Anna, Narciso, Maria, Almendros, Isaac, Farré, Ramon, Navajas, Daniel, López, Javier, Eroles, Mar, Rico, Felix, Gavara, Núria, (2023). Multi-Step Extracellular Matrix Remodelling and Stiffening in the Development of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 24, 1708
The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the lung is a filamentous network composed mainly of collagens, elastin, and proteoglycans that provides structural and physical support to its populating cells. Proliferation, migration and overall behaviour of those cells is greatly determined by micromechanical queues provided by the ECM. Lung fibrosis displays an aberrant increased deposition of ECM which likely changes filament organization and stiffens the ECM, thus upregulating the profibrotic profile of pulmonary cells. We have previously used AFM to assess changes in the Young’s Modulus (E) of the ECM in the lung. Here, we perform further ECM topographical, mechanical and viscoelastic analysis at the micro- and nano-scale throughout fibrosis development. Furthermore, we provide nanoscale correlations between topographical and elastic properties of the ECM fibres. Firstly, we identify a softening of the ECM after rats are instilled with media associated with recovery of mechanical homeostasis, which is hindered in bleomycin-instilled lungs. Moreover, we find opposite correlations between fibre stiffness and roughness in PBS- vs bleomycin-treated lung. Our findings suggest that changes in ECM nanoscale organization take place at different stages of fibrosis, with the potential to help identify pharmacological targets to hinder its progression.
JTD Keywords: atomic force microscopy, cells, deposition, extracellular matrix, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, mechanisms, mechanosensing, membranes, micromechanical properties, pathogenesis, stiffness, tissues, viscoelasticity, Extracellular matrix, Induced lung fibrosis, Mechanosensing
Júnior C, Narciso M, Marhuenda E, Almendros I, Farré R, Navajas D, Otero J, Gavara N, (2021). Baseline stiffness modulates the non-linear response to stretch of the extracellular matrix in pulmonary fibrosis International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 22,
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a progressive disease that disrupts the mechanical homeostasis of the lung extracellular matrix (ECM). These effects are particularly relevant in the lung context, given the dynamic nature of cyclic stretch that the ECM is continuously subjected to during breathing. This work uses an in vivo model of pulmonary fibrosis to characterize the macro-and micromechanical properties of lung ECM subjected to stretch. To that aim, we have compared the micromechanical properties of fibrotic ECM in baseline and under stretch conditions, using a novel combination of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and a stretchable membrane-based chip. At the macroscale, fibrotic ECM displayed strain-hardening, with a stiffness one order of magnitude higher than its healthy counterpart. Conversely, at the microscale, we found a switch in the stretch-induced mechanical behaviour of the lung ECM from strain-hardening at physiological ECM stiffnesses to strain-softening at fibrotic ECM stiffnesses. Similarly, we observed solidification of healthy ECM versus fluidization of fibrotic ECM in response to stretch. Our results suggest that the mechanical behaviour of fibrotic ECM under stretch involves a potential built-in mechanotransduction mechanism that may slow down the progression of PF by steering resident fibroblasts away from a pro-fibrotic profile. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
JTD Keywords: atomic force microscopy, extracellular matrix, fibrosis, mechanics, mechanosensing, strain, system, viscoelasticity, Atomic force microscopy, Extracellular matrix, Fibrosis, Lung fibrosis, Mechanosensing
Melo, E., Cárdenes, N., Garreta, E., Luque, T., Rojas, M., Navajas, D., Farré, R., (2014). Inhomogeneity of local stiffness in the extracellular matrix scaffold of fibrotic mouse lungs Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials , 37, 186-195
Lung disease models are useful to study how cell engraftment, proliferation and differentiation are modulated in lung bioengineering. The aim of this work was to characterize the local stiffness of decellularized lungs in aged and fibrotic mice. Mice (2- and 24-month old; 14 of each) with lung fibrosis (N=20) and healthy controls (N=8) were euthanized after 11 days of intratracheal bleomycin (fibrosis) or saline (controls) infusion. The lungs were excised, decellularized by a conventional detergent-based (sodium-dodecyl sulfate) procedure and slices of the acellular lungs were prepared to measure the local stiffness by means of atomic force microscopy. The local stiffness of the different sites in acellular fibrotic lungs was very inhomogeneous within the lung and increased according to the degree of the structural fibrotic lesion. Local stiffness of the acellular lungs did not show statistically significant differences caused by age. The group of mice most affected by fibrosis exhibited local stiffness that were ~2-fold higher than in the control mice: from 27.2Â±1.64 to 64.8Â±7.1. kPa in the alveolar septa, from 56.6Â±4.6 to 99.9Â±11.7. kPa in the visceral pleura, from 41.1Â±8.0 to 105.2Â±13.6. kPa in the tunica adventitia, and from 79.3Â±7.2 to 146.6Â±28.8. kPa in the tunica intima. Since acellular lungs from mice with bleomycin-induced fibrosis present considerable micromechanical inhomogeneity, this model can be a useful tool to better investigate how different degrees of extracellular matrix lesion modulate cell fate in the process of organ bioengineering from decellularized lungs.
JTD Keywords: Ageing, Atomic force microscopy, Decellularization, Lung fibrosis, Tissue engineering, Atomic force microscopy, Biological organs, Peptides, Sodium dodecyl sulfate, Sodium sulfate, Tissue engineering, Ageing, Decellularization, Extracellular matrices, Healthy controls, Inhomogeneities, Lung fibrosis, Micro-mechanical, Statistically significant difference, Mammals, bleomycin, adventitia, animal experiment, animal model, article, atomic force microscopy, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, cell fate, controlled study, extracellular matrix, female, intima, lung alveolus, lung fibrosis, lung mechanics, mechanical probe, microenvironment, mouse, nonhuman, pleura, priority journal, rigidity, tissue engineering