by Keyword: Senescence

Selt, F, Sigaud, R, Valinciute, G, Sievers, P, Zaman, J, Alcon, C, Schmid, S, Peterziel, H, Tsai, JW, Guiho, R, Martinez-Barbera, JP, Pusch, S, Deng, J, Zhai, YF, van Tilburg, CM, Schuhman, MU, Damaty, AEL, Bandopadhayay, P, Herold-Mende, C, von Deimling, A, Pfister, SM, Montero, J, Capper, D, Oehme, I, Sahm, F, Jones, DTW, Witt, O, Milde, T, (2022). BH3 mimetics targeting BCL-XL impact the senescent compartment of pilocytic astrocytoma Neuro-Oncology , noac199

Background Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common pediatric brain tumor and a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-driven disease. Oncogenic MAPK-signaling drives the majority of cells into oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). While OIS induces resistance to antiproliferative therapies, it represents a potential vulnerability exploitable by senolytic agents. Methods We established new patient-derived PA cell lines that preserve molecular features of the primary tumors and can be studied in OIS and proliferation depending on expression or repression of the SV40 large T antigen. We determined expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 members in these models and primary PA. Dependence of senescent PA cells on anti-apoptotic BCL-2 members was investigated using a comprehensive set of BH3 mimetics. Results Senescent PA cells upregulate BCL-XL upon senescence induction and show dependency on BCL-XL for survival. BH3 mimetics with high affinity for BCL-XL (BCL-XLi) reduce metabolic activity and induce mitochondrial apoptosis in senescent PA cells at nano-molar concentrations. In contrast, BH3 mimetics without BCL-XLi activity, conventional chemotherapy, and MEK inhibitors show no effect. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that BCL-XL is critical for survival of senescent PA tumor cells and provides proof-of-principle for the use of clinically available BCL-XL-dependent senolytics.

JTD Keywords: Bcl-xl, Bh3 mimetics, Expression, Family, Inhibitor, Low-grade glioma, Navitoclax, Oncogene-induced senescence, Pilocytic astrocytoma, Stem-cells

Gabasa M, Radisky ES, Ikemori R, Bertolini G, Arshakyan M, Hockla A, Duch P, Rondinone O, Llorente A, Maqueda M, Davalos A, Gavilán E, Perera A, Ramírez J, Gascón P, Reguart N, Roz L, Radisky DC, Alcaraz J, (2021). MMP1 drives tumor progression in large cell carcinoma of the lung through fibroblast senescence Cancer Letters 507, 1-12

© 2021 Large cell carcinoma (LCC) is a rare and aggressive lung cancer subtype with poor prognosis and no targeted therapies. Tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) derived from LCC tumors exhibit premature senescence, and coculture of pulmonary fibroblasts with LCC cell lines selectively induces fibroblast senescence, which in turn drives LCC cell growth and invasion. Here we identify MMP1 as overexpressed specifically in LCC cell lines, and we show that expression of MMP1 by LCC cells is necessary for induction of fibroblast senescence and consequent tumor promotion in both cell culture and mouse models. We also show that MMP1, in combination with TGF-β1, is sufficient to induce fibroblast senescence and consequent LCC promotion. Furthermore, we implicate PAR-1 and oxidative stress in MMP1/TGF-β1-induced TAF senescence. Our results establish an entirely new role for MMP1 in cancer, and support a novel therapeutic strategy in LCC based on targeting senescent TAFs.

JTD Keywords: cancer-associated fibroblasts, lung cancer, mmp1, senescence, tgf-?, tgf-beta, Cancer-associated fibroblasts, Lung cancer, Mmp1, Senescence, Tgf-β

Watt, AC, Cejas, P, DeCristo, MJ, Metzger, O, Lam, EYN, Qiu, XT, BrinJones, H, Kesten, N, Coulson, R, Font-Tello, A, Lim, K, Vadhi, R, Daniels, VW, Montero, J, Taing, L, Meyer, CA, Gilan, O, Bell, CC, Korthauer, KD, Giambartolomei, C, Pasaniuc, B, Seo, JH, Freedman, ML, Ma, CT, Ellis, MJ, Krop, I, Winer, E, Letai, A, Brown, M, Dawson, MA, Long, HW, Zhao, JJ, Goel, S, (2021). CDK4/6 inhibition reprograms the breast cancer enhancer landscape by stimulating AP-1 transcriptional activity Nature Cancer 2, 34-+

Goel and colleagues show that CDK4/6 inhibition induces global chromatin changes mediated by AP-1 factors, which mediate key biological and clinical effects in breast cancer. Pharmacologic inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) were designed to induce cancer cell cycle arrest. Recent studies have suggested that these agents also exert other effects, influencing cancer cell immunogenicity, apoptotic responses and differentiation. Using cell-based and mouse models of breast cancer together with clinical specimens, we show that CDK4/6 inhibitors induce remodeling of cancer cell chromatin characterized by widespread enhancer activation, and that this explains many of these effects. The newly activated enhancers include classical super-enhancers that drive luminal differentiation and apoptotic evasion, as well as a set of enhancers overlying endogenous retroviral elements that are enriched for proximity to interferon-driven genes. Mechanistically, CDK4/6 inhibition increases the level of several activator protein-1 transcription factor proteins, which are in turn implicated in the activity of many of the new enhancers. Our findings offer insights into CDK4/6 pathway biology and should inform the future development of CDK4/6 inhibitors.

JTD Keywords: Abemaciclib, Androgen receptor, Animal experiment, Animal model, Animal tissue, Apoptosis, Article, Breast cancer, C-jun, Cancer cell, Carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 1, Caspase 3, Cell cycle arrest, Cells, Chromatin, Chromatin immunoprecipitation, Controlled study, Cyclin dependent kinase 4, Cyclin dependent kinase 6, Dna damage, Epidermal growth factor receptor 2, Estrogen receptor, Female, Flow cytometry, Fulvestrant, Hla drb1 antigen, Human, Human cell, Immunoblotting, Immunogenicity, Immunoprecipitation, Interferon, Luciferase assay, Mcf-7 cell line, Mda-mb-231 cell line, Microarray analysis, Morphogenesis, Mouse, Nonhuman, Palbociclib, Protein, Protein expression, Rb, Resistance, Rna polymerase ii, Rna sequence, Selective-inhibition, Senescence, Short tandem repeat, Signal transduction, Tamoxifen, Transcription elongation, Transcription factor, Transcription factor ap 1, Transcriptome, Tumor biopsy, Tumor differentiation, Tumor spheroid, Tumor xenograft, Vinculin, Whole exome sequencing