by Keyword: Clinical research

Ruiz-González, N, Esporrín-Ubieto, D, Hortelao, AC, Fraire, JC, Bakenecker, AC, Guri-Canals, M, Cugat, R, Carrillo, JM, Garcia-Batlletbó, M, Laiz, P, Patiño, T, Sánchez, S, (2024). Swarms of Enzyme-Powered Nanomotors Enhance the Diffusion of Macromolecules in Viscous Media Small 20, 2309387

Over the past decades, the development of nanoparticles (NPs) to increase the efficiency of clinical treatments has been subject of intense research. Yet, most NPs have been reported to possess low efficacy as their actuation is hindered by biological barriers. For instance, synovial fluid (SF) present in the joints is mainly composed of hyaluronic acid (HA). These viscous media pose a challenge for many applications in nanomedicine, as passive NPs tend to become trapped in complex networks, which reduces their ability to reach the target location. This problem can be addressed by using active NPs (nanomotors, NMs) that are self-propelled by enzymatic reactions, although the development of enzyme-powered NMs, capable of navigating these viscous environments, remains a considerable challenge. Here, the synergistic effects of two NMs troops, namely hyaluronidase NMs (HyaNMs, Troop 1) and urease NMs (UrNMs, Troop 2) are demonstrated. Troop 1 interacts with the SF by reducing its viscosity, thus allowing Troop 2 to swim more easily through the SF. Through their collective motion, Troop 2 increases the diffusion of macromolecules. These results pave the way for more widespread use of enzyme-powered NMs, e.g., for treating joint injuries and improving therapeutic effectiveness compared with traditional methods. The conceptual idea of the novel approach using hyaluronidase NMs (HyaNMs) to interact with and reduce the viscosity of the synovial fluid (SF) and urease NMs (UrNMs) for a more efficient transport of therapeutic agents in joints.image

JTD Keywords: Biological barrier, Clinical research, Clinical treatments, Collective motion, Collective motion,nanomotors,nanorobots,swarming,viscous medi, Collective motions, Complex networks, Enzymatic reaction, Enzymes, Hyaluronic acid, Hyaluronic-acid,ph,viscoelasticity,adsorption,barriers,behavior,ureas, Macromolecules, Medical nanotechnology, Nano robots, Nanomotors, Nanorobots, Swarming, Synovial fluid, Target location, Viscous media, Viscous medium

Jonkman, AH, Warnaar, RSP, Baccinelli, W, Carbon, NM, D'Cruz, RF, Doorduin, J, van Doorn, JLM, Elshof, J, Estrada-Petrocelli, L, Grasshoff, J, Heunks, LMA, Koopman, AA, Langer, D, Moore, CM, Silveira, JMN, Petersen, E, Poddighe, D, Ramsay, M, Rodrigues, A, Roesthuis, LH, Rossel, A, Torres, A, Duiverman, ML, Oppersma, E, (2024). Analysis and applications of respiratory surface EMG: report of a round table meeting Critical Care 28, 2

Surface electromyography (sEMG) can be used to measure the electrical activity of the respiratory muscles. The possible applications of sEMG span from patients suffering from acute respiratory failure to patients receiving chronic home mechanical ventilation, to evaluate muscle function, titrate ventilatory support and guide treatment. However, sEMG is mainly used as a monitoring tool for research and its use in clinical practice is still limited-in part due to a lack of standardization and transparent reporting. During this round table meeting, recommendations on data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and potential clinical applications of respiratory sEMG were discussed. This paper informs the clinical researcher interested in respiratory muscle monitoring about the current state of the art on sEMG, knowledge gaps and potential future applications for patients with respiratory failure.

JTD Keywords: Acute respiratory failure, Artificial ventilation, Breathing muscle, Clinical monitoring, Clinical practice, Clinical research, Consensus development, Data interpretation, Disease exacerbation, Electrode positioning, Electrode removal, Electromyography, Force, Home care, Human, Humans, Information processing, Inspiratory muscle training, Intensive care unit, Knowledge gap, Long term care, Medical procedures, Muscle contraction, Muscle fatigue, Muscle function, Muscle training, Muscle, skeletal, Patient monitoring, Patient-ventilator asynchrony,muscle-activity,noninvasive ventilation,mechanical ventilation,human diaphragm,severe exacerbations,inspiratory muscles,asthmatic-children,electromyography,driv, Physiology, Prognosis, Quality of life, Reporting and data system, Respiratory failure, Respiratory muscles, Review, Signal processing, Skeletal muscle, Standardization, Surface electromyography, Time factor

Barbero-Castillo, A, Riefolo, F, Matera, C, Caldas-Martínez, S, Mateos-Aparicio, P, Weinert, JF, Garrido-Charles, A, Claro, E, Sanchez-Vives, MV, Gorostiza, P, (2021). Control of Brain State Transitions with a Photoswitchable Muscarinic Agonist Advanced Science 8, 2005027

The ability to control neural activity is essential for research not only in basic neuroscience, as spatiotemporal control of activity is a fundamental experimental tool, but also in clinical neurology for therapeutic brain interventions. Transcranial-magnetic, ultrasound, and alternating/direct current (AC/DC) stimulation are some available means of spatiotemporal controlled neuromodulation. There is also light-mediated control, such as optogenetics, which has revolutionized neuroscience research, yet its clinical translation is hampered by the need for gene manipulation. As a drug-based light-mediated control, the effect of a photoswitchable muscarinic agonist (Phthalimide-Azo-Iper (PAI)) on a brain network is evaluated in this study. First, the conditions to manipulate M2 muscarinic receptors with light in the experimental setup are determined. Next, physiological synchronous emergent cortical activity consisting of slow oscillations-as in slow wave sleep-is transformed into a higher frequency pattern in the cerebral cortex, both in vitro and in vivo, as a consequence of PAI activation with light. These results open the way to study cholinergic neuromodulation and to control spatiotemporal patterns of activity in different brain states, their transitions, and their links to cognition and behavior. The approach can be applied to different organisms and does not require genetic manipulation, which would make it translational to humans.

JTD Keywords: brain states, light-mediated control, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, neuromodulation, Activation, Alternating/direct currents, Basal forebrain, Brain, Brain states, Clinical research, Clinical translation, Controlled drug delivery, Cortex, Forebrain cholinergic system, Genetic manipulations, Higher frequencies, Hz oscillation, Light‐, Light-mediated control, Mediated control, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, Muscarinic agonists, Muscarinic receptor, Neurology, Neuromodulation, Neurons, Noradrenergic modulation, Parvalbumin-positive interneurons, Photopharmacology, Receptor-binding, Slow, Spatiotemporal control, Spatiotemporal patterns