by Keyword: silica nanoparticles

Dolci, Mathias, Wang, Yuyang, Nooteboom, Sjoerd W, Nooteboom, Sjoerd W, Rodriguez, Paul Eduardo David Soto, Sanchez, Samuel, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Zijlstra, Peter, (2023). Real-Time Optical Tracking of Protein Corona Formation on Single Nanoparticles in Serum Acs Nano 17, 20167-20178

The formation of a protein corona, where proteins spontaneously adhere to the surface of nanomaterials in biological environments, leads to changes in their physicochemical properties and subsequently affects their intended biomedical functionalities. Most current methods to study protein corona formation are ensemble-averaging and either require fluorescent labeling, washing steps, or are only applicable to specific types of particles. Here we introduce real-time all-optical nanoparticle analysis by scattering microscopy (RONAS) to track the formation of protein corona in full serum, at the single-particle level, without any labeling. RONAS uses optical scattering microscopy and enables real-time and in situ tracking of protein adsorption on metallic and dielectric nanoparticles with different geometries directly in blood serum. We analyzed the adsorbed protein mass, the affinity, and the kinetics of the protein adsorption at the single particle level. While there is a high degree of heterogeneity from particle to particle, the predominant factor in protein adsorption is surface chemistry rather than the underlying nanoparticle material or size. RONAS offers an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms related to protein coronas and, thus, enables the development of strategies to engineer efficient bionanomaterials.

JTD Keywords: Dielectric nanoparticles, Optical microscopy, Plasmonic nanoparticles, Protein corona, Protein corona,plasmonic nanoparticles,dielectricnanoparticles,optical microscopy,single particle, Silica nanoparticles,gold nanoparticles,surface-charge,adsorption,albumin,binding,size,transferrin,mas, Single particles

Das, P, Pujals, S, Ali, LMA, Gary-Bobo, M, Albertazzi, L, Durand, JO, (2023). Super-resolution imaging of antibody-conjugated biodegradable periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles for targeted chemotherapy of prostate cancer Nanoscale 15, 12008-12024

Biodegradable periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (nanoPMOs) are widely used as responsive drug delivery platforms for targeted chemotherapy of cancer. However, the evaluation of their properties such as surface functionality and biodegradability is still challenging, which has a significant impact on the efficiency of chemotherapy. In this study, we have applied direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM), a single-molecule super-resolution microscopy technique, to quantify the degradation of nanoPMOs triggered by glutathione and the multivalency of antibody-conjugated nanoPMOs. Subsequently, the effect of these properties on cancer cell targeting, drug loading and release capability, and anticancer activity is also studied. Due to the higher spatial resolution at the nanoscale, dSTORM imaging is able to reveal the structural properties (i.e., size and shape) of fluorescent and biodegradable nanoPMOs. The quantification of nanoPMOs' biodegradation using dSTORM imaging demonstrates their excellent structure-dependent degradation behavior at a higher glutathione concentration. The surface functionality of anti-M6PR antibody-conjugated nanoPMOs as quantified by dSTORM imaging plays a key role in prostate cancer cell labeling: oriented antibody is more effective than random ones, while high multivalency is also effective. The higher biodegradability and cancer cell-targeting properties of nanorods conjugated with oriented antibody (EAB4H) effectively deliver the anticancer drug doxorubicin to cancer cells, exhibiting potent anticancer effects.

JTD Keywords: drug-delivery, nanocapsules, nanomaterials, nanomedicine, release, Silica nanoparticles

Arque, X, Torres, MDT, Patino, T, Boaro, A, Sanchez, S, de la Fuente-Nunez, C, (2022). Autonomous Treatment of Bacterial Infections in Vivo Using Antimicrobial Micro- and Nanomotors Acs Nano 16, 7547-7558

The increasing resistance of bacteria to existing antibiotics constitutes a major public health threat globally. Most current antibiotic treatments are hindered by poor delivery to the infection site, leading to undesired off-target effects and drug resistance development and spread. Here, we describe micro- and nanomotors that effectively and autonomously deliver antibiotic payloads to the target area. The active motion and antimicrobial activity of the silica-based robots are driven by catalysis of the enzyme urease and antimicrobial peptides, respectively. These antimicrobial motors show micromolar bactericidal activity in vitro against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacterial strains and act by rapidly depolarizing their membrane. Finally, they demonstrated autonomous anti-infective efficacy in vivo in a clinically relevant abscess infection mouse model. In summary, our motors combine navigation, catalytic conversion, and bactericidal capacity to deliver antimicrobial payloads to specific infection sites. This technology represents a much-needed tool to direct therapeutics to their target to help combat drug-resistant infections.

