by Keyword: Nanoscale

Tanwar S, Millan-Solsona R, Ruiz-Molina S, Mas-Torrent M, Kyndiah A, Gomila G, (2023). Nanoscale Operando Characterization of Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors Reveals Charge Transport Bottlenecks Advanced Materials , e2309767

Charge transport in electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors (EGOFETs) is governed by the microstructural property of the semiconducting thin film that is in direct contact with the electrolyte. Therefore, a comprehensive nanoscale operando characterization of the active channel is crucial to pinpoint various charge transport bottlenecks for rational and targeted optimization of the devices. Here, the local electrical properties of EGOFETs are systematically probed by in-liquid scanning dielectric microscopy (in-liquid SDM) and a direct picture of their functional mechanism at the nanoscale is provided across all operational regimes, starting from subthreshold, linear to saturation, until the onset of pinch-off. To this end, a robust interpretation framework of in-liquid SDM is introduced that enables quantitative local electric potential mapping directly from raw experimental data without requiring calibration or numerical simulations. Based on this development, a straightforward nanoscale assessment of various charge transport bottlenecks is performed, like contact access resistances, inter- and intradomain charge transport, microstructural inhomogeneities, and conduction anisotropy, which have been inaccessible earlier. Present results contribute to the fundamental understanding of charge transport in electrolyte-gated transistors and promote the development of direct structure-property-function relationships to guide future design rules.© 2023 The Authors. Advanced Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: Conduction anisotropy, Conductivity maps, Electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors, Nanoscale, Operando, Operation regimes, Potential maps, Scanning dielectric microscopy

Lolo FN, Walani N, Seemann E, Zalvidea D, Pavón DM, Cojoc G, Zamai M, Viaris de Lesegno C, Martínez de Benito F, Sánchez-Álvarez M, Uriarte JJ, Echarri A, Jiménez-Carretero D, Escolano JC, Sánchez SA, Caiolfa VR, Navajas D, Trepat X, Guck J, Lamaze C, Roca-Cusachs P, Kessels MM, Qualmann B, Arroyo M, Del Pozo MA, (2023). Caveolin-1 dolines form a distinct and rapid caveolae-independent mechanoadaptation system Nature Cell Biology 25, 120-133

In response to different types and intensities of mechanical force, cells modulate their physical properties and adapt their plasma membrane (PM). Caveolae are PM nano-invaginations that contribute to mechanoadaptation, buffering tension changes. However, whether core caveolar proteins contribute to PM tension accommodation independently from the caveolar assembly is unknown. Here we provide experimental and computational evidence supporting that caveolin-1 confers deformability and mechanoprotection independently from caveolae, through modulation of PM curvature. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy reveals that caveolin-1 stabilizes non-caveolar invaginations-dolines-capable of responding to low-medium mechanical forces, impacting downstream mechanotransduction and conferring mechanoprotection to cells devoid of caveolae. Upon cavin-1/PTRF binding, doline size is restricted and membrane buffering is limited to relatively high forces, capable of flattening caveolae. Thus, caveolae and dolines constitute two distinct albeit complementary components of a buffering system that allows cells to adapt efficiently to a broad range of mechanical stimuli.© 2022. The Author(s).

JTD Keywords: cavin, cell-migration, cholesterol, extracellular-matrix, nanoscale organization, particle-size, polarization, size distribution, tension, Plasma-membrane

Martens KJA, Gobes M, Archontakis E, Brillas RR, Zijlstra N, Albertazzi L, Hohlbein J, (2022). Enabling Spectrally Resolved Single-Molecule Localization Microscopy at High Emitter Densities Nano Letters 22, 8618-8625

Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) is a powerful super-resolution technique for elucidating structure and dynamics in the life- and material sciences. Simultaneously acquiring spectral information (spectrally resolved SMLM, sSMLM) has been hampered by several challenges: an increased complexity of the optical detection pathway, lower accessible emitter densities, and compromised spatio-spectral resolution. Here we present a single-component, low-cost implementation of sSMLM that addresses these challenges. Using a low-dispersion transmission grating positioned close to the image plane, the +1stdiffraction order is minimally elongated and is analyzed using existing single-molecule localization algorithms. The distance between the 0th and 1st order provides accurate information on the spectral properties of individual emitters. This method enables a 5-fold higher emitter density while discriminating between fluorophores whose peak emissions are less than 15 nm apart. Our approach can find widespread use in single-molecule applications that rely on distinguishing spectrally different fluorophores under low photon conditions.

