by Keyword: portal-hypertension

Schierwagen R, Gu W, Brieger A, Brüne B, Ciesek S, Đikić I, Dimmeler S, Geisslinger G, Greten FR, Hermann E, Hildt E, Kempf VAJ, Klein S, Koch I, Mühl H, Müller V, Peiffer KH, Kestner RI, Piiper A, Rohde G, Scholich K, Schulz MH, Storf H, Toptan T, Vasa-Nicotera M, Vehreschild MJGT, Weigert A, Wild PJ, Zeuzem S, Engelmann C,, Schaefer L, Welsch C, Trebicka J ACLF-I Investigators,, (2023). Pathogenetic mechanisms and therapeutic approaches of acute-to-chronic liver failure American Journal Of Physiology-Cell Physiology 325, C129-C140

Liver cirrhosis is the end stage of all chronic liver diseases and contributes significantly to overall mortality of 2% globally. The age-standardized mortality from liver cirrhosis in Europe is between 10 and 20% and can be explained by not only the development of liver cancer but also the acute deterioration in the patient's overall condition. The development of complications including accumulation of fluid in the abdomen (ascites), bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract (variceal bleeding), bacterial infections, or a decrease in brain function (hepatic encephalopathy) define an acute decompensation that requires therapy and often leads to acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) by different precipitating events. However, due to its complexity and organ-spanning nature, the pathogenesis of ACLF is poorly understood, and the common underlying mechanisms leading to the development of organ dysfunction or failure in ACLF are still elusive. Apart from general intensive care interventions, there are no specific therapy options for ACLF. Liver transplantation is often not possible in these patients due to contraindications and a lack of prioritization. In this review, we describe the framework of the ACLF-I project consortium funded by the Hessian Ministry of Higher Education, Research and the Arts (HMWK) based on existing findings and will provide answers to these open questions.

JTD Keywords: 12/15-lipoxygenase, combination, inflammation, interleukin-22, metabolism, mortality, organ failure, portal-hypertension, receptor, regeneration, systemic inflammation, systems medicine, translational hepatology, Decompensated cirrhosis, Organ failure, Systemic inflammation, Systems medicine, Translational hepatology

Ortiz, Cristina, Klein, Sabine, Reul, Winfried H., Magdaleno, Fernando, Gröschl, Stefanie, Dietrich, Peter, Schierwagen, Robert, Uschner, Frank E., Torres, Sandra, Hieber, Christoph, Meier, Caroline, Kraus, Nico, Tyc, Olaf, Brol, Maximilian, Zeuzem, Stefan, Welsch, Christoph, Poglitsch, Marco, Hellerbrand, Claus, Alfonso-Prieto, Mercedes, Mira, Fabio, Keller, Ulrich auf dem, Tetzner, Anja, Moore, Andrew, Walther, Thomas, Trebicka, Jonel, (2023). Neprilysin-dependent neuropeptide Y cleavage in the liver promotes fibrosis by blocking NPY-receptor 1 Cell Reports 42, 112059

Development of liver fibrosis is paralleled by contraction of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the main profibrotic hepatic cells. Yet, little is known about the interplay of neprilysin (NEP) and its substrate neuropeptide Y (NPY), a potent enhancer of contraction, in liver fibrosis. We demonstrate that HSCs are the source of NEP. Importantly, NPY originates majorly from the splanchnic region and is cleaved by NEP in order to terminate contraction. Interestingly, NEP deficiency (Nep-/-) showed less fibrosis but portal hypertension upon liver injury in two different fibrosis models in mice. We demonstrate the incremental benefit of Nep-/- in addition to AT1R blocker (ARB) or ACE inhibitors for fibrosis and portal hypertension. Finally, oral administration of Entresto, a combination of ARB and NEP inhibitor, decreased hepatic fibrosis and portal pressure in mice. These results provide a mechanistic rationale for translation of NEP-AT1R-blockade in human liver fibrosis and portal hypertension.Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: activation, cirrhosis, cirrhotic rats, cp: cell biology, expression, hepatic stellate cell, identification, inhibition, mechanisms, modulation, neprilysin, neuropeptide y, neuropeptide y receptor 1, portal hypertension, portal-hypertension, web server, Renin-angiotensin system

Pieper CC, Feißt A, Meyer C, Luetkens J, Praktiknjo M, Trebicka J, Attenberger U, Jansen C, (2021). Impact of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation on the central lymphatic system in liver cirrhosis Scientific Reports 11, 7065

The puropse of this study was to evaluate associations of cisterna chyli (CCh) diameter with portal hemodynamics and the influence of TIPS-creation in cirrhotic patients. 93 cirrhotic patients (57 male, mean age 59 years) received CT prior to TIPS-creation. 38/93 additionally underwent post-interventional CT. CCh-diameter was measured. After categorization into patients with and without large venous collaterals (i.e. > 6 mm), data were analyzed regarding associations between CCh-diameter, clinical and portal-hemodynamic parameters and diameter-changes after TIPS-creation. Patient survival post-TIPS was analyzed. Median portosystemic pressure-gradient decreased from 20 to 9 mmHg after TIPS-creation. Large venous collaterals were observed in 59 patients. In 69/93 patients (74.2%) the CCh was detectable. Mean pre-interventional diameter was 9.4 ± 2.7 mm (large collaterals: 8.7 ± 2.0 mm, no large collaterals: 10.7 ± 3.2 mm, p = 0.003). CCh-diameter correlated strongly with pre-TIPS portal-pressure (Rs = 0.685, p = 0.0001), moderately with portosystemic-gradient (Rs = 0.524, p = 0.006), liver shear-wave-elastography (Rs = 0.597, p = 0.004) and spleen size (Rs = 0.501, p = 0.01) in patients without large collaterals, but not in patients with large collaterals. Post-TIPS CCh-diameter decreased significantly from 10.2 ± 2.8 mm to 8.3 ± 3.0 mm (p < 0.001). Patients without a detectable CCh on CT survived significantly shorter. The diameter of the CCh is associated with portal-pressure and decreases after TIPS-creation in cirrhotic patients, reflecting a portal decompression mechanism via the lymphatic system. Lack of larger central lymphatics detectable on CT may be associated with shorter survival.

JTD Keywords: circulation, cisterna chyli, fluid, hepatic cirrhosis, shear-wave elastography, thoracic-duct, vessels, Significant portal-hypertension