JTD Keywords: antibiotic-resistance, antimicrobial peptides, autonomous treatment, bacterial infection, delivery, ll-37, nanomotors, nanoparticles, peptide, self-propulsion, tissue, vitro, wasp venom, Antibiotic-resistance, Antimicrobial peptides, Autonomous treatment, Bacterial infection, Delivery, Ll-37, Mesoporous silica nanoparticles, Nanomotors, Nanoparticles, Peptide, Self-propulsion, Tissue, Vitro, Wasp venom

Valles, M, Pujals, S, Albertazzi, L, Sánchez, S, (2022). Enzyme Purification Improves the Enzyme Loading, Self-Propulsion, and Endurance Performance of Micromotors Acs Nano 16, 5615-5626

Enzyme-powered micro- and nanomotors make use of biocatalysis to self-propel in aqueous media and hold immense promise for active and targeted drug delivery. Most (if not all) of these micro- and nanomotors described to date are fabricated using a commercially available enzyme, despite claims that some commercial preparations may not have a sufficiently high degree of purity for downstream applications. In this study, the purity of a commercial urease, an enzyme frequently used to power the motion of micro- and nanomotors, was evaluated and found to be impure. After separating the hexameric urease from the protein impurities by size-exclusion chromatography, the hexameric urease was subsequently characterized and used to functionalize hollow silica microcapsules. Micromotors loaded with purified urease were found to be 2.5 times more motile than the same micromotors loaded with unpurified urease, reaching average speeds of 5.5 ?m/s. After comparing a number of parameters, such as enzyme distribution, protein loading, and motor reusability, between micromotors functionalized with purified vs unpurified urease, it was concluded that protein purification was essential for optimal performance of the enzyme-powered micromotor.

JTD Keywords: canavalin, catalysis, delivery, dls, enhanced diffusion, enzyme, lipase immobilization, micromotors, self-propulsion, super-resolution microscopy, urease, Mesoporous silica nanoparticles, Micromotors, Super-resolution microscopy

Murar, M, Albertazzi, L, Pujals, S, (2022). Advanced Optical Imaging-Guided Nanotheranostics toward Personalized Cancer Drug Delivery Nanomaterials 12, 399

Nanomedicine involves the use of nanotechnology for clinical applications and holds promise to improve treatments. Recent developments offer new hope for cancer detection, prevention and treatment; however, being a heterogenous disorder, cancer calls for a more targeted treatment approach. Personalized Medicine (PM) aims to revolutionize cancer therapy by matching the most effective treatment to individual patients. Nanotheranostics comprise a combination of therapy and diagnostic imaging incorporated in a nanosystem and are developed to fulfill the promise of PM by helping in the selection of treatments, the objective monitoring of response and the planning of follow-up therapy. Although well-established imaging techniques, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), are primarily used in the development of theranostics, Optical Imaging (OI) offers some advantages, such as high sensitivity, spatial and temporal resolution and less invasiveness. Additionally, it allows for multiplexing, using multi-color imaging and DNA barcoding, which further aids in the development of personalized treatments. Recent advances have also given rise to techniques permitting better penetration, opening new doors for OI-guided nanotheranostics. In this review, we describe in detail these recent advances that may be used to design and develop efficient and specific nanotheranostics for personalized cancer drug delivery. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: 5-aminolevulinic acid, cancer, contrast agents, in-vivo, malignant gliomas, multifunctional nanoparticles, nanomedicine, optical imaging, ovarian-cancer, personalized medicine, quantum dots, silica nanoparticles, targeted probes, theranostics, Cancer, Nanomedicine, Optical imaging, Personalized medicine, Superparamagnetic iron-oxide, Theranostics

Hortelao, AC, Simó, C, Guix, M, Guallar-Garrido, S, Julián, E, Vilela, D, Rejc, L, Ramos-Cabrer, P, Cossío, U, Gómez-Vallejo, V, Patiño, T, Llop, J, Sánchez, S, (2021). Swarming behavior and in vivo monitoring of enzymatic nanomotors within the bladder Science Robotics 6, eabd2823

Enzyme-powered nanomotors are an exciting technology for biomedical applications due to their ability to navigate within biological environments using endogenous fuels. However, limited studies into their collective behavior and demonstrations of tracking enzyme nanomotors in vivo have hindered progress toward their clinical translation. Here, we report the swarming behavior of urease-powered nanomotors and its tracking using positron emission tomography (PET), both in vitro and in vivo. For that, mesoporous silica nanoparticles containing urease enzymes and gold nanoparticles were used as nanomotors. To image them, nanomotors were radiolabeled with either I on gold nanoparticles or F-labeled prosthetic group to urease. In vitro experiments showed enhanced fluid mixing and collective migration of nanomotors, demonstrating higher capability to swim across complex paths inside microfabricated phantoms, compared with inactive nanomotors. In vivo intravenous administration in mice confirmed their biocompatibility at the administered dose and the suitability of PET to quantitatively track nanomotors in vivo. Furthermore, nanomotors were administered directly into the bladder of mice by intravesical injection. When injected with the fuel, urea, a homogeneous distribution was observed even after the entrance of fresh urine. By contrast, control experiments using nonmotile nanomotors (i.e., without fuel or without urease) resulted in sustained phase separation, indicating that the nanomotors’ self-propulsion promotes convection and mixing in living reservoirs. Active collective dynamics, together with the medical imaging tracking, constitute a key milestone and a step forward in the field of biomedical nanorobotics, paving the way toward their use in theranostic applications. 124 18

