by Keyword: tubules

Kechagia, Z, Roca-Cusachs, P, (2023). Cytoskeletal safeguards: Protecting the nucleus from mechanical perturbations Curr Opin Biomed Eng 28, 100494

The cell nucleus plays a key role in cellular mechanoresponses. 3D genome organisation, gene expression, and cell behaviour, in general, are affected by mechanical force application to the nucleus, which is transmitted from the cellular environment via a network of interconnected cytoskeletal components. To effectively regulate cell responses, these cytoskeletal components must not only exert forces but also withstand external forces when necessary. This review delves into the latest research concerning how the cytoskeleton safeguards the nucleus from mechanical perturbations. Spe-cifically, we focus on the three primary cytoskeletal polymers: actin, intermediate filaments, and microtubules, as well as their interactions with the cell nucleus. We discuss how the cyto-skeleton acts as a protective shield for the nucleus, ensuring structural integrity and conveying context-specific mechanoresponses.

JTD Keywords: Actin, Architecture, Cytoskeleton, Envelope, F-actin, Filaments, Force, Genome, Intermediate filaments, Lamin, Mechanotransduction, Membrane protein, Microtubules, Nesprin-1, Nucleus

Comelles, J, Fernández-Majada, V, Acevedo, V, Rebollo-Calderon, B, Martínez, E, (2023). Soft topographical patterns trigger a stiffness-dependent cellular response to contact guidance Materials Today Bio 19, 100593

Topographical patterns are a powerful tool to study directional migration. Grooved substrates have been extensively used as in vitro models of aligned extracellular matrix fibers because they induce cell elongation, alignment, and migration through a phenomenon known as contact guidance. This process, which involves the orientation of focal adhesions, F-actin, and microtubule cytoskeleton along the direction of the grooves, has been primarily studied on hard materials of non-physiological stiffness. But how it unfolds when the stiffness of the grooves varies within the physiological range is less known. Here we show that substrate stiffness modulates the cellular response to topographical contact guidance. We find that for fibroblasts, while focal adhesions and actin respond to topography independently of the stiffness, microtubules show a stiffness-dependent response that regulates contact guidance. On the other hand, both clusters and single breast carcinoma epithelial cells display stiffness-dependent contact guidance, leading to more directional and efficient migration when increasing substrate stiffness. These results suggest that both matrix stiffening and alignment of extracellular matrix fibers cooperate during directional cell migration, and that the outcome differs between cell types depending on how they organize their cytoskeletons.© 2023 The Authors.

JTD Keywords: actin, behavior, cell migration, contact guidance, cytoskeleton, fibroblasts, focal adhesions, matrix, microtubules, stiffness, stress fibers, topography, transduction, Contact guidance, Substrate stiffness, Topography

Garreta, E, Nauryzgaliyeva, Z, Marco, A, Safi, W, Montserrat, N, (2022). Dissecting nephron morphogenesis using kidney organoids from human pluripotent stem cells Current Opinion In Genetics & Development 72, 22-29

During kidney development the emergence of complex multicellular shapes such as the nephron (the functional unit of the kidney) rely on spatiotemporally coordinated developmental programs. These involve gene regulatory networks, signaling pathways and mechanical forces, that work in concert to shape and form the nephron(s). The generation of kidney organoids from human pluripotent stem cells now represent an unprecedented experimental set up to study these processes. Here we discuss the potential applications of kidney organoids to advance our knowledge of how mechanical forces and cell fate specification spatiotemporally interact to orchestrate nephron patterning and morphogenesis in humans. Progress in innovative techniques for quantifying and perturbing these processes in a controlled manner will be crucial. A mechanistic understanding of the multicellular dynamic processes occurring during nephrogenesis will pave the way to unveil new mechanisms of human kidney disease. © 2021

JTD Keywords: differentiation, dynamics, induction, lumen formation, models, mouse, organogenesis, reveals, tubules, Divergent features

Tian, X., De Pace, C., Ruiz-Perez, L., Chen, B., Su, R., Zhang, M., Zhang, R., Zhang, Q., Wang, Q., Zhou, H., Wu, J., Zhang, Z., Tian, Y., Battaglia, G., (2020). A Cyclometalated iridium (III) complex as a microtubule probe for correlative super-resolution fluorescence and electron microscopy Advanced Materials 32, (39), 2003901

The visualization of microtubules by combining optical and electron microscopy techniques provides valuable information to understand correlated intracellular activities. However, the lack of appropriate probes to bridge both microscopic resolutions restricts the areas and structures that can be comprehended within such highly assembled structures. Here, a versatile cyclometalated iridium (III) complex is designed that achieves synchronous fluorescence–electron microscopy correlation. The selective insertion of the probe into a microtubule triggers remarkable fluorescence enhancement and promising electron contrast. The long-life, highly photostable probe allows live-cell super-resolution imaging of tubulin localization and motion with a resolution of ≈30 nm. Furthermore, correlative light–electron microscopy and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy reveal the well-associated optical and electron signal at a high specificity, with an interspace of ≈41 Å of microtubule monomer in cells.

JTD Keywords: Correlation light–electron microscopy, Microtubules, Organometallic probes, Super-resolution microscopy

Barreto, S., Clausen, C. H., Perrault, C. M., Fletcher, D. A., Lacroix, D., (2013). A multi-structural single cell model of force-induced interactions of cytoskeletal components Biomaterials 34, (26), 6119-6126

Several computational models based on experimental techniques and theories have been proposed to describe cytoskeleton (CSK) mechanics. Tensegrity is a prominent model for force generation, but it cannot predict mechanics of individual CSK components, nor explain the discrepancies from the different single cell stimulating techniques studies combined with cytoskeleton-disruptors. A new numerical concept that defines a multi-structural 3D finite element (FE) model of a single-adherent cell is proposed to investigate the biophysical and biochemical differences of the mechanical role of each cytoskeleton component under loading. The model includes prestressed actin bundles and microtubule within cytoplasm and nucleus surrounded by the actin cortex. We performed numerical simulations of atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments by subjecting the cell model to compressive loads. The numerical role of the CSK components was corroborated with AFM force measurements on U2OS-osteosarcoma cells and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts exposed to different cytoskeleton-disrupting drugs. Computational simulation showed that actin cortex and microtubules are the major components targeted in resisting compression. This is a new numerical tool that explains the specific role of the cortex and overcomes the difficulty of isolating this component from other networks invitro. This illustrates that a combination ofcytoskeletal structures with their own properties is necessary for a complete description of cellular mechanics.

JTD Keywords: Actin bundles, Actin cortex, AFM (atomic force microscopy), Cytoskeleton, Finite element modeling, Microtubules