by Keyword: Microrobots

Magdanz, V, Klingner, A, Abelmann, L, Khalil, ISM, (2023). IRONSperm swimming by rigid-body rotation versus transverse bending waves influenced by cell membrane charge Journal Of Micro-Bio Robotics 18, 49-60

Cell membrane potential affects the electrostatic self-assembly of magnetizable nanoparticles around the flagellum of sperm cells, leading to the formation of biohybrid microrobots (i.e., IRONSperm) with various bending stiffness. Here we explain the influence of bull sperm cell membrane potential on the formation of two types of IRONSperm samples that are produced by electrostatic self-assembly. The first type is a proximal-coated soft body with nanoparticles concentrated on the head to maintain high flexibility of the flagellum and create a passively propagating transverse bending wave under the influence of an external rotating magnetic field. The second type is a rigid-body with nanoparticles approximately uniformly distributed along the length to provide arbitrary geometry that maintains a constant chiral shape and propel by rotation about its long axis. We present a magneto-elastohydrodynamic model to predict the swimming speed at low Reynolds number for rigid IRONSperm with arbitrary shapes, and show that decreasing the bending stiffness allows the model to capture the behavior of its soft counterpart. While the response of a rigid chiral IRONSperm is distinguished by a greater swimming speed with a smooth decay with frequency, the benefit of a soft flagellum in certain scenarios would present a much smaller range of frequencies for wireless actuation.

JTD Keywords: Biohybrid, Magnetic, Microrobots, Nanoparticles, Propulsion, Sperm cells

Choi, H, Kim, B, Jeong, SH, Kim, TY, Kim, DP, Oh, YK, Hahn, SK, (2023). Microalgae-Based Biohybrid Microrobot for Accelerated Diabetic Wound Healing Small 19, 2204617

A variety of wound healing platforms have been proposed to alleviate the hypoxic condition and/or to modulate the immune responses for the treatment of chronic wounds in diabetes. However, these platforms with the passive diffusion of therapeutic agents through the blood clot result in the relatively low delivery efficiency into the deep wound site. Here, a microalgae-based biohybrid microrobot for accelerated diabetic wound healing is developed. The biohybrid microrobot autonomously moves at velocity of 33.3 µm s-1 and generates oxygen for the alleviation of hypoxic condition. In addition, the microrobot efficiently bound with inflammatory chemokines of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) for modulating the immune responses. The enhanced penetration of microrobot is corroborated by measuring fibrin clots in biomimetic wound using microfluidic devices and the enhanced retention of microrobot is confirmed in the real wounded mouse skin tissue. After deposition on the chronic wound in diabetic mice without wound dressing, the wounds treated with microrobots are completely healed after 9 days with the significant decrease of inflammatory cytokines below 31% of the control level and the upregulated angiogenesis above 20 times of CD31+ cells. These results confirm the feasibility of microrobots as a next-generation platform for diabetic wound healing.© 2022 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: biohybrid, microrobots, polyions, wound healing, Algae, Biohybrid, Chemokines, Microrobots, Polyions, Wound healing

Middelhoek, KINA, Magdanz, V, Abelmann, L, Khalil, ISM, (2022). Drug-Loaded IRONSperm clusters: modeling, wireless actuation, and ultrasound imaging Biomedical Materials 17, 65001

