by Keyword: Phosphate scaffolds

Raymond, Yago, Johansson, Linh, Thorel, Emilie, Ginebra, Maria-Pau, (2022). Translation of three-dimensional printing of ceramics in bone tissue engineering and drug delivery Mrs Bulletin 47, 59-69

Raymond, Y, Lehmann, C, Thorel, E, Benitez, R, Riveiro, A, Pou, J, Manzanares, MC, Franch, J, Canal, C, Ginebra, MP, (2022). 3D printing with star-shaped strands: A new approach to enhance in vivo bone regeneration Biomaterials Advances 137, 212807

Concave surfaces have shown to promote bone regeneration in vivo. However, bone scaffolds obtained by direct ink writing, one of the most promising approaches for the fabrication of personalized bone grafts, consist mostly of convex surfaces, since they are obtained by microextrusion of cylindrical strands. By modifying the geometry of the nozzle, it is possible to print 3D structures composed of non-cylindrical strands and favor the presence of concave surfaces. In this work, we compare the in vivo performance of 3D-printed calcium phosphate scaffolds with either conventional cylindrical strands or star-shaped strands, in a rabbit femoral condyle model. Mono cortical defects, drilled in contralateral positions, are randomly grafted with the two scaffold configurations, with identical composition. The samples are explanted eight weeks post-surgery and assessed by ??-CT and resin embedded histological observations. The results reveal that the scaffolds containing star-shaped strands have better osteoconductive properties, guiding the newly formed bone faster towards the core of the scaffolds, and enhance bone regeneration, although the increase is not statistically significant (p > 0.05). This new approach represents a turning point towards the optimization of pore shape in 3D-printed bone grafts, further boosting the possibilities that direct ink writing technology offers for patient-specific applications.

JTD Keywords: 3d printing, biomimetic calcium phosphate, bone regeneration, in vivo, pore architecture, 3d printing, Architecture, Biomimetic calcium phosphate, Bone regeneration, Calcium-phosphate scaffolds, Geometry, Growth, Implants, In vivo, Induction, Microporosity, Osteoinduction, Pore architecture, Scaffold, Surfaces, Tissue

del-Mazo-Barbara L, Ginebra MP, (2021). Rheological characterisation of ceramic inks for 3D direct ink writing: A review Journal Of The European Ceramic Society 41, 18-33

3D printing is a competitive manufacturing technology, which has opened up new possibilities for the fabrication of complex ceramic structures and customised parts. Extrusion-based technologies, also known as direct ink writing (DIW) or robocasting, are amongst the most used for ceramic materials. In them, the rheological properties of the ink play a crucial role, determining both the extrudability of the paste and the shape fidelity of the printed parts. However, comprehensive rheological studies of printable ceramic inks are scarce and may be difficult to understand for non-specialists. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the main types of ceramic ink formulations developed for DIW and a detailed description of the more relevant rheological tests for assessing the printability of ceramic pastes. Moreover, the key rheological parameters are identified and linked to printability aspects, including the values reported in the literature for different ink compositions.

JTD Keywords: 3-dimensional structures, behavior, deposition, direct ink writing, freeform fabrication, gelation, glass scaffolds, mechanical-properties, printability, rheology, robocasting, suspensions, 3d printing, Direct ink writing, Phosphate scaffolds, Printability, Rheology, Robocasting

Konka J, Buxadera-Palomero J, Espanol M, Ginebra M-P, (2021). 3D printing of hierarchical porous biomimetic hydroxyapatite scaffolds: Adding concavities to the convex filaments Acta Biomaterialia 134, 744-759

Porosity plays a key role on the osteogenic performance of bone scaffolds. Direct Ink Writing (DIW) allows the design of customized synthetic bone grafts with patient-specific architecture and controlled macroporosity. Being an extrusion-based technique, the scaffolds obtained are formed by arrays of cylindrical filaments, and therefore have convex surfaces. This may represent a serious limitation, as the role of surface curvature and more specifically the stimulating role of concave surfaces in osteoinduction and bone growth has been recently highlighted. Hence the need to design strategies that allow the introduction of concave pores in DIW scaffolds. In the current study, we propose to add gelatin microspheres as a sacrificial material in a self-setting calcium phosphate ink. Neither the phase transformation responsible for the hardening of the scaffold nor the formation of characteristic network of needle-like hydroxyapatite crystals was affected by the addition of gelatin microspheres. The partial dissolution of the gelatin resulted in the creation of spherical pores throughout the filaments and exposed on the surface, increasing filament porosity from 0.2 % to 67.9 %. Moreover, the presence of retained gelatin proved to have a significant effect on the mechanical properties, reducing the strength but simultaneously giving the scaffolds an elastic behavior, despite the high content of ceramic as a continuous phase. Notwithstanding the inherent difficulty of in vitro cultures with this highly reactive material an enhancement of MG-63 cell proliferation, as well as better spreading of hMSCs was recorded on the developed scaffolds. Statement of significance: Recent studies have stressed the role that concave surfaces play in tissue regeneration and, more specifically, in osteoinduction and osteogenesis. Direct ink writing enables the production of patient-specific bone grafts with controlled architecture. However, besides many advantages, it has the serious limitation that the surfaces obtained are convex. In this article, for the first time we develop a strategy to introduce concave pores in the printed filaments of biomimetic hydroxyapatite by incorporation and partial dissolution of gelatin microspheres. The retention of part of the gelatin results in a more elastic behavior compared to the brittleness of hydroxyapatite scaffolds, while the needle-shaped nanostructure of biomimetic hydroxyapatite is maintained and gelatin-coated concave pores on the surface of the filaments enhance cell spreading. © 2021 The Authors

JTD Keywords: 3d printing, bioceramics, biomimetic, bone, bone regeneration, concavity, concavity, bone regeneration, gelatin, hydrogel, hydroxyapatite, microspheres, osteoinduction, porosity, porous filament, substitutes, tissue-growth, 3d printing, Biomimetic, Calcium-phosphate scaffolds, Concavity, bone regeneration, Gelatin, Hydroxyapatite, Porous filament