JTD Keywords: cells, multicolor imaging, nanoscopy, particle tracking, point accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography (paint), precision, single-molecule fo?rster resonance energy transfer (smfret), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (storm), Diffraction-limit, Multicolor imaging, Point accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography (paint), Single-molecule förster resonance energy transfer (smfret), Single-molecule spectroscopy, Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (storm)

Casanellas I, Samitier J, Lagunas A, (2022). Recent advances in engineering nanotopographic substrates for cell studies Frontiers In Bioengineering And Biotechnology 10, 1002967

Cells sense their environment through the cell membrane receptors. Interaction with extracellular ligands induces receptor clustering at the nanoscale, assembly of the signaling complexes in the cytosol and activation of downstream signaling pathways, regulating cell response. Nanoclusters of receptors can be further organized hierarchically in the cell membrane at the meso- and micro-levels to exert different biological functions. To study and guide cell response, cell culture substrates have been engineered with features that can interact with the cells at different scales, eliciting controlled cell responses. In particular, nanoscale features of 1-100 nm in size allow direct interaction between the material and single cell receptors and their nanoclusters. Since the first "contact guidance" experiments on parallel microstructures, many other studies followed with increasing feature resolution and biological complexity. Here we present an overview of the advances in the field summarizing the biological scenario, substrate fabrication techniques and applications, highlighting the most recent developments.Copyright © 2022 Casanellas, Samitier and Lagunas.

JTD Keywords: cell response, density, differentiation, lithography, micro, nanofabrication, nanopatterning, nanopatterns, nanoscale, nanotopography, organization, photolithography, Cell response, Nanofabrication, Nanopatterning, Nanotopography, Plasma-membrane, Receptor nanoclustering

Checa, M, Jin, X, Millan-Solsona, R, Neumayer, SM, Susner, MA, McGuire, MA, O'Hara, A, Gomila, G, Maksymovych, P, Pantelides, ST, Collins, L, (2022). Revealing Fast Cu-Ion Transport and Enhanced Conductivity at the CuInP2S6?In4/3P2S6 Heterointerface Acs Nano 16, 15347-15357

Van der Waals layered ferroelectrics, such as CuInP2S6 (CIPS), offer a versatile platform for miniaturization of ferroelectric device technologies. Control of the targeted composition and kinetics of CIPS synthesis enables the formation of stable self-assembled heterostructures of ferroelectric CIPS and nonferroelectric In4/3P2S6 (IPS). Here, we use quantitative scanning probe microscopy methods combined with density functional theory (DFT) to explore in detail the nanoscale variability in dynamic functional properties of the CIPS-IPS heterostructure. We report evidence of fast ionic transport which mediates an appreciable out-of-plane electromechanical response of the CIPS surface in the paraelectric phase. Further, we map the nanoscale dielectric and ionic conductivity properties as we thermally stimulate the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition, recovering the local dielectric behavior during this phase transition. Finally, aided by DFT, we reveal a substantial and tunable conductivity enhancement at the CIPS/IPS interface, indicating the possibility of engineering its interfacial properties for next generation device applications.

JTD Keywords: copper indium thiophosphate, diffusion, elastic band method, ferroelectrics, ionic conductor, migration, nanoscale, phase transition, piezoresponse force microscopy, scanning dielectric microscopy, transition, Copper indium thiophosphate, Initio molecular-dynamics, Scanning dielectric microscopy

Jain, A, Calo, A, Barcelo, D, Kumar, M, (2022). Supramolecular systems chemistry through advanced analytical techniques Analytical And Bioanalytical Chemistry 414, 5105-5119

Supramolecular chemistry is the quintessential backbone of all biological processes. It encompasses a wide range from the metabolic network to the self-assembled cytoskeletal network. Combining the chemical diversity with the plethora of functional depth that biological systems possess is a daunting task for synthetic chemists to emulate. The only route for approaching such a challenge lies in understanding the complex and dynamic systems through advanced analytical techniques. The supramolecular complexity that can be successfully generated and analyzed is directly dependent on the analytical treatment of the system parameters. In this review, we illustrate advanced analytical techniques that have been used to investigate various supramolecular systems including complex mixtures, dynamic self-assembly, and functional nanomaterials. The underlying theme of such an overview is not only the exceeding detail with which traditional experiments can be probed but also the fact that complex experiments can now be attempted owing to the analytical techniques that can resolve an ensemble in astounding detail. Furthermore, the review critically analyzes the current state of the art analytical techniques and suggests the direction of future development. Finally, we envision that integrating multiple analytical methods into a common platform will open completely new possibilities for developing functional chemical systems.

