by Keyword: t-cells

Nong J, Glassman PM, Myerson JW, Zuluaga-Ramirez V, Rodriguez-Garcia A, Mukalel A, Omo-Lamai S, Walsh LR, Zamora ME, Gong X, Wang Z, Bhamidipati K, Kiseleva RY, Villa CH, Greineder CF, Kasner SE, Weissman D, Mitchell MJ, Muro S, Persidsky Y, Brenner JS, Muzykantov VR, Marcos-Contreras OA, (2023). Targeted Nanocarriers Co-Opting Pulmonary Intravascular Leukocytes for Drug Delivery to the Injured Brain Acs Nano 17, 13121-13136

Ex vivo-loaded white blood cells (WBC) can transfer cargo to pathological foci in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we tested affinity ligand driven in vivo loading of WBC in order to bypass the need for ex vivo WBC manipulation. We used a mouse model of acute brain inflammation caused by local injection of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). We intravenously injected nanoparticles targeted to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (anti-ICAM/NP). We found that (A) at 2 h, >20% of anti-ICAM/NP were localized to the lungs; (B) of the anti-ICAM/NP in the lungs >90% were associated with leukocytes; (C) at 6 and 22 h, anti-ICAM/NP pulmonary uptake decreased; (D) anti-ICAM/NP uptake in brain increased up to 5-fold in this time interval, concomitantly with migration of WBCs into the injured brain. Intravital microscopy confirmed transport of anti-ICAM/NP beyond the blood-brain barrier and flow cytometry demonstrated complete association of NP with WBC in the brain (98%). Dexamethasone-loaded anti-ICAM/liposomes abrogated brain edema in this model and promoted anti-inflammatory M2 polarization of macrophages in the brain. In vivo targeted loading of WBC in the intravascular pool may provide advantages of coopting WBC predisposed to natural rapid mobilization from the lungs to the brain, connected directly via conduit vessels.

JTD Keywords: drug delivery, icam-1, inflammation, lung injury, messenger-rna, migration, model, nanoparticles, neutrophils, pharmacokinetics, t-cells, white bloodcells, Adhesion molecules, Brain, Drug delivery, Inflammation, Nanoparticles, Pharmacokinetics, White blood cells

Pesce M, Duda GN, Forte G, Girao H, Raya A, Roca-Cusachs P, Sluijter JPG, Tschöpe C, Van Linthout S, (2023). Cardiac fibroblasts and mechanosensation in heart development, health and disease Nature Reviews Cardiology 20, 309-324

The term 'mechanosensation' describes the capacity of cells to translate mechanical stimuli into the coordinated regulation of intracellular signals, cellular function, gene expression and epigenetic programming. This capacity is related not only to the sensitivity of the cells to tissue motion, but also to the decryption of tissue geometric arrangement and mechanical properties. The cardiac stroma, composed of fibroblasts, has been historically considered a mechanically passive component of the heart. However, the latest research suggests that the mechanical functions of these cells are an active and necessary component of the developmental biology programme of the heart that is involved in myocardial growth and homeostasis, and a crucial determinant of cardiac repair and disease. In this Review, we discuss the general concept of cell mechanosensation and force generation as potent regulators in heart development and pathology, and describe the integration of mechanical and biohumoral pathways predisposing the heart to fibrosis and failure. Next, we address the use of 3D culture systems to integrate tissue mechanics to mimic cardiac remodelling. Finally, we highlight the potential of mechanotherapeutic strategies, including pharmacological treatment and device-mediated left ventricular unloading, to reverse remodelling in the failing heart.© 2022. Springer Nature Limited.

JTD Keywords: cardiomyocyte proliferation, cross-linking, extracellular-matrix, focal adhesions, gene-expression, mechanical regulation, myocardial-infarction, substrate stiffness affects, t-cells, Ventricular assist device

Bohner, Marc, Maazouz, Yassine, Ginebra, Maria-Pau, Habibovic, Pamela, Schoenecker, Jonathan G., Seeherman, Howard, van den Beucken, Jeroen, Witte, Frank, (2022). Sustained local ionic homeostatic imbalance caused by calcification modulates inflammation to trigger heterotopic ossification Acta Biomaterialia 145, 1-24

Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a condition triggered by an injury leading to the formation of mature lamellar bone in extraskeletal soft tissues. Despite being a frequent complication of orthopedic and trauma surgery, brain and spinal injury, the etiology of HO is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hypothesis that a sustained local ionic homeostatic imbalance (SLIHI) created by mineral formation during tissue calcification modulates inflammation to trigger HO. This evaluation also considers the role SLIHI could play for the design of cell-free, drug-free osteoinductive bone graft substitutes. The evaluation contains five main sections. The first section defines relevant concepts in the context of HO and provides a summary of proposed causes of HO. The second section starts with a detailed analysis of the occurrence and involvement of calcification in HO. It is followed by an explanation of the causes of calcification and its consequences. This allows to speculate on the potential chemical modulators of inflammation and triggers of HO. The end of this second section is devoted to in vitro mineralization tests used to predict the ectopic potential of materials. The third section reviews the biological cascade of events occurring during pathological and material-induced HO, and attempts to propose a quantitative timeline of HO formation. The fourth section looks at potential ways to control HO formation, either acting on SLIHI or on inflammation. Chemical, physical, and drug-based approaches are considered. Finally, the evaluation finishes with a critical assessment of the definition of osteoinduction.

JTD Keywords: apatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, bone, bone graft, bone morphogenetic protein, demineralized bone-matrix, experimental myositis-ossificans, extracellular calcium, heterotopic ossification, in-vitro, inflammation, multinucleated giant-cells, osteoinduction, spinal-cord-injury, total hip-arthroplasty, traumatic brain-injury, Apatite, Calcium-sensing receptor, Osteoinduction