by Keyword: efficiency

Lozano-Garcia M, Estrada-Petrocelli L, Blanco-Almazan D, Tas B, Cho PS, Moxham J, Rafferty GF, Torres A, Jane R, Jolley CJ, (2022). Noninvasive Assessment of Neuromechanical and Neuroventilatory Coupling in COPD Ieee Journal Of Biomedical And Health Informatics 26, 3385-3396

This study explored the use of parasternal second intercostal space and lower intercostal space surface electromyogram (sEMG) and surface mechanomyogram (sMMG) recordings (sEMGpara and sMMGpara, and sEMGlic and sMMGlic, respectively) to assess neural respiratory drive (NRD), neuromechanical (NMC) and neuroventilatory (NVC) coupling, and mechanical efficiency (MEff) noninvasively in healthy subjects and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. sEMGpara, sMMGpara, sEMGlic, sMMGlic, mouth pressure (Pmo), and volume (Vi) were measured at rest, and during an inspiratory loading protocol, in 16 COPD patients (8 moderate and 8 severe) and 9 healthy subjects. Myographic signals were analyzed using fixed sample entropy and normalized to their largest values (fSEsEMGpara%max, fSEsMMGpara%max, fSEsEMGlic%max, and fSEsMMGlic%max). fSEsMMGpara%max, fSEsEMGpara%max, and fSEsEMGlic%max were significantly higher in COPD than in healthy participants at rest. Parasternal intercostal muscle NMC was significantly higher in healthy than in COPD participants at rest, but not during threshold loading. Pmo-derived NMC and MEff ratios were lower in severe patients than in mild patients or healthy subjects during threshold loading, but differences were not consistently significant. During resting breathing and threshold loading, Vi-derived NVC and MEff ratios were significantly lower in severe patients than in mild patients or healthy subjects. sMMG is a potential noninvasive alternative to sEMG for assessing NRD in COPD. The ratios of Pmo and Vi to sMMG and sEMG measurements provide wholly noninvasive NMC, NVC, and MEff indices that are sensitive to impaired respiratory mechanics in COPD and are therefore of potential value to assess disease severity in clinical practice. Author

JTD Keywords: biomedical measurement, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, couplings, diaphragm, disease severity, efficiency, electromyography, exacerbations, healthy volunteers, inspiratory muscles, loading, mechanomyography, obstructive pulmonary-disease, pressure measurement, protocols, respiratory mechanics, respiratory muscles, responsiveness, spirometry, stimulation, volume measurement, At rests, Biomedical measurement, Biomedical measurements, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Couplings, Disease severity, Efficiency ratio, Electromyography, Healthy subjects, Healthy volunteers, Loading, Mechanical efficiency, Mechanomyogram, Muscle, Muscles, Neural respiratory drive, Noninvasive medical procedures, Pressure measurement, Protocols, Pulmonary diseases, Surface electromyogram, Volume measurement

Yang, Bingquan, Wang, Yangxin, Vorobii, Mariia, Sauter, Eric, Koenig, Meike, Kumar, Ravi, Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar, Hirtz, Michael, (2022). Evaluation of Dibenzocyclooctyne and Bicyclononyne Click Reaction on Azido-Functionalized Antifouling Polymer Brushes via Microspotting Advanced Materials Interfaces 9, 2102325

Puiggalí-Jou A, Wedepohl S, Theune LE, Alemán C, Calderón M, (2021). Effect of conducting/thermoresponsive polymer ratio on multitasking nanogels Materials Science & Engineering C-Materials For Biological Applications 119,

© 2020 Elsevier B.V. Semi-interpenetrated nanogels (NGs) able to release and sense diclofenac (DIC) have been designed to act as photothermal agents with the possibility to ablate cancer cells using mild-temperatures (<45 °C). Combining mild heat treatments with simultaneous chemotherapy appears as a very promising therapeutic strategy to avoid heat resistance or damaging the surrounding tissues. Particularly, NGs consisted on a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and dendritic polyglycerol (dPG) mesh containing a semi-interpenetrating network (SIPN) of poly(hydroxymethyl 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PHMeEDOT). The PHMeEDOT acted as photothermal and conducting agent, while PNIPAM-dPG NG provided thermoresponsivity and acted as stabilizer. We studied how semi-interpenetration modified the physicochemical characteristics of the thermoresponsive SIPN NGs and selected the best condition to generate a multifunctional photothermal agent. The thermoswitchable conductiveness of the multifunctional NGs and the redox activity of DIC could be utilized for its electrochemical detection. Besides, as proof of the therapeutic concept, we investigated the combinatorial effect of photothermal therapy (PTT) and DIC treatment using the HeLa cancer cell line in vitro. Within 15 min NIR irradiation without surpassing 45 °C we were able to kill 95% of the cells, demonstrating the potential of SIPN NGs as drug carriers, sensors and agents for mild PTT.

JTD Keywords: cells, cellulose, conducting polymers, controlled delivery, diclofenac, efficiency, electrochemical oxidation, electrochemical sensors, nanogels, nanoparticles, photothermal therapy, pnipam, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), Conducting polymers, Electrochemical sensors, Nanogels, Photothermal therapy

Freire IT, Amil AF, Vouloutsi V, Verschure PFMJ, (2021). Towards sample-efficient policy learning with DAC-ML Procedia Computer Science 190, 256-262

The sample-inefficiency problem in Artificial Intelligence refers to the inability of current Deep Reinforcement Learning models to optimize action policies within a small number of episodes. Recent studies have tried to overcome this limitation by adding memory systems and architectural biases to improve learning speed, such as in Episodic Reinforcement Learning. However, despite achieving incremental improvements, their performance is still not comparable to how humans learn behavioral policies. In this paper, we capitalize on the design principles of the Distributed Adaptive Control (DAC) theory of mind and brain to build a novel cognitive architecture (DAC-ML) that, by incorporating a hippocampus-inspired sequential memory system, can rapidly converge to effective action policies that maximize reward acquisition in a challenging foraging task.

JTD Keywords: Cognitive architecture, Distributed adaptive control, Reinforcement learning, Sample-inefficiency problem, Sequence learning

Romero, D., Lázaro, J., Jané, R., Laguna, P., Bailón, R., (2020). A quaternion-based approach to estimate respiratory rate from the vectorcardiogram Computers in Cardