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by Keyword: Phenol

Admella, J, Torrents, E, (2022). A Straightforward Method for the Isolation and Cultivation of Galleria mellonella Hemocytes International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 13483

Galleria mellonella is an alternative animal model of infection. The use of this species presents a wide range of advantages, as its maintenance and rearing are both easy and inexpensive. Moreover, its use is considered to be more ethically acceptable than other models, it is conveniently sized for manipulation, and its immune system has multiple similarities with mammalian immune systems. Hemocytes are immune cells that help encapsulate and eliminate pathogens and foreign particles. All of these reasons make this insect a promising animal model. However, cultivating G. mellonella hemocytes in vitro is not straightforward and it has many difficult challenges. Here, we present a methodologically optimized protocol to establish and maintain a G. mellonella hemocyte primary culture. These improvements open the door to easily and quickly study the toxicity of nanoparticles and the interactions of particles and materials in an in vitro environment.

JTD Keywords: Bacteria, Cell culture, Galleria mellonella, Hemolin, Infection, Insect hemocytes, Larvae, Lepidoptera, Nanoparticle, Phagocytosis, Prophenoloxidase, Suspension, Systems


Bartova, S, Madrid-Gambin, F, Fernandez, L, Carayol, J, Meugnier, E, Segrestin, B, Delage, P, Vionnet, N, Boizot, A, Laville, M, Vidal, H, Marco, S, Hager, J, Moco, S, (2022). Grape polyphenols decrease circulating branched chain amino acids in overfed adults Front Nutr 9, 998044

Introduction and aimsDietary polyphenols have long been associated with health benefits, including the prevention of obesity and related chronic diseases. Overfeeding was shown to rapidly induce weight gain and fat mass, associated with mild insulin resistance in humans, and thus represents a suitable model of the metabolic complications resulting from obesity. We studied the effects of a polyphenol-rich grape extract supplementation on the plasma metabolome during an overfeeding intervention in adults, in two randomized parallel controlled clinical trials.MethodsBlood plasma samples from 40 normal weight to overweight male adults, submitted to a 31-day overfeeding (additional 50% of energy requirement by a high calorie-high fructose diet), given either 2 g/day grape polyphenol extract or a placebo at 0, 15, 21, and 31 days were analyzed (Lyon study). Samples from a similarly designed trial on females (20 subjects) were collected in parallel (Lausanne study). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was conducted to characterize metabolome changes induced by overfeeding and associated effects from polyphenol supplementation. The clinical trials are registered under the numbers NCT02145780 and NCT02225457 atResultsChanges in plasma levels of many metabolic markers, including branched chain amino acids (BCAA), ketone bodies and glucose in both placebo as well as upon polyphenol intervention were identified in the Lyon study. Polyphenol supplementation counterbalanced levels of BCAA found to be induced by overfeeding. These results were further corroborated in the Lausanne female study.ConclusionAdministration of grape polyphenol-rich extract over 1 month period was associated with a protective metabolic effect against overfeeding in adults.

JTD Keywords: Branched chain amino acids, Grape polyphenols, Human trials, Metabolism, Metabolomics, Nmr, Obesity, Overfeeding


Perra, M, Manca, ML, Tuberoso, CIG, Caddeo, C, Marongiu, F, Peris, JE, Orru, G, Ibba, A, Fernandez-Busquets, X, Fattouch, S, Bacchetta, G, Manconi, M, (2022). A green and cost-effective approach for the efficient conversion of grape byproducts into innovative delivery systems tailored to ensure intestinal protection and gut microbiota fortification Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 80, 103103

