by Keyword: superresolution microscopy

Riera, R, Archontakis, E, Cremers, G, de Greef, T, Zijlstra, P, Albertazzi, L, (2023). Precision and Accuracy of Receptor Quantification on Synthetic and Biological Surfaces Using DNA-PAINT Acs Sensors 8, 80-93

Characterization of the number and distribution of biological molecules on 2D surfaces is of foremost importance in biology and biomedicine. Synthetic surfaces bearing recognition motifs are a cornerstone of biosensors, while receptors on the cell surface are critical/vital targets for the treatment of diseases. However, the techniques used to quantify their abundance are qualitative or semi-quantitative and usually lack sensitivity, accuracy, or precision. Detailed herein a simple and versatile workflow based on super-resolution microscopy (DNA-PAINT) was standardized to improve the quantification of the density and distribution of molecules on synthetic substrates and cell membranes. A detailed analysis of accuracy and precision of receptor quantification is presented, based on simulated and experimental data. We demonstrate enhanced accuracy and sensitivity by filtering out non-specific interactions and artifacts. While optimizing the workflow to provide faithful counting over a broad range of receptor densities. We validated the workflow by specifically quantifying the density of docking strands on a synthetic sensor surface and the densities of PD1 and EGF receptors (EGFR) on two cellular models.

JTD Keywords: binding, biosensors, cancer, expression, kinetics, localization microscopy, quantification, receptors, single-molecule, super-resolution microscopy, Biosensors, Dna-paint, Quantification, Receptors, Single-molecule, Super-resolution microscopy, Superresolution microscopy

Archontakis, E, Woythe, L, van Hoof, B, Albertazzi, L, (2022). Mapping the relationship between total and functional antibodies conjugated to nanoparticles with spectrally-resolved direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (SR-dSTORM) Nanoscale Advances 4, 4402-4409

Antibody-functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) have shown numerous benefits in drug delivery and biosensing, improving the specificity of cell targeting and analyte detection, respectively. However, one of the main challenges is the lack of control over antibody orientation on the NP surface. Popular and easy conjugation strategies, such as carbodiimide-based conjugations, lead to a random orientation of antibodies on the NPs, compromising ligand functionality and contributing to undesired biological effects and reduced target recognition. While new methods for more controlled NP functionalization have been proposed, there is a lack of techniques that can elucidate the orientation of the antibodies at the single-particle level to determine the conjugation outcome and, therefore, the NPs' potential in selective targeting. Here, spectrally-resolved direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (SR-dSTORM), an optical super-resolution technique, is introduced to quantify the relationship between total and functional NP conjugated cetuximab antibodies at the single-particle level. An evident single-particle heterogeneity in total and functional cetuximab is observed, leading to particles with different functional : total ratios. Additionally, the results indicate that the functional : total ratio of cetuximab highly depends on the conjugated cetuximab concentration. Overall, SR-dSTORM represents a direct approach for the NP structure-functionality relationship quantification, providing a platform to improve antibody-conjugated NPs characterization and facilitating their rational design.

JTD Keywords: Heterogeneity, Superresolution microscopy

Woythe, L, Madhikar, P, Feiner-Gracia, N, Storm, C, Albertazzi, L, (2022). A Single-Molecule View at Nanoparticle Targeting Selectivity: Correlating Ligand Functionality and Cell Receptor Density Acs Nano 16, 3785-3796

Antibody-functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) are commonly used to increase the targeting selectivity toward cells of interest. At a molecular level, the number of functional antibodies on the NP surface and the density of receptors on the target cell determine the targeting interaction. To rationally develop selective NPs, the single-molecule quantitation of both parameters is highly desirable. However, techniques able to count molecules with a nanometric resolution are scarce. Here, we developed a labeling approach to quantify the number of functional cetuximabs conjugated to NPs and the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in breast cancer cells using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM). The single-molecule resolution of dSTORM allows quantifying molecules at the nanoscale, giving a detailed insight into the distributions of individual NP ligands and cell receptors. Additionally, we predicted the fraction of accessible antibody-conjugated NPs using a geometrical model, showing that the total number exceeds the accessible number of antibodies. Finally, we correlated the NP functionality, cell receptor density, and NP uptake to identify the highest cell uptake selectivity regimes. We conclude that single-molecule functionality mapping using dSTORM provides a molecular understanding of NP targeting, aiding the rational design of selective nanomedicines.

