by Keyword: Obesity

Rodríguez‐Comas, Júlia, Castaño, Carlos, Ortega, María Alejandra, Tejedera, Ainoa, Fernandez‐González, Míriam, Novials, Anna, Párrizas, Marcelina, Ramón‐Azcón, Javier, (2023). Immunoaffinity‐Based Microfluidic Platform for Exosomal MicroRNA Isolation from Obese and Lean Mouse Plasma Advanced Materials Technologies , 2300054

López-Soldado, Iliana, Guinovart, Joan J., Duran, Jordi, (2023). Active Glycogen Synthase in the Liver Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Glucose Intolerance, Decreases Food Intake, and Lowers Body Weight International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 24, 2574

Many lines of evidence demonstrate a correlation between liver glycogen content and food intake. We previously demonstrated that mice overexpressing protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) specifically in the liver—which have increased glycogen content in this organ—are protected from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by reduced food intake. However, the use of PTG to increase liver glycogen implies certain limitations. PTG stimulates glycogen synthesis but also inhibits the enzyme responsible for glycogen degradation. Furthermore, as PTG is a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), which regulates many cellular functions, its overexpression could have side effects beyond the regulation of glycogen metabolism. Therefore, it is necessary to determine whether the direct activation of glycogen synthesis, without affecting its degradation or other cellular functions, has the same effects. To this end, we generated mice overexpressing a non-inactivatable form of glycogen synthase (GS) specifically in the liver (9A-MGSAlb mice). Control and 9a-MGSAlb mice were fed a standard diet (SD) or HFD for 16 weeks. Glucose tolerance and feeding behavior were analyzed. 9A-MGSAlb mice showed an increase in hepatic glycogen in fed and fasting conditions. When fed an HFD, these animals preserved their hepatic energy state, had a reduced food intake, and presented a lower body weight and fat mass than control animals, without changes in energy expenditure. Furthermore, 9A-MGSAlb animals showed improved glucose tolerance when fed an SD or HFD. Moreover, liver triacylglycerol levels that were increased after HFD feeding were lower in these mice. These results confirm that increased liver glycogen stores contribute to decreased appetite and improve glucose tolerance in mice fed an HFD. On the basis of our findings, strategies to preserve hepatic glycogen stores emerge as potential treatments for obesity and hyperglycemia.

JTD Keywords: accumulation, atp, attenuates obesity, expression, food intake, glucose, glycogen, glycogen synthase, high-fat diet, homeostasis, hyperglycemia, liver, mgat1, muscle, protein, ptg, Glycogen, Hepatic overexpression, Liver

Bartova, S, Madrid-Gambin, F, Fernandez, L, Carayol, J, Meugnier, E, Segrestin, B, Delage, P, Vionnet, N, Boizot, A, Laville, M, Vidal, H, Marco, S, Hager, J, Moco, S, (2022). Grape polyphenols decrease circulating branched chain amino acids in overfed adults Front Nutr 9, 998044

Introduction and aimsDietary polyphenols have long been associated with health benefits, including the prevention of obesity and related chronic diseases. Overfeeding was shown to rapidly induce weight gain and fat mass, associated with mild insulin resistance in humans, and thus represents a suitable model of the metabolic complications resulting from obesity. We studied the effects of a polyphenol-rich grape extract supplementation on the plasma metabolome during an overfeeding intervention in adults, in two randomized parallel controlled clinical trials.MethodsBlood plasma samples from 40 normal weight to overweight male adults, submitted to a 31-day overfeeding (additional 50% of energy requirement by a high calorie-high fructose diet), given either 2 g/day grape polyphenol extract or a placebo at 0, 15, 21, and 31 days were analyzed (Lyon study). Samples from a similarly designed trial on females (20 subjects) were collected in parallel (Lausanne study). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was conducted to characterize metabolome changes induced by overfeeding and associated effects from polyphenol supplementation. The clinical trials are registered under the numbers NCT02145780 and NCT02225457 atResultsChanges in plasma levels of many metabolic markers, including branched chain amino acids (BCAA), ketone bodies and glucose in both placebo as well as upon polyphenol intervention were identified in the Lyon study. Polyphenol supplementation counterbalanced levels of BCAA found to be induced by overfeeding. These results were further corroborated in the Lausanne female study.ConclusionAdministration of grape polyphenol-rich extract over 1 month period was associated with a protective metabolic effect against overfeeding in adults.

