by Keyword: Beta-cell

FernándezCosta, Juan M., Ortega, María A., RodríguezComas, Júlia, LopezMuñoz, Gerardo, Yeste, Jose, MangasFlorencio, Lluís, FernándezGonzález, Miriam, MartinLasierra, Eduard, TejederaVillafranca, Ainoa, RamonAzcon, Javier, (2023). Training-on-a-Chip: A MultiOrgan Device to Study the Effect of Muscle Exercise on Insulin Secretion in Vitro Advanced Materials Technologies 8, 2200873

Fontcuberta-PiSunyer M, García-Alamán A, Prades È, Téllez N, Alves-Figueiredo H, Ramos-Rodríguez M, Enrich C, Fernandez-Ruiz R, Cervantes S, Clua L, Ramón-Azcón J, Broca C, Wojtusciszyn A, Montserrat N, Pasquali L, Novials A, Servitja JM, Vidal J, Gomis R, Gasa R, (2023). Direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts into insulin-producing cells using transcription factors Commun Biol 6, 256

Direct lineage reprogramming of one somatic cell into another without transitioning through a progenitor stage has emerged as a strategy to generate clinically relevant cell types. One cell type of interest is the pancreatic insulin-producing β cell whose loss and/or dysfunction leads to diabetes. To date it has been possible to create β-like cells from related endodermal cell types by forcing the expression of developmental transcription factors, but not from more distant cell lineages like fibroblasts. In light of the therapeutic benefits of choosing an accessible cell type as the cell of origin, in this study we set out to analyze the feasibility of transforming human skin fibroblasts into β-like cells. We describe how the timed-introduction of five developmental transcription factors (Neurog3, Pdx1, MafA, Pax4, and Nkx2-2) promotes conversion of fibroblasts toward a β-cell fate. Reprogrammed cells exhibit β-cell features including β-cell gene expression and glucose-responsive intracellular calcium mobilization. Moreover, reprogrammed cells display glucose-induced insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo. This work provides proof-of-concept of the capacity to make insulin-producing cells from human fibroblasts via transcription factor-mediated direct reprogramming.© 2023. The Author(s).

JTD Keywords: adult, beta-cells, differentiation, direct conversion, genes, in-vivo, islets, maturation, pancreatic progenitors, Pluripotent stem-cells

Clua-Ferre, L, De Chiara, F, Rodriguez-Comas, J, Comelles, J, Martinez, E, Godeau, AL, Garcia-Alaman, A, Gasa, R, Ramon-Azcon, J, (2022). Collagen-Tannic Acid Spheroids for beta-Cell Encapsulation Fabricated Using a 3D Bioprinter Advanced Materials Technologies 7, 2101696

Type 1 Diabetes results from autoimmune response elicited against β-cell antigens. Nowadays, insulin injections remain the leading therapeutic option. However, injection treatment fails to emulate the highly dynamic insulin release that β-cells provide. 3D cell-laden microspheres have been proposed during the last years as a major platform for bioengineering insulin-secreting constructs for tissue graft implantation and a model for in vitro drug screening platforms. Current microsphere fabrication technologies have several drawbacks: the need for an oil phase containing surfactants, diameter inconsistency of the microspheres, and high time-consuming processes. These technologies have widely used alginate for its rapid gelation, high processability, and low cost. However, its low biocompatible properties do not provide effective cell attachment. This study proposes a high-throughput methodology using a 3D bioprinter that employs an ECM-like microenvironment for effective cell-laden microsphere production to overcome these limitations. Crosslinking the resulting microspheres with tannic acid prevents collagenase degradation and enhances spherical structural consistency while allowing the diffusion of nutrients and oxygen. The approach allows customization of microsphere diameter with extremely low variability. In conclusion, a novel bio-printing procedure is developed to fabricate large amounts of reproducible microspheres capable of secreting insulin in response to extracellular glucose stimuli.© 2022 The Authors. Advanced Materials Technologies published by Wiley‐VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: 3d bioprinter, beta-cell, biomaterial, collagen, encapsulation, mechanics, microspheres, survival, 3d bioprinter, ?-cell, Advanced material technologies, Biocompatibility, Cell encapsulations, Cells, Collagen, Cross-linking, Cytology, Drug delivery, Encapsulation, Fabrication, Flavonoids, Gelation, In-vitro, Insulin injections, Insulin release, Microspheres, Tannic acid, Tannins, Throughput, Tissue grafts, Type 1 diabetes, Β‐cell