JTD Keywords: analytical techniques, dynamic self-assembly, high-speed afm, liquid cell tem, Analytical technique, Analytical techniques, Biological process, Chemical analysis, Chemical diversity, Complex networks, Cytoskeletal network, Dynamic self-assembly, High-speed afm, Hydrogels, In-situ, Liquid cell tem, Metabolic network, Microscopy, Nanoscale, Proteins, Self assembly, Supramolecular chemistry, Supramolecular systems, System chemistry, Systems chemistry

Andrian, T, Pujals, S, Albertazzi, L, (2021). Quantifying the effect of PEG architecture on nanoparticle ligand availability using DNA-PAINT Nanoscale Advances 3, 6876-6881

The importance of PEG architecture on nanoparticle (NP) functionality is known but still difficult to investigate, especially at a single particle level. Here, we apply DNA Point Accumulation for Imaging in Nanoscale Topography (DNA-PAINT), a super-resolution microscopy (SRM) technique, to study the surface functionality in poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) NPs with different PEG structures. We demonstrated how the length of the PEG spacer can influence the accessibility of surface chemical functionality, highlighting the importance of SRM techniques to support the rational design of functionalized NPs.

JTD Keywords: chain-length, density, plga, surface, systems, Chain-length, Density, Dna, Microscopy technique, Nanoparticles, Nanoscale topography, Paint, Peg spacers, Plga, Poly lactide-co-glycolide, Poly-lactide-co-glycolide, Polyethylene glycols, Polylactide-co-glycolide, Single-particle, Super-resolution microscopy, Superresolution microscopy, Surface, Surface chemicals, Surface functionalities, Systems

Lozano, H, Millan-Solsona, R, Blanco-Cabra, N, Fabregas, R, Torrents, E, Gomila, G, (2021). Electrical properties of outer membrane extensions from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Nanoscale 13, 18754-18762

Outer membrane extensions from the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 show an insulating behavior in dry air environment as measured by scanning dielectric microscopy.

JTD Keywords: constant, dielectric polarization, microbial nanowires, nanoscale, transport, Air environment, Bacteria, Bacterial cells, Bacterial nanowires, Dry air, Metal-reducing bacteria, Outer membrane, Phase-minerals, Proteins, Shewanella oneidensis mr-1, Solid phasis, Solid-phase, Space division multiple access, Tubulars

Calò, A, Eleta-Lopez, A, Ondarçuhu, T, Verdaguer, A, Bittner, AM, (2021). Nanoscale wetting of single viruses Molecules 26, 5184

The epidemic spread of many viral infections is mediated by the environmental conditions and influenced by the ambient humidity. Single virus particles have been mainly visualized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid conditions, where the effect of the relative humidity on virus topography and surface cannot be systematically assessed. In this work, we employed multi-frequency AFM, simultaneously with standard topography imaging, to study the nanoscale wetting of individual Tobacco Mosaic virions (TMV) from ambient relative humidity to water condensation (RH > 100%). We recorded amplitude and phase vs. distance curves (APD curves) on top of single virions at various RH and converted them into force vs. distance curves. The high sensitivity of multifrequency AFM to visualize condensed water and sub-micrometer droplets, filling gaps between individual TMV particles at RH > 100%, is demonstrated. Dynamic force spectroscopy allows detecting a thin water layer of thickness ⁓1 nm, adsorbed on the outer surface of single TMV particles at RH < 60%.