JTD Keywords: branched chain amino acids, grape polyphenols, human trials, metabolism, metabolomics, nmr, obesity, Branched chain amino acids, Grape polyphenols, Human trials, Metabolism, Metabolomics, Nmr, Obesity, Overfeeding

Oller-Moreno, Sergio, Cominetti, Ornella, Galindo, Antonio Núñez, Irincheeva, Irina, Corthésy, John, Astrup, Arne, Saris, Wim H. M., Hager, Jörg, Kussmann, Martin, Dayon, Loïc, (2018). The differential plasma proteome of obese and overweight individuals undergoing a nutritional weight loss and maintenance intervention PROTEOMICS - Clinical Applications 12, (1), 1600150

Purpose : The nutritional intervention program “DiOGenes” focuses on how obesity can be prevented and treated from a dietary perspective. We generated differential plasma proteome profiles in the DiOGenes cohort to identify proteins associated with weight loss and maintenance and explore their relation to body mass index, fat mass, insulin resistance and sensitivity. Experimental Design : Relative protein quantification was obtained at baseline and after combined weight loss/maintenance phases using isobaric tagging and MS/MS. A Welch t-test determined proteins differentially present after intervention. Protein relationships with clinical variables were explored using univariate linear models, considering collection center, gender and age as confounding factors. Results : 473 subjects were measured at baseline and end of the intervention; 39 proteins were longitudinally differential. Proteins with largest changes were sex hormone-binding globulin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, calprotectin, serum amyloid A, and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), whose association with obesity and weight loss is known. We identified new putative biomarkers for weight loss/maintenance. Correlation between PRG4 and proline-rich acidic protein 1 (PRAP1) variation and Matsuda insulin sensitivity increment was showed. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance : MS-based proteomic analysis of a large cohort of non-diabetic overweight and obese individuals concomitantly identified known and novel proteins associated with weight loss and maintenance.

JTD Keywords: Biomarker, Diabetes, Large-scale study, Mass spectrometry, Obesity, Proteomics

Almendros, I., Montserrat, J. M., Torres, M., Bonsignore, M. R., Chimenti, L., Navajas, D., Farre, R., (2012). Obesity and intermittent hypoxia increase tumor growth in a mouse model of sleep apnea Sleep Medicine , 13, (10), 1254-1260

Background: Intermittent hypoxia and obesity which are two pathological conditions commonly found in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), potentially enhance cancer progression. Objective: To investigate whether obesity and/or intermittent hypoxia (IH) mimicking OSA affect tumor growth. Methods: A subcutaneous melanoma was induced in 40 mice [22 obese (40-45 g) and 18 lean (20-25 g)] by injecting 10(6) B16F10 cells in the flank. Nineteen mice (10 obese/9 lean) were subjected to IH (6 h/day for 17 days). A group of 21 mice (12 obese/9 lean) were kept under normoxia. At day 17, tumors were excised, weighed and processed to quantify necrosis and endothelial expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD-31. VEGF in plasma was also assessed. Results: In lean animals, IH enhanced tumor growth from 0.81 +/- 0.17 to 1.95 +/- 0.32 g. In obese animals, a similar increase in tumor growth (1.94 +/- 0.18 g) was observed under normoxia, while adding IH had no further effect (1.69 +/- 0.23 g). IH only promoted an increase in tumoral necrosis in lean animals. However, obesity under normoxic conditions increased necrosis, VEGF and CD-31 expression in tumoral tissue. Plasma VEGF strongly correlated with tumor weight (rho = 0.76, p < 0.001) in the whole sample; it increased in lean IH-treated animals from 66.40 +/- 3.47 to 108.37 +/- 9.48 pg/mL, p < 0.001), while the high baseline value in obese mice (106.90 +/- 4.32 pg/mL) was unaffected by IH. Conclusions: Obesity and IH increased tumor growth, but did not appear to exert any synergistic effects. Circulating VEGF appeared as a crucial mediator of tumor growth in both situations.

JTD Keywords: Intermittent hypoxia, Obesity, Cancer, Sleep apnea, Animal model