According to circular economy, wine-making by-products represent a fascinating biomass, which can be used for the sustainable exploitation of polyphenols and the development of new nanotechnological health-promoting products. In this study, polyphenols contained in the grape pomace were extracted by maceration with ethanol in an easy and low dissipative way. The obtained extract, rich in malvidin-3-glucoside, quercetin, pro-cyanidin B2 and gallic acid, was incorporated into phospholipid vesicles tailored for intestinal delivery. To improve their performances, vesicles were enriched with gelatine or a maltodextrin (Nutriose (R)), or their com-bination (gelatine-liposomes, nutriosomes and gelatine-nutriosomes). The small (-147 nm) and negatively charged (--50mV) vesicles were stable at different pH values mimicking saliva (6.75), gastric (1.20) and intestinal (7.00) environments. Vesicles effectively protected intestinal cells (Caco-2) from the oxidative stress and promoted the biofilm formation by probiotic bacteria. A preliminary evaluation of the vesicle feasibility at industrial levels was also performed, analysing the economic and energetic costs needed for their production.

JTD Keywords: Adhesion, Antioxidant activity, Caco-2 cells, Dextrin, Grape pomace extract, Lactobacillus-reuteri, Manufacturing costs, Oxidative stress, Ph, Phospholipid vesicles, Polyphenols, Probiotic bacteria, Protein


Guallar-Garrido, S, Campo-Perez, V, Perez-Trujillo, M, Cabrera, C, Senserrich, J, Sanchez-Chardi, A, Rabanal, RM, Gomez-Mora, E, Noguera-Ortega, E, Luquin, M, Julian, E, (2022). Mycobacterial surface characters remodeled by growth conditions drive different tumor-infiltrating cells and systemic IFN-gamma/IL-17 release in bladder cancer treatment Oncoimmunology 11, 2051845

The mechanism of action of intravesical Mycobacterium bovis BCG immunotherapy treatment for bladder cancer is not completely known, leading to misinterpretation of BCG-unresponsive patients, who have scarce further therapeutic options. BCG is grown under diverse culture conditions worldwide, which can impact the antitumor effect of BCG strains and could be a key parameter of treatment success. Here, BCG and the nonpathogenic Mycobacterium brumae were grown in four culture media currently used by research laboratories and BCG manufacturers: Sauton-A60, -G15 and -G60 and Middlebrook 7H10, and used as therapies in the orthotopic murine BC model. Our data reveal that each mycobacterium requires specific culture conditions to induce an effective antitumor response. since higher survival rates of tumor-bearing mice were achieved using M. brumae-A60 and BCG-G15 than the rest of the treatments. M. brumae-A60 was the most efficacious among all tested treatments in terms of mouse survival, cytotoxic activity of splenocytes against tumor cells, higher systemic production of IL-17 and IFN-gamma, and bladder infiltration of selected immune cells such as ILCs and CD4(TEM). BCG-G15 triggered an antitumor activity based on a massive infiltration of immune cells, mainly CD3(+) (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) T cells, together with high systemic IFN-gamma release. Finally, a reduced variety of lipids was strikingly observed in the outermost layer of M. brumae-A60 and BCG-G15 compared to the rest of the cultures, suggesting an influence on the antitumor immune response triggered. These findings contribute to understand how mycobacteria create an adequate niche to help the host subvert immunosuppressive tumor actions.

JTD Keywords: Bcg, Calmette-guerin bcg, Glycerol, Identification, Immune-response, Innate immune response, Innate-lymphoid cells, Lipid, Lipids, Mycolic acids, Neutral-red, Non-muscle invasive, Phenolic glycolipids, Tuberculosis, Tumor microenvironment, Virulence


Bonilla-Pons SÀ, Nakagawa S, Bahima EG, Fernández-Blanco Á, Pesaresi M, D'Antin JC, Sebastian-Perez R, Greco D, Domínguez-Sala E, Gómez-Riera R, Compte RIB, Dierssen M, Montserrat Pulido, N, Cosma MP, (2022). Müller glia fused with adult stem cells undergo neural differentiation in human retinal models Ebiomedicine 77, 103914

