by Keyword: MEMS
Comelles J, Castillo-Fernández Ó, Martínez E, (2022). How to Get Away with Gradients Advances In Experimental Medicine And Biology 1379, 31-54
Biomolecular gradients are widely present in multiple biological processes. Historically they were reproduced in vitro by using micropipettes, Boyden and Zigmond chambers, or hydrogels. Despite the great utility of these setups in the study of gradient-related problems such as chemotaxis, they face limitations when trying to translate more complex in vivo-like scenarios to in vitro systems. In the last 20 years, the advances in manufacturing of micromechanical systems (MEMS) had opened the possibility of applying this technology to biology (BioMEMS). In particular, microfluidics has proven extremely efficient in setting-up biomolecular gradients which are stable, controllable, reproducible and at length scales that are relevant to cells. In this chapter, we give an overview of different methods to generate molecular gradients using microfluidics, then we discuss the different steps of the pipeline to fabricate a gradient generator microfluidic device, and at the end, we show an application example of the fabrication of a microfluidic device that can be used to generate a surface-bound biomolecular gradient.© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
JTD Keywords: biomems, gradient, microfluidics, model, nanotechnology, proteins, Biomems, Gradient, Mechanisms, Microfabrication, Microfluidics, Nanotechnology
Guix M, Mestre R, Patiño T, de Corato M, Fuentes J, Zarpellon G, Sánchez S, (2021). Biohybrid soft robots with self-stimulating skeletons Science Robotics 6, abe7577
Bioinspired hybrid soft robots that combine living and synthetic components are an emerging field in the development of advanced actuators and other robotic platforms (i.e., swimmers, crawlers, and walkers). The integration of biological components offers unique characteristics that artificial materials cannot precisely replicate, such as adaptability and response to external stimuli. Here, we present a skeletal muscle–based swimming biobot with a three-dimensional (3D)–printed serpentine spring skeleton that provides mechanical integrity and self-stimulation during the cell maturation process. The restoring force inherent to the spring system allows a dynamic skeleton compliance upon spontaneous muscle contraction, leading to a cyclic mechanical stimulation process that improves the muscle force output without external stimuli. Optimization of the 3D-printed skeletons is carried out by studying the geometrical stiffnesses of different designs via finite element analysis. Upon electrical actuation of the muscle tissue, two types of motion mechanisms are experimentally observed: directional swimming when the biobot is at the liquid-air interface and coasting motion when it is near the bottom surface. The integrated compliant skeleton provides both the mechanical self-stimulation and the required asymmetry for directional motion, displaying its maximum velocity at 5 hertz (800 micrometers per second, 3 body lengths per second). This skeletal muscle–based biohybrid swimmer attains speeds comparable with those of cardiac-based biohybrid robots and outperforms other muscle-based swimmers. The integration of serpentine-like structures in hybrid robotic systems allows self-stimulation processes that could lead to higher force outputs in current and future biomimetic robotic platforms. Copyright © 2021 The Authors, some rights reserved;
JTD Keywords: actuators, design, fabrication, mechanics, mems, myotubes, platform, tissue, 3d printers, Agricultural robots, Biological components, Biomimetic processes, Electrical actuation, Geometrical stiffness, Intelligent robots, Liquefied gases, Liquid-air interface, Mechanical integrity, Mechanical stimulation, Muscle, Muscle contractions, Phase interfaces, Robotics, Serpentine, Springs (components), Threedimensional (3-d)
Udina, S., Carmona, M., Pardo, A., Calaza, C., Santander, J., Fonseca, L., Marco, S., (2012). A micromachined thermoelectric sensor for natural gas analysis: Multivariate calibration results Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 166-167, 338-348
The potential use of a micromachined thermopile based sensor device for analyzing natural gas is explored. The sensor consists of a thermally isolated hotplate which is heated by the application of a sequence of programmed voltages to an integrated heater. Once the hotplate reaches a stationary temperature, the thermopile provides a signal proportional to the hotplate temperature. These signals are processed in order to determine different natural gas properties. Sensor response is mainly dependent on the thermal conductivity of the surrounding gas at different temperatures. Seven predicted properties (normal density, Superior Heating Value, Wobbe index and the concentrations of methane, ethane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen) are calibrated against sensor signals by using multivariate regression, in particular Partial Least Squares. Experimental data have been used for calibration and validation. Results show property prediction capability with reasonable accuracy except for prediction of carbon dioxide concentration. A detailed uncertainty analysis is provided to better understand the metrological limits of the system. These results imply for the first time the possibility of designing unprecedented low-cost natural gas analyzers. The concept may be extended to other constrained gas mixtures (e.g. of a known number of components) to enable low-cost multicomponent gas analyzers.
JTD Keywords: Gas sensor, Natural gas, MEMS, Superior Heating Value, density, PLS
Fernandez, Javier G., Samitier, Josep, Mills, Christopher A., (2011). Simultaneous biochemical and topographical patterning on curved surfaces using biocompatible sacrificial molds Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A , 98A, (2), 229-234
A method for the simultaneous (bio)chemical and topographical patterning of enclosed structures in poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) is presented. The simultaneous chemical and topography transference uses a water-soluble chitosan sacrificial mold to impart a predefined pattern with micrometric accuracy to a PDMS replica. The method is compared to conventional soft-lithography techniques on planar surfaces. Its functionality is demonstrated by the transference of streptavidin directly to the surface of the three-dimensional PDMS structures as well as indirectly using streptavidin-loaded latex nanoparticles. The streptavidin immobilized on the PDMS is tested for bioactivity by coupling with fluorescently labeled biotin. This proves that the streptavidin is immobilized on the PDMS surface, not in the bulk of the polymer, and is therefore accessible for use as signaling/binding element in micro and bioengineering. The use of a biocompatible polymer and processes enables the technique to be used for the chemical patterning of tissue constructions.
JTD Keywords: Biotechnology, Chitosan, Microfabrication, MEMs, Soft lithography
Udina, S., Carmona, M., Carles, G., Santander, J., Fonseca, L., Marco, S., (2008). A micromachined thermoelectric sensor for natural gas analysis: Thermal model and experimental results Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 134, (2), 551-558
Natural gas may show significant changes in its chemical composition depending on its origin. Typically, natural gas analysis is carried out using process gas chromatography. However, other methods based on the evaluation of physical properties have recently been reported. Thermal conductivity sensors are currently used in the analysis of binary mixtures of dissimilar gases. In contrast, natural gas is a complex mixture of mainly hydrocarbons, plus other residual gases as carbon dioxide and nitrogen. In this work, the response of a micromachined sensor integrating a heater and a thermopile is studied, regarding its potential use for natural gas analysis. A finite element thermal model of the device is described, and thermal operation simulations as well as a preliminary sensitivity analysis are reported. Experimental data has been collected and compared with simulated data, showing very good agreement. Results show that small variations in the gas mixture composition can be clearly detected. The sensor appears as a good candidate to be included in low-cost natural gas property analysis and quality control systems.
JTD Keywords: Natural gas, Thermopile, MEMS, Thermal conductivity, Modeling, FEM simulation