JTD Keywords: cell, reversal, silica nanoparticles, size, step, transport, Propelled micromotors

Moya-Andérico, L, Vukomanovic, M, Cendra, MD, Segura-Feliu, M, Gil, V, del Río, JA, Torrents, E, (2021). Utility of Galleria mellonella larvae for evaluating nanoparticle toxicology Chemosphere 266, 129235

© 2020 Elsevier Ltd The use of nanoparticles in consumer products is currently on the rise, so it is important to have reliable methods to predict any associated toxicity effects. Traditional in vitro assays fail to mimic true physiological responses of living organisms against nanoparticles whereas murine in vivo models are costly and ethically controversial. For these reasons, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Galleria mellonella as an alternative, non-rodent in vivo model for examining nanoparticle toxicity. Silver, selenium, and functionalized gold nanoparticles were synthesized, and their toxicity was assessed in G. mellonella larvae. The degree of acute toxicity effects caused by each type of NP was efficiently detected by an array of indicators within the larvae: LD50 calculation, hemocyte proliferation, NP distribution, behavioral changes, and histological alterations. G. mellonella larvae are proposed as a nanotoxicological model that can be used as a bridge between in vitro and in vivo murine assays in order to obtain better predictions of NP toxicity.

JTD Keywords: cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, galleria mellonella, gold nanoparticles, hemocytes, nanoparticles, nanotoxicity, non-rodent in vivo model, non-rodent in vivo model, oxidative stress, selenium-compounds, silica nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, toxicity, toxicity screening, vitro, Galleria mellonella, Hemocytes, In-vivo model, Nanoparticles, Nanotoxicity, Non-rodent in vivo model, Toxicity screening

Feiner-Gracia, Natalia, Beck, Michaela, Pujals, Sílvia, Tosi, Sébastien, Mandal, Tamoghna, Buske, Christian, Linden, Mika, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, (2017). Super-resolution microscopy unveils dynamic heterogeneities in nanoparticle protein corona Small 13, (41), 1701631

The adsorption of serum proteins, leading to the formation of a biomolecular corona, is a key determinant of the biological identity of nanoparticles in vivo. Therefore, gaining knowledge on the formation, composition, and temporal evolution of the corona is of utmost importance for the development of nanoparticle-based therapies. Here, it is shown that the use of super-resolution optical microscopy enables the imaging of the protein corona on mesoporous silica nanoparticles with single protein sensitivity. Particle-by-particle quantification reveals a significant heterogeneity in protein absorption under native conditions. Moreover, the diversity of the corona evolves over time depending on the surface chemistry and degradability of the particles. This paper investigates the consequences of protein adsorption for specific cell targeting by antibody-functionalized nanoparticles providing a detailed understanding of corona-activity relations. The methodology is widely applicable to a variety of nanostructures and complements the existing ensemble approaches for protein corona study.

JTD Keywords: Heterogeneity, Mesoporous silica nanoparticles, Protein corona, Super-resolution imaging, Targeting

Ma, X., Jannasch, A., Albrecht, U. R., Hahn, K., Miguel-López, A., Schäffer, E., Sánchez, S., (2015). Enzyme-powered hollow mesoporous Janus nanomotors Nano Letters 15, (10), 7043-7050

The development of synthetic nanomotors for technological applications in particular for life science and nanomedicine is a key focus of current basic research. However, it has been challenging to make active nanosystems based on biocompatible materials consuming nontoxic fuels for providing self-propulsion. Here, we fabricate self-propelled Janus nanomotors based on hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNPs), which are powered by biocatalytic reactions of three different enzymes: catalase, urease, and glucose oxidase (GOx). The active motion is characterized by a mean-square displacement (MSD) analysis of optical video recordings and confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. We found that the apparent diffusion coefficient was enhanced by up to 83%. In addition, using optical tweezers, we directly measured a holding force of 64 ± 16 fN, which was necessary to counteract the effective self-propulsion force generated by a single nanomotor. The successful demonstration of biocompatible enzyme-powered active nanomotors using biologically benign fuels has a great potential for future biomedical applications.

JTD Keywords: Enzyme, Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles, Hybrid motors, Janus particles, Nanomotors, Optical tweezers