Visual impairments are a critical medical hurdle to be addressed in modern society. Müller glia (MG) have regenerative potential in the retina in lower vertebrates, but not in mammals. However, in mice, in vivo cell fusion between MG and adult stem cells forms hybrids that can partially regenerate ablated neurons.We used organotypic cultures of human retina and preparations of dissociated cells to test the hypothesis that cell fusion between human MG and adult stem cells can induce neuronal regeneration in human systems. Moreover, we established a microinjection system for transplanting human retinal organoids to demonstrate hybrid differentiation.We first found that cell fusion occurs between MG and adult stem cells, in organotypic cultures of human retina as well as in cell cultures. Next, we showed that the resulting hybrids can differentiate and acquire a proto-neural electrophysiology profile when the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is activated in the adult stem cells prior fusion. Finally, we demonstrated the engraftment and differentiation of these hybrids into human retinal organoids.We show fusion between human MG and adult stem cells, and demonstrate that the resulting hybrid cells can differentiate towards neural fate in human model systems. Our results suggest that cell fusion-mediated therapy is a potential regenerative approach for treating human retinal dystrophies.This work was supported by La Caixa Health (HR17-00231), Velux Stiftung (976a) and the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, (BFU2017-86760-P) (AEI/FEDER, UE), AGAUR (2017 SGR 689, 2017 SGR 926).Published by Elsevier B.V.

JTD Keywords: cell fusion, expression, fusion, ganglion-cells, in-vitro, mouse, müller glia, neural differentiation, organoids, regeneration, retina regeneration, stem cells, stromal cells, transplantation, 4',6 diamidino 2 phenylindole, 5' nucleotidase, Agarose, Alcohol, Arpe-19 cell line, Article, Beta catenin, Beta tubulin, Bone-marrow-cells, Bromophenol blue, Buffer, Calcium cell level, Calcium phosphate, Calretinin, Canonical wnt signaling, Cd34 antigen, Cell culture, Cell fusion, Cell viability, Coculture, Complementary dna, Confocal microscopy, Cornea transplantation, Cryopreservation, Cryoprotection, Crystal structure, Current clamp technique, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Dodecyl sulfate sodium, Edetic acid, Electrophysiology, Endoglin, Fetal bovine serum, Fibroblast growth factor 2, Flow cytometry, Fluorescence activated cell sorting, Fluorescence intensity, Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase, Glycerol, Glycine, Hoe 33342, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Incubation time, Interleukin 1beta, Lentivirus vector, Matrigel, Mercaptoethanol, Microinjection, Mueller cell, Müller glia, N methyl dextro aspartic acid, Nerve cell differentiation, Neural differentiation, Nitrogen, Nonhuman, Organoids, Paraffin, Paraffin embedding, Paraformaldehyde, Patch clamp technique, Penicillin derivative, Phenolsulfonphthalein, Phenotype, Phosphate buffered saline, Phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor, Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Potassium chloride, Povidone iodine, Promoter region, Proteinase inhibitor, Real time polymerase chain reaction, Receptor type tyrosine protein phosphatase c, Restriction endonuclease, Retina, Retina dystrophy, Retina regeneration, Retinol, Rhodopsin, Rna extraction, Stem cell, Stem cells, Subcutaneous fat, Tunel assay, Visual impairment, Western blotting


Bonamigo Moreira, Vitor, Rintjema, Jeroen, Bravo, Fernando, Kleij, Arjan W., Franco, Lourdes, Puiggalí, Jordi, Alemán, Carlos, Armelin, Elaine, (2022). Novel Biobased Epoxy Thermosets and Coatings from Poly(limonene carbonate) Oxide and Synthetic Hardeners Acs Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 10, 2708-2719

In the area of coating development, it is extremely difficult to find a substitute for bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (DGEBA), the classical petroleum-based raw material used for the formulation of epoxy thermosets. This epoxy resin offers fast curing reaction with several hardeners and the best thermal and chemical resistance properties for applications in coatings and adhesive technologies. In this work, a new biobased epoxy, derived from poly(limonene carbonate) oxide (PLCO), was combined with polyetheramine and polyamineamide curing agents, offering a spectrum of thermal and mechanical properties, superior to DGEBA-based thermosets. The best formulation was found to be a combination of PLCO and a commercial curing agent (Jeffamine) in a stoichiometric 1:1 ratio. Although PLCO is a solid due to its high molecular weight, it was possible to create a two-component partially biobased epoxy paint without the need of volatile organic compounds (i.e., solvent-free formulation), intended for use in coating technology to partially replace DGEBA-based thermosets.