Velasco-Mallorqui, F, Rodriguez-Comas, J, Ramon-Azcon, J, (2021). Cellulose-based scaffolds enhance pseudoislets formation and functionality Biofabrication 13, 035044

In vitro research for the study of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is frequently limited by the availability of a functional model for islets of Langerhans. To overcome the limitations of obtaining pancreatic islets from different sources, such as animal models or human donors, immortalized cell lines as the insulin-producing INS1E beta-cells have appeared as a valid alternative to model insulin-related diseases. However, immortalized cell lines are mainly used in flat surfaces or monolayer distributions, not resembling the spheroid-like architecture of the pancreatic islets. To generate islet-like structures, the use of scaffolds appeared as a valid tool to promote cell aggregations. Traditionally-used hydrogel encapsulation methods do not accomplish all the requisites for pancreatic tissue engineering, as its poor nutrient and oxygen diffusion induces cell death. Here, we use cryogelation technology to develop a more resemblance scaffold with the mechanical and physical properties needed to engineer pancreatic tissue. This study shows that carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) cryogels prompted cells to generate beta-cell clusters in comparison to gelatin-based scaffolds, that did not induce this cell organization. Moreover, the high porosity achieved with CMC cryogels allowed us to create specific range pseudoislets. Pseudoislets formed within CMC-scaffolds showed cell viability for up to 7 d and a better response to glucose over conventional monolayer cultures. Overall, our results demonstrate that CMC-scaffolds can be used to control the organization and function of insulin-producing beta-cells, representing a suitable technique to generate beta-cell clusters to study pancreatic islet function.

JTD Keywords: biomaterial, cryogel, pancreatic islets, scaffold, tissue engineering, ?-cell, Architecture, Beta-cell, Beta-cell heterogeneity, Biomaterial, Carboxymethyl cellulose, Cell culture, Cell death, Cell engineering, Cell organization, Cells, Cellulose, Cryogel, Cryogels, Cytoarchitecture, Delivery, Encapsulation methods, Gelation, Gene-expression, Immortalized cells, Insulin, Insulin secretory responses, Islets of langerhans, Mechanical and physical properties, Monolayer culture, Monolayers, Pancreatic islets, Pancreatic tissue, Pancreatic-islets, Proliferation, Scaffold, Scaffolds, Scaffolds (biology), Size, Tissue, Tissue engineering, Β-cell

Perán, M., Sánchez-Ferrero, A., Tosh, D., Marchal, J. A., Lopez, E., Alvarez, P., Boulaiz, H., Rodríguez-Serrano, F., Aranega, A., (2011). Ultrastructural and molecular analyzes of insulin-producing cells induced from human hepatoma cells Cytotherapy , 13, (2), 193-200

Background aims. Diabetes type I is an autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing (beta-) cells and resulting in external insulin dependence for life. Islet transplantation represents a potential treatment for diabetes but there is currently a shortage of suitable organs donors. To augment the supply of donors, different strategies are required to provide a potential source of beta-cells. These sources include embryonic and adult stem cells as well as differentiated cell types. The main goal of this study was to induce the transdifferentiation (or conversion of one type cell to another) of human hepatoma cells (HepG2 cells) to insulin-expressing cells based on the exposure of HepG2 cells to an extract of rat insulinoma cells (RIN). Methods. HepG2 cells were first transiently permeabilized with Streptolysin O and then exposed to a cell extract obtained from RIN cells. Following transient exposure to the RIN extract, the HepG2 cells were cultured for 3 weeks. Results. Acquisition of the insulin-producing cell phenotype was determined on the basis of (i) morphologic and (ii) ultrastructural observations, (iii) immunologic detection and (iv) reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Conclusions. This study supports the use of cell extract as a feasible method for achieve transdifferentiation of hepatic cells to insulin-producing cells.

JTD Keywords: Beta-cells, Diabetes, Insulin-producing cells, Transdifferentiation