Individual biohybrid microrobots have the potential to perform biomedical in vivo tasks such as remote-controlled drug and cell delivery and minimally invasive surgery. This work demonstrates the formation of biohybrid sperm-templated clusters under the influence of an external magnetic field and essential functionalities for wireless actuation and drug delivery. Ferromagnetic nanoparticles are electrostatically assembled around dead sperm cells, and the resulting nanoparticle-coated cells are magnetically assembled into three-dimensional biohybrid clusters. The aim of this clustering is threefold: First, to enable rolling locomotion on a nearby solid boundary using a rotating magnetic field; second, to allow for noninvasive localization; third, to load the cells inside the cluster with drugs for targeted therapy. A magneto-hydrodynamic model captures the rotational response of the clusters in a viscous fluid, and predicts an upper bound for their step-out frequency, which is independent of their volume or aspect ratio. Below the step-out frequency, the rolling velocity of the clusters increases nonlinearly with their perimeter and actuation frequency. During rolling locomotion, the clusters are localized using ultrasound images at a relatively large distance, which makes these biohybrid clusters promising for deep-tissue applications. Finally, we show that the estimated drug load scales with the number of cells in the cluster and can be retained for more than 10 h. The aggregation of microrobots enables them to collectively roll in a predictable way in response to an external rotating magnetic field, and enhances ultrasound detectability and drug loading capacity compared to the individual microrobots. The favorable features of biohybrid microrobot clusters place emphasis on the importance of the investigation and development of collective microrobots and their potential for in vivo applications.

JTD Keywords: drug delivery, magnetic actuation, microrobot aggregation, sperm, Driven, Drug delivery, Magnetic actuation, Magnetotactic bacteria, Microrobot aggregation, Microrobots, Motion, Movement, Propulsion, Sperm, Sphere, Ultrasound, Wall

Magdanz, V, Vivaldi, J, Mohanty, S, Klingner, A, Vendittelli, M, Simmchen, J, Misra, S, Khalil, ISM, (2021). Impact of Segmented Magnetization on the Flagellar Propulsion of Sperm-Templated Microrobots Advanced Science 8, 2004037

© 2021 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH Technical design features for improving the way a passive elastic filament produces propulsive thrust can be understood by analyzing the deformation of sperm-templated microrobots with segmented magnetization. Magnetic nanoparticles are electrostatically self-assembled on bovine sperm cells with nonuniform surface charge, producing different categories of sperm-templated microrobots. Depending on the amount and location of the nanoparticles on each cellular segment, magnetoelastic and viscous forces determine the wave pattern of each category during flagellar motion. Passively propagating waves are induced along the length of these microrobots using external rotating magnetic fields and the resultant wave patterns are measured. The response of the microrobots to the external field reveals distinct flow fields, propulsive thrust, and frequency responses during flagellar propulsion. This work allows predictions for optimizing the design and propulsion of flexible magnetic microrobots with segmented magnetization.

JTD Keywords: biohybrid microrobots, flagellar propulsion, magnetic actuation, nanoparticles, sperm cells, Biohybrid microrobots, Flagellar propulsion, Magnetic actuation, Nanoparticles, Sperm cells

Ebrahimi, N, Bi, CH, Cappelleri, DJ, Ciuti, G, Conn, AT, Faivre, D, Habibi, N, Hosovsky, A, Iacovacci, V, Khalil, ISM, Magdanz, V, Misra, S, Pawashe, C, Rashidifar, R, Soto-Rodriguez, PED, Fekete, Z, Jafari, A, (2021). Magnetic Actuation Methods in Bio/Soft Robotics Advanced Functional Materials 31, 2005137

© 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH In recent years, magnetism has gained an enormous amount of interest among researchers for actuating different sizes and types of bio/soft robots, which can be via an electromagnetic-coil system, or a system of moving permanent magnets. Different actuation strategies are used in robots with magnetic actuation having a number of advantages in possible realization of microscale robots such as bioinspired microrobots, tetherless microrobots, cellular microrobots, or even normal size soft robots such as electromagnetic soft robots and medical robots. This review provides a summary of recent research in magnetically actuated bio/soft robots, discussing fabrication processes and actuation methods together with relevant applications in biomedical area and discusses future prospects of this way of actuation for possible improvements in performance of different types of bio/soft robots.

JTD Keywords: capsule endoscope, controlled propulsion, conventional gastroscopy, digital microfluidics, guided capsule, liquid-metal, magnetic drug delivery, magnetic microrobots, magnetically guided capsule endoscopy, magnetotactic bacteria, nanoscribe ip-dip, navigation system, Gallium-indium egain, Magnetic bioinspired micromanipulation, Magnetic drug delivery, Magnetic microrobots, Magnetically guided capsule endoscopy, Magnetotactic bacteria