JTD Keywords: acid, adhesion, epoxy thermoset, mechanical properties, monomer, polycarbonates, polymers, protection, resins, solvent-free paint, thermal properties, Adhesives, Biobased epoxy, Bisphenol-a-diglycidyl ethers, Carbonation, Coating development, Coating technologies, Curing, Curing agents, Epoxy coatings, Epoxy resins, Epoxy thermoset, Epoxy thermosets, Limonene oxide, Mechanical properties, Monoterpenes, Paint, Poly(limonene carbonate) oxide, Solvent free, Solvent-free paint, Thermal properties, Thermosets, Volatile organic compounds


Pérez-Rafael S, Ivanova K, Stefanov I, Puiggalí J, del Valle LJ, Todorova K, Dimitrov P, Hinojosa-Caballero D, Tzanov T, (2021). Nanoparticle-driven self-assembling injectable hydrogels provide a multi-factorial approach for chronic wound treatment Acta Biomaterialia 134, 131-143

Chronic wounds represent a major health burden and drain on medical system. Efficient wound repair is only possible if the dressing materials target simultaneously multiple factors involved in wound chronicity, such as deleterious proteolytic and oxidative enzymes and high bacterial load. Here we develop multifunctional hydrogels for chronic wound management through self-assembling of thiolated hyaluronic acid (HA-SH) and bioactive silver-lignin nanoparticles (Ag@Lig NPs). Dynamic and reversible interactions between the polymer and Ag@Lig NPs yield hybrid nanocomposite hydrogels with shear-thinning and self-healing properties, coupled to zero-order kinetics release of antimicrobial silver in response to infection-related hyalurodinase. The hydrogels inhibit the major enzymes myeloperoxidase and matrix metalloproteinases responsible for wound chronicity in a patient's wound exudate. Furthermore, the lignin-capped AgNPs provide the hydrogel with antioxidant properties and strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The nanocomposite hydrogels are not toxic to human keratinocytes after 7 days of direct contact. Complete tissue remodeling and restoration of skin integrity is demonstrated in vivo in a diabetic mouse model. Hematological analysis reveals lack of wound inflammation due to bacterial infection or toxicity, confirming the potential of HA-SH/Ag@Lig NPs hydrogels for chronic wound management. Statement of significance: Multifunctional hydrogels are promising materials to promote healing of complex wounds. Herein, we report simple and versatile route to prepare biocompatible and multifunctional self-assembled hydrogels for efficient chronic wound treatment utilizing polymer-nanoparticle interactions. Hybrid silver-lignin nanoparticles (Ag@Lig NPs) played both: i) structural role, acting as crosslinking nodes in the hydrogel and endowing it with shear-thinning (ability to flow under applied shear stress) and self-healing properties, and ii) functional role, imparting strong antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Remarkably, the in situ self-assembling of thiolated hyaluronic acid and Ag@Lig NPs yields nanocomposite hydrogels able to simultaneously inhibits the major factors involved in wound chronicity, namely the overexpressed deleterious proteolytic and oxidative enzymes, and high bacterial load.

JTD Keywords: catechol, chronic wounds, dressing materials, inhibition, mechanism, nano-enabled hydrogels, polyphenols, promogran, self-assembling, silver-lignin nanoparticles, systems, tannins, Chronic wounds, Degradation, Dressing materials, Nano-enabled hydrogels, Self-assembling, Silver-lignin nanoparticles, Thiolated hyaluronic acid


De Matteis V, Cascione M, Rizzello L, Manno DE, Di Guglielmo C, Rinaldi R, (2021). Synergistic effect induced by gold nanoparticles with polyphenols shell during thermal therapy: Macrophage inflammatory response and cancer cell death assessment Cancers 13,