JTD Keywords: active targeting, active targeting dstorm, antibodies, dstorm, heterogeneity, multivalency, nanomedicine, nanoparticle functionality, size, super-resolution microscopy, surface, Active targeting, Antibodies, Cell membranes, Cell receptors, Cytology, Direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, Dstorm, Heterogeneity, Ligands, Medical nanotechnology, Molecules, Nanomedicine, Nanoparticle functionality, Nanoparticle targeting, Nanoparticles, Optical reconstruction, Single molecule, Stochastic systems, Stochastics, Super-resolution microscopy, Superresolution microscopy

Arista-Romero, M, Delcanale, P, Pujals, S, Albertazzi, L, (2022). Nanoscale Mapping of Recombinant Viral Proteins: From Cells to Virus-Like Particles Acs Photonics 9, 101-109

Influenza recombinant proteins and virus-like particles (VLPs) play an important role in vaccine development (e.g., CadiFluS). However, their production from mammalian cells suffers from low yields and lack of control of the final VLPs. To improve these issues, characterization techniques able to visualize and quantify the different steps of the process are needed. Fluorescence microscopy represents a powerful tool able to image multiple protein targets; however, its limited resolution hinders the study of viral constructs. Here, we propose the use of super-resolution microscopy and in particular of DNA-point accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography (DNA-PAINT) microscopy as a characterization method for recombinant viral proteins on both cells and VLPs. We were able to quantify the amount of the three main influenza proteins (hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and ion channel matrix protein 2 (M2)) per cell and per VLP with nanometer resolution and single-molecule sensitivity, proving that DNA-PAINT is a powerful technique to characterize recombinant viral constructs.

JTD Keywords: dna-paint, hemagglutinin, influenza, neuraminidase, paint, recombinant proteins, single-molecule localization microscopy, single-particle analysis, virus-like particles, Dna-paint, Hemagglutinin, Influenza, Neuraminidase, Paint, Recombinant proteins, Single particle analysis, Single-molecule localization microscopy, Single-particle analysis, Super-resolution microscopy, Superresolution microscopy, Virus-like particles

Andrian, T, Pujals, S, Albertazzi, L, (2021). Quantifying the effect of PEG architecture on nanoparticle ligand availability using DNA-PAINT Nanoscale Advances 3, 6876-6881

The importance of PEG architecture on nanoparticle (NP) functionality is known but still difficult to investigate, especially at a single particle level. Here, we apply DNA Point Accumulation for Imaging in Nanoscale Topography (DNA-PAINT), a super-resolution microscopy (SRM) technique, to study the surface functionality in poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) NPs with different PEG structures. We demonstrated how the length of the PEG spacer can influence the accessibility of surface chemical functionality, highlighting the importance of SRM techniques to support the rational design of functionalized NPs.

JTD Keywords: chain-length, density, plga, surface, systems, Chain-length, Density, Dna, Microscopy technique, Nanoparticles, Nanoscale topography, Paint, Peg spacers, Plga, Poly lactide-co-glycolide, Poly-lactide-co-glycolide, Polyethylene glycols, Polylactide-co-glycolide, Single-particle, Super-resolution microscopy, Superresolution microscopy, Surface, Surface chemicals, Surface functionalities, Systems

Woythe, L, Tito, NB, Albertazzi, L, (2021). A quantitative view on multivalent nanomedicine targeting Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 169, 1-21

© 2020 The Authors Although the concept of selective delivery has been postulated over 100 years ago, no targeted nanomedicine has been clinically approved so far. Nanoparticles modified with targeting ligands to promote the selective delivery of therapeutics towards a specific cell population have been extensively reported. However, the rational design of selective particles is still challenging. One of the main reasons for this is the lack of quantitative theoretical and experimental understanding of the interactions involved in cell targeting. In this review, we discuss new theoretical models and experimental methods that provide a quantitative view of targeting. We show the new advancements in multivalency theory enabling the rational design of super-selective nanoparticles. Furthermore, we present the innovative approaches to obtain key targeting parameters at the single-cell and single molecule level and their role in the design of targeting nanoparticles. We believe that the combination of new theoretical multivalent design and experimental methods to quantify receptors and ligands aids in the rational design and clinical translation of targeted nanomedicines.

JTD Keywords: binding-kinetics, biological identity, biomolecular corona, blood-brain-barrier, drug-delivery, gold nanoparticles, multivalency, nanotechnology, protein corona, quantitative characterization, rational design, super-selectivity, superresolution microscopy, tumor heterogeneity, Ligand-receptor interactions, Multivalency, Nanotechnology, Quantitative characterization, Rational design, Super-selectivity