JTD Keywords: amplitude-modulation am-afm, atomic-force microscopy, capillary, force reconstruction, multifrequency afm, nanoscale wetting, persistence, reconstruction, relative-humidity, surfaces, tobacco mosaic virus (tmv), tobamovirus, transmission, water, Amplitude-modulation am-afm, Force reconstruction, Multifrequency afm, Nanoscale wetting, Tobacco mosaic virus (tmv), Tobacco mosaic virus (tmv), nanoscale wetting, Tobacco-mosaic-virus

Checa, M, Millan-Solsona, R, Mares, AG, Pujals, S, Gomila, G, (2021). Fast Label-Free Nanoscale Composition Mapping of Eukaryotic Cells Via Scanning Dielectric Force Volume Microscopy and Machine Learning Small Methods 5, 2100279

Mapping the biochemical composition of eukaryotic cells without the use of exogenous labels is a long-sought objective in cell biology. Recently, it has been shown that composition maps on dry single bacterial cells with nanoscale spatial resolution can be inferred from quantitative nanoscale dielectric constant maps obtained with the scanning dielectric microscope. Here, it is shown that this approach can also be applied to the much more challenging case of fixed and dry eukaryotic cells, which are highly heterogeneous and show micrometric topographic variations. More importantly, it is demonstrated that the main bottleneck of the technique (the long computation times required to extract the nanoscale dielectric constant maps) can be shortcut by using supervised neural networks, decreasing them from weeks to seconds in a wokstation computer. This easy-to-use data-driven approach opens the door for in situ and on-the-fly label free nanoscale composition mapping of eukaryotic cells with scanning dielectric microscopy. © 2021 The Authors. Small Methods published by Wiley-VCH GmbH

JTD Keywords: eukaryotic cells, label-free mapping, machine learning, nanoscale, scanning dielectric microscopy, Biochemical composition, Cells, Constant, Cytology, Data-driven approach, Dielectric forces, Dielectric materials, Eukaryotic cells, Label-free mapping, Machine learning, Mapping, Nanoscale, Nanoscale composition, Nanoscale spatial resolution, Nanotechnology, Scanning, Scanning dielectric microscopy, Supervised neural networks

Di Muzio, M, Millan-Solsona, R, Dols-Perez, A, Borrell, JH, Fumagalli, L, Gomila, G, (2021). Dielectric properties and lamellarity of single liposomes measured by in-liquid scanning dielectric microscopy Journal Of Nanobiotechnology 19, 167

Liposomes are widely used as drug delivery carriers and as cell model systems. Here, we measure the dielectric properties of individual liposomes adsorbed on a metal electrode by in-liquid scanning dielectric microscopy in force detection mode. From the measurements the lamellarity of the liposomes, the separation between the lamellae and the specific capacitance of the lipid bilayer can be obtained. As application we considered the case of non-extruded DOPC liposomes with radii in the range ~ 100–800 nm. Uni-, bi- and tri-lamellar liposomes have been identified, with the largest population corresponding to bi-lamellar liposomes. The interlamellar separation in the bi-lamellar liposomes is found to be below ~ 10 nm in most instances. The specific capacitance of the DOPC lipid bilayer is found to be ~ 0.75 µF/cm2 in excellent agreement with the value determined on solid supported planar lipid bilayers. The lamellarity of the DOPC liposomes shows the usual correlation with the liposome's size. No correlation is found, instead, with the shape of the adsorbed liposomes. The proposed approach offers a powerful label-free and non-invasive method to determine the lamellarity and dielectric properties of single liposomes. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

JTD Keywords: constant, force, lamellarity, liposomes, membrane capacitance, model, nanoscale, scanning dielectric microscopy, Lamellarity, Liposomes, Membrane capacitance, Nanoscale, Polarization properties, Scanning dielectric microscopy

Checa, M, Millan-Solsona, R, Mares, AG, Pujals, S, Gomila, G, (2021). Dielectric imaging of fixed hela cells by in‐liquid scanning dielectric force volume microscopy Nanomaterials 11, 1402

Mapping the dielectric properties of cells with nanoscale spatial resolution can be an im-portant tool in nanomedicine and nanotoxicity analysis, which can complement structural and mechanical nanoscale measurements. Recently we have shown that dielectric constant maps can be obtained on dried fixed cells in air environment by means of scanning dielectric force volume mi-croscopy. Here, we demonstrate that such measurements can also be performed in the much more challenging case of fixed cells in liquid environment. Performing the measurements in liquid media contributes to preserve better the structure of the fixed cells, while also enabling accessing the local dielectric properties under fully hydrated conditions. The results shown in this work pave the way to address the nanoscale dielectric imaging of living cells, for which still further developments are required, as discussed here.