Background: In recent decades, gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-based cancer therapy has been heavily debated. The physico-chemical properties of AuNPs can be exploited in photothermal therapy, making them a powerful tool for selectively killing cancer cells. However, the synthetic side products and capping agents often induce a strong activation of the inflammatory pathways of macrophages, thus limiting their further applications in vivo. Methods: Here, we described a green method to obtain stable polyphenol-capped AuNPs (Au NPs@polyphenols), as polyphenols are known for their anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. These NPs were used in human macrophages to test key inflammation-related markers, such as NF-κB, TNF-α, and interleukins-6 and 8. The results were compared with similar NPs obtained by a traditional chemical route (without the polyphenol coating), proving the potential of Au NPs@polyphenols to strongly promote the shutdown of inflammation. This was useful in developing them for use as heat-synergized tools in the thermal treatment of two types of cancer cells, namely, breast cancer (MCF-7) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. The cell viability, calcium release, oxidative stress, HSP-70 expression, mitochondrial, and DNA damage, as well as cytoskeleton alteration, were evaluated. Results: Our results clearly demonstrate that the combined strategy markedly exerts anticancer effects against the tested cancer cell, while neither of the single treatments (only heat or only NPs) induced significant changes. Conclusions: Au NP@polyphenols may be powerful agents in cancer treatment.

JTD Keywords: antioxidant, aunps, biocompatibility, biology, calcium, cancer, green synthesis, inflammation response, inhibition, interleukin-6, mechanisms, natural polyphenols, physico-chemical properties, polyphenols, size, thermal treatment, Aunps, Cancer, Green synthesis, Inflammation response, Nobilis l. leaves, Physico-chemical properties, Polyphenols, Thermal treatment


Romero-Montero, A., del Valle, L. J., Puiggalí, J., Montiel, C., García-Arrazola, R., Gimeno, M., (2020). Poly(gallic acid)-coated polycaprolactone inhibits oxidative stress in epithelial cells Materials Science and Engineering C 115, 111154

Enzymatic mediated poly (gallic acid) (PGAL), a stable multiradical polyanion with helicoidal secondary structure and high antioxidant capacity, was successfully grafted to poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) using UV-photo induction. PCL films were prepared with several levels of roughness and subsequently grafted with PGAL (PCL-g-PGAL). The results on the full characterization of the produced materials by mechanical tests, surface morphology, and topography, thermal and crystallographic analyses, as well as wettability and cell protection activity against oxidative stress, were adequate for tissue regeneration. The in vitro biocompatibility was then assessed with epithelial-like cells showing excellent adhesion and proliferation onto the PCL-g-PGAL films, most importantly, PCL-g-PGAL displayed a good ability to protect cell cultures on their surface against reactive oxygen species. These biomaterials can consequently be considered as novel biocompatible and antioxidant films with high-responsiveness for biomedical or tissue engineering applications.

JTD Keywords: Antioxidant, Poly(gallic acid), Polyphenol, Radical oxygen species


Caddeo, C., Manca, M. L., Matos, M., Gutierrez, G., Díez-Sales, O., Peris, J. E., Usach, I., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., Fadda, A. M., Manconi, M., (2017). Functional response of novel bioprotective poloxamer-structured vesicles on inflamed skin Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 13, (3), 1127-1136

Resveratrol and gallic acid, a lipophilic and a hydrophilic phenol, were co-loaded in innovative, biocompatible nanovesicles conceived for ensuring the protection of the skin from oxidative- and inflammatory-related affections. The basic vesicles, liposomes and glycerosomes, were produced by a simple, one-step method involving the dispersion of phospholipid and phenols in water or water/glycerol blend, respectively. Liposomes and glycerosomes were modified by the addition of poloxamer, a stabilizer and viscosity enhancer, thus obtaining viscous or semisolid dispersions of structured vesicles. The vesicles were spherical, unilamellar and small in size (~70 nm in diameter). The superior ability of the poloxamer-structured vesicles to promote the accumulation of both phenols in the skin was demonstrated, as well as their low toxicity and great ability to protect fibroblasts from chemically-induced oxidative damage. The in vivo administration of the vesicular phenols on TPA (phorbol ester)-exposed skin led to a significant reduction of oedema and leukocyte infiltration.

