by Keyword: Reflex

Rodriguez J, Schulz S, Voss A, Herrera S, Benito S, Giraldo BF, (2023). Baroreflex activity through the analysis of the cardio-respiratory variability influence over blood pressure in cardiomyopathy patients Frontiers In Physiology 14, 1184293

A large portion of the elderly population are affected by cardiovascular diseases. Early prognosis of cardiomyopathies remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to classify cardiomyopathy patients by their etiology based on significant indexes extracted from the characterization of the baroreflex mechanism in function of the influence of the cardio-respiratory activity over the blood pressure. Forty-one cardiomyopathy patients (CMP) classified as ischemic (ICM-24 patients) and dilated (DCM-17 patients) were considered. In addition, thirty-nine control (CON) subjects were used as reference. The beat-to-beat (BBI) time series, from the electrocardiographic (ECG) signal, the systolic (SBP), and diastolic (DBP) time series, from the blood pressure signal (BP), and the respiratory time (TT), from the respiratory flow (RF) signal, were extracted. The three-dimensional representation of the cardiorespiratory and vascular activities was characterized geometrically, by fitting a polygon that contains 95% of data, and by statistical descriptive indices. DCM patients presented specific patterns in the respiratory response to decreasing blood pressure activity. ICM patients presented more stable cardiorespiratory activity in comparison with DCM patients. In general, CMP shown limited ability to regulate changes in blood pressure. In addition, patients also shown a limited ability of their cardiac and respiratory systems response to regulate incremental changes of the vascular variability and a lower heart rate variability. The best classifiers were used to build support vector machine models. The optimal model to classify ICM versus DCM patients achieved 92.7% accuracy, 94.1% sensitivity, and 91.7% specificity. When comparing CMP patients and CON subjects, the best model achieved 86.2% accuracy, 82.9% sensitivity, and 89.7% specificity. When comparing ICM patients and CON subjects, the best model achieved 88.9% accuracy, 87.5% sensitivity, and 89.7% specificity. When comparing DCM patients and CON subjects, the best model achieved 87.5% accuracy, 76.5% sensitivity, and 92.3% specificity. In conclusion, this study introduced a new method for the classification of patients by their etiology based on new indices from the analysis of the baroreflex mechanism.Copyright © 2023 Rodriguez, Schulz, Voss, Herrera, Benito and Giraldo.

JTD Keywords: abnormalities, blood pressure variability, cardio-respiratory variability, dilated cardiomyopathy, disease, heart-failure secondary, ischemic cardiomyopathy, ischemic-dilated cardiomyopathy, morphology-relative change, Baroreflex activity, Blood pressure variability, Cardio-respiratory variability, Cheyne-stokes respiration, Ischemic-dilated cardiomyopathy, Morphology-relative change

Badiola-Mateos M, Osaki T, Kamm RD, Samitier J, (2022). In vitro modelling of human proprioceptive sensory neurons in the neuromuscular system Scientific Reports 12, 21318

Proprioceptive sensory neurons (pSN) are an essential and undervalued part of the neuromuscular circuit. A protocol to differentiate healthy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) human neural stem cells (hNSC) into pSN, and their comparison with the motor neuron (MN) differentiation process from the same hNSC sources, facilitated the development of in vitro co-culture platforms. The obtained pSN spheroids cultured interact with human skeletal myocytes showing the formation of annulospiral wrapping-like structures between TrkC + neurons and a multinucleated muscle fibre, presenting synaptic bouton-like structures in the contact point. The comparative analysis of the genetic profile performed in healthy and sporadic ALS hNSC differentiated to pSN suggested that basal levels of ETV1, critical for motor feedback from pSN, were much lower for ALS samples and that the differences between healthy and ALS samples, suggest the involvement of pSN in ALS pathology development and progression.© 2022. The Author(s).

JTD Keywords: Amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis,pluripotent stem-cells,peripheral nervous-system,stretch reflex arc,mechanosensory circuit,cellular-localization,molecular-cloning,motor-neurons,muscle,expressio

Rodriguez, J., Schulz, S., Voss, A., Giraldo, B. F., (2019). Cardiovascular coupling-based classification of ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy patients Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Berlín, Germany) , 2007-2010

Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most common causes of death in elderly patients. The etiology of cardiomyopathies is difficult to discern clinically. The objective of this study was to classify cardiomyopathy patients using coupling analysis, through their cardiovascular behavior and the baroreflex response. A total of thirty-eight cardiomyopathy patients (CMP) classified as ischemic (ICM, 25 patients) and dilated (DCM, 13 patients) were analyzed. Thirty elderly control subjects (CON) were used as reference. Their electrocardiographic (ECG) and blood pressure (BP) signals were studied. To characterize the cardiovascular activity, the following temporal series were extracted: beat-to-beat intervals (from the ECG signal), and end- systolic and diastolic blood pressure amplitudes (from the BP signal). Non-linear characterization techniques like high resolution joint symbolic dynamics, segmented Poincaré plot analysis, normalized shorttime partial directed coherence, and dual sequence method were used to characterize these times series. The best indices were used to build support vector machine models for classification. The optimal model for ICM versus DCM patients achieved 84.2% accuracy, 76.9% sensitivity, and 88% specificity. When CMP patients and CON subjects were compared, the best model achieved 95.5% accuracy, 97.3% sensitivity, and 93.3% specificity. These results suggest a disfunction in the baroreflex mechanism in cardiomyopathies patients.

JTD Keywords: Couplings, Time series analysis, Support vector machines, Electrocardiography, Baroreflex, Coherence, Sensitivity

Herreros, I., (2018). Learning and control Living machines: A handbook of research in biomimetics and biohybrid systems (ed. Prescott, T. J., Lepora, Nathan, Verschure, P.), Oxford Scholarship (Oxford, UK) , 239-255

This chapter discusses basic concepts from control theory and machine learning to facilitate a formal understanding of animal learning and motor control. It first distinguishes between feedback and feed-forward control strategies, and later introduces the classification of machine learning applications into supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning problems. Next, it links these concepts with their counterparts in the domain of the psychology of animal learning, highlighting the analogies between supervised learning and classical conditioning, reinforcement learning and operant conditioning, and between unsupervised and perceptual learning. Additionally, it interprets innate and acquired actions from the standpoint of feedback vs anticipatory and adaptive control. Finally, it argues how this framework of translating knowledge between formal and biological disciplines can serve us to not only structure and advance our understanding of brain function but also enrich engineering solutions at the level of robot learning and control with insights coming from biology.

JTD Keywords: Feedback control, Feed-forward control, Supervised learning, Unsupervised learning, Reinforcement, Learning, Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning, Reflex, Anticipatory reflex