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by Keyword: Meat

Bodrenko, I, Ceccarelli, M, Acosta-Gutierrez, S, (2023). The mechanism of an electrostatic nanofilter: overcoming entropy with electrostatics Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 25, 26497-26506

General porins are nature's sieving machinery in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Their unique hourglass-shaped architecture is highly conserved among different bacterial membrane proteins and other biological channels. These biological nanopores have been designed to protect the interior of the bacterial cell from leakage of toxic compounds while selectively allowing the entry of the molecules needed for cell growth and function. The mechanism of transport through porins is of utmost and direct interest for drug discovery, extending toward nanotechnology applications for blue energy, separations, and sequencing. Here we present a theoretical framework for analysing the filter of general porins in relation to translocating molecules with the aid of enhanced molecular simulations quantitatively. Using different electrostatic probes in the form of a series of related molecules, we describe the nature of this filter and how to finely tune permeability by exploiting electrostatic interactions between the pore and the translocating molecule. Eventually, we show how enhanced simulations constitute today a valid tool for characterising the mechanism and quantifying energetically the transport of molecules through nanopores. General porins are nature's sieving machinery in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In the diffusive transport process of molecules, electrostatic interactions can help to decrease the entropic free energy barrier.

JTD Keywords: Channel, Diffusion barrier, Electric-field, Molecular-dynamics, Outer-membrane permeability, Permeation, Porins, Simulations, Translocation, Transport


Tuveri, GM, Ceccarelli, M, Pira, A, Bodrenko, IV, (2022). The Optimal Permeation of Cyclic Boronates to Cross the Outer Membrane via the Porin Pathway Antibiotics 11,

We investigated the diffusion of three cyclic boronates formulated as beta-lactamase inhibitors through the porin OmpF to evaluate their potential to cross OM via the porin pathway. The three nonbeta-lactam molecules diffuse through the porin eyelet region with the same mechanism observed for beta-lactam molecules and diazobicyclooctan derivatives, with the electric dipole moment aligned with the transversal electric field. In particular, the BOH group can interact with both the basic ladder and the acidic loop L3, which is characteristic of the size-constricted region of this class of porins. On one hand, we confirm that the transport of small molecules through enterobacter porins has a common general mechanism; on the other, the class of cyclic boronate molecules does not seem to have particular difficulties in diffusing through enterobacter porins, thus representing a good scaffold for new anti-infectives targeting Gram-negative bacteria research.

JTD Keywords: beta-lactamase inhibitors, cyclic boronates, diffusion current, metadynamics, molecular dynamics simulations, permeation, Antibiotics, Beta-lactamase inhibitors, Cyclic boronates, Diffusion, Diffusion current, Discovery, Electric-field, Metadynamics, Molecular dynamics simulations, Molecular-dynamics simulations, Nanopores, Permeability, Permeation, Porins, Rules, Translocation


Freire, R, Mego, M, Oliveira, LF, Mas, S, Azpiroz, F, Marco, S, Pardo, A, (2022). Quantitative GC–TCD Measurements of Major Flatus Components: A Preliminary Analysis of the Diet Effect Sensors 22, 838

The impact of diet and digestive disorders in flatus composition remains largely unexplored. This is partially due to the lack of standardized sampling collection methods, and the easy atmospheric contamination. This paper describes a method to quantitatively determine the major gases in flatus and their application in a nutritional intervention. We describe how to direct sample flatus into Tedlar bags, and simultaneous analysis by gas chromatography–thermal conductivity detection (GC–TCD). Results are analyzed by univariate hypothesis testing and by multilevel principal component analysis. The reported methodology allows simultaneous determination of the five major gases with root mean measurement errors of 0.8% for oxygen (O2), 0.9% for nitrogen (N2), 0.14% for carbon dioxide (CO2), 0.11% for methane (CH4), and 0.26% for hydrogen (H2). The atmospheric contamination was limited to 0.86 (95% CI: [0.7–1.0])% for oxygen and 3.4 (95% CI: [1.4–5.3])% for nitrogen. As an illustration, the method has been successfully applied to measure the response to a nutritional intervention in a reduced crossover study in healthy subjects. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: breath, colonic microbiota, diet effect on flatus, disorders, evacuation, excretion, flatulence, hydrogen gas, major flatus gas components, multilevel principal component analysis, rectal gas collection, systems, volume, Atmospheric contamination, Carbon dioxide, Conductivity detection, Diet effect on flatus, Gas chromatography, Gas collections, Gas component, Gases, Major flatus gas component, Major flatus gas components, Multilevel principal component analyse, Multilevel principal component analysis, Multilevels, Nitrogen, Nutrition, Oxygen, Principal component analysis, Principal-component analysis, Rectal gas collection, Volatile organic-compounds


Guaus, E., Errachid, A., Torrent-Burgues, J., (2008). Voltammetric response of a glassy carbon electrode modified by a Langmuir-Blodgett film of a thiomacrocyclic compound Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry , 614, (1-2), 73-82

A Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of a thiomacrocyclic (ThM) compound was deposited on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) sheet, from a subphase containing Cu(II) ions. The study of the voltammetric response of this modified GCE when the ThM was bonded to Cu2+, showed that the films had the behaviour of confined species of an electrode surface, and that the current density of the voltammograms increased with the number of LB layers deposited. On the other hand, a LB film of the ThM compound was deposited on the surface of a GCE sheet from a subphase of pure water. When the voltammetric response of the GCE-ThM electrode was studied in a Cu2+-SO42- solution, it was found that a membrane model applies to describe the effect of the LB film on the GCE surface.

JTD Keywords: Modified electrodes, Langmuir-Blodgett films, Cyclic voltammetry, Permeation at LB films, Membrane model of a thin film


Castellarnau, M., Zine, N., Bausells, J., Madrid, C., Juarez, A., Samitier, J., Errachid, A., (2008). ISFET-based biosensor to monitor sugar metabolism in bacteria Materials Science & Engineering C 5th Maghreb-Europe Meeting on Materials and their Applicatons for Devices and Physical, Chemical and Biological Sensors (ed. -----), Elsevier Science (Mahdia, Tunisia) 28, (5-6), 680-685

We report the use of ion-selective field effect transistor devices (ISFETs) with an integrated pseudo-reference electrode for on-line monitoring of bacterial metabolism by monitoring of the pH variation. As a model we tested the ability of Lactobacillus strains to ferment sugars, producing lactic acid, which results in a decrease in pH in the suspension medium. We have tested and compared sugar uptake by L. sakei and a L. curvatus strains. The results obtained show that it is possible to distinguish between both types of Lactobacillus strains through their pattern of ribose uptake. The use of ISFETs represents a non-invasive methodology that can be used to monitor biological activity in a wide variety of systems.

JTD Keywords: Lactobacillus-sakei, Technology, Sensors, System, Growth, Cells, State, Meat