JTD Keywords: Fibroblasts, Mice, Phenol, Phospholipid vesicle, Poloxamer, Skin inflammation


Vitonyte, J., Manca, M. L., Caddeo, C., Valenti, D., Peris, J. E., Usach, I., Nacher, A., Matos, M., Gutiérrez, G., Orrù, G., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., Fadda, A. M., Manconi, M., (2017). Bifunctional viscous nanovesicles co-loaded with resveratrol and gallic acid for skin protection against microbial and oxidative injuries European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 114, 278-287

Resveratrol and gallic acid were co-loaded in phospholipid vesicles aiming at protecting the skin from external injuries, such as oxidative stress and microbial infections. Liposomes were prepared using biocompatible phospholipids dispersed in water. To improve vesicle stability and applicability, the phospholipids and the phenols were dispersed in water/propylene glycol or water/glycerol, thus obtaining PEVs and glycerosomes, respectively. The vesicles were characterized by size, morphology, physical stability, and their therapeutic efficacy was investigated in vitro. The vesicles were spherical, unilamellar and small in size: liposomes and glycerosomes were around 70 nm in diameter, while PEVs were larger (∼170 nm). The presence of propylene glycol or glycerol increased the viscosity of the vesicle systems, positively affecting their stability. The ability of the vesicles to promote the accumulation of the phenols (especially gallic acid) in the skin was demonstrated, as well as their low toxicity and great ability to protect keratinocytes and fibroblasts from oxidative damage. Additionally, an improvement of the antimicrobial activity of the phenols was shown against different skin pathogens. The co-loading of resveratrol and gallic acid in modified phospholipid vesicles represents an innovative, bifunctional tool for preventing and treating skin affections.

JTD Keywords: Fibroblasts, Keratinocytes, Phenol, Phospholipid vesicle, Skin pathogens


Manca, M. L., Castangia, I., Zaru, M., Nácher, A., Valenti, D., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., Fadda, A. M., Manconi, M., (2015). Development of curcumin loaded sodium hyaluronate immobilized vesicles (hyalurosomes) and their potential on skin inflammation and wound restoring Biomaterials 71, 100-109

In the present work new highly biocompatible nanovesicles were developed using polyanion sodium hyaluronate to form polymer immobilized vesicles, so called hyalurosomes. Curcumin, at high concentration was loaded into hyalurosomes and physico-chemical properties and in vitro/in vivo performances of the formulations were compared to those of liposomes having the same lipid and drug content. Vesicles were prepared by direct addition of dispersion containing the polysaccharide sodium hyaluronate and the polyphenol curcumin to a commercial mixture of soy phospholipids, thus avoiding the use of organic solvents. An extensive study was carried out on the physico-chemical features and properties of curcumin-loaded hyalurosomes and liposomes. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering showed that vesicles were spherical, uni- or oligolamellar and small in size (112-220 nm). The in vitro percutaneous curcumin delivery studies on intact skin showed an improved ability of hyalurosomes to favour a fast drug deposition in the whole skin. Hyalurosomes as well as liposomes were biocompatible, protected in vitro human keratinocytes from oxidative stress damages and promoted tissue remodelling through cellular proliferation and migration. Moreover, in vivo tests underlined a good effectiveness of curcumin-loaded hyalurosomes to counteract 12-O-tetradecanoilphorbol (TPA)-produced inflammation and injuries, diminishing oedema formation, myeloperoxydase activity and providing an extensive skin reepithelization. Thanks to the one-step and environmentally-friendly preparation method, component biocompatibility and safety, good in vitro and in vivo performances, the hyalurosomes appear as promising nanocarriers for cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications.

JTD Keywords: Cell oxidative stress, Hyaluronic acid/Hyaluronan, Phospholipid vesicles, Polyphenols, Skin inflammation, Wound healing