JTD Keywords: atomic force microscopy (afm), capacitance, constant, dielectric properties, electrostatic force microscopy (efm), functional microscopy, nanoscale, scanning dielectric microscopy (sdm), Atomic force microscopy (afm), Dielectric properties, Dielectrophoretic separation, Electrostatic force microscopy (efm), Functional micros-copy, Scanning dielectric microscopy (sdm), Scanning probe microscopy (spm)

Fumagalli, Laura, Esteban-Ferrer, Daniel, Cuervo, Ana, Carrascosa, Jose L., Gomila, Gabriel, (2012). Label-free identification of single dielectric nanoparticles and viruses with ultraweak polarization forces Nature Materials Nature Publishing Group 11, (9), 743-826

Label-free detection of the material composition of nanoparticles could be enabled by the quantification of the nanoparticles’ inherent dielectric response to an applied electric field. However, the sensitivity of dielectric nanoscale objects to geometric and non-local effects makes the dielectric response extremely weak. Here we show that electrostatic force microscopy with sub-piconewton resolution can resolve the dielectric constants of single dielectric nanoparticles without the need for any reference material, as well as distinguish nanoparticles that have an identical surface but different inner composition. We unambiguously identified unlabelled ~10unm nanoparticles of similar morphology but different low-polarizable materials, and discriminated empty from DNA-containing virus capsids. Our approach should make the in situ characterization of nanoscale dielectrics and biological macromolecules possible.

JTD Keywords: Biological materials, Nanoscale materials, Characterisation and analytical techniques, Computation, modelling and theory

van Zanten, T. S., Garcia-Parajo, M. F., (2012). Super-resolution near-field optical microscopy Comprehensive Biophysics (ed. Egelman, E. H.), Elsevier (Desdren, Germany) Volume 2: Biophysical Techniques for Characterization of Cells, 144-164

Near-field optical microscopy is a technique not limited by the laws of diffraction that enables simultaneous high-resolution fluorescence and topographic measurements at the nanometer scale. This chapter highlights the intrinsic advantages of near-field optics in the study of cellular structures. The first part of the chapter lays the foundations of the near-field concept and technical implementation of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM), whereas the second part of the chapter focuses on applications of NSOM to the study of model membranes and cellular structures on the plasma membrane. The last part of the chapter discusses further directions of near-field optics, including optical antennas and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy approaches in the near-field regime.

JTD Keywords: Biological membranes, Cell membrane nanoscale compartmentalization, Cellular nanodomains, Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in reduced volumes, Immunoreceptor imaging, Lipid rafts, Near-field scanning optical microscopy, Optical nano-antennas, Shear force imaging, Single molecule detection, Super-resolution microscopy

Estevez, M., Fernandez-Ulibarri, I., Martinez, E., Egea, G., Samitier, J., (2010). Changes in the internal organization of the cell by microstructured substrates Soft Matter 6, (3), 582-590

Surface features at the micro and nanometre scale have been shown to influence and even determine cell behaviour and cytoskeleton organization through direct mechanotransductive pathways. Much less is known about the function and internal distribution of organelles of cells grown on topographically modified surfaces. In this study, the nanoimprint lithography technique was used to manufacture poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sheets with a variety of features in the micrometre size range. Normal rat kidney (NRK) fibroblasts were cultured on these substrates and immunofluorescence staining assays were performed to visualize cell adhesion, the organization of the cytoskeleton and the morphology and subcellular positioning of the Golgi complex. The results show that different topographic features at the micrometric scale induce different rearrangements of the cell cytoskeleton, which in turn alter the positioning and morphology of the Golgi complex. Microposts and microholes alter the mechanical stability of the Golgi complex by modifying the actin cytoskeleton organization leading to the compaction of the organelle. These findings prove that physically modified surfaces are a valuable tool with which to study the dynamics of cell cytoskeleton organization and its subsequent repercussion on internal cell organization and associated function.

JTD Keywords: Actin stress fibers, Golgi-complex, Focal adhesions, Cytoskeletal organization, Osteoblast adhesion, Mammalian-cells, Micron-scale, Nanoscale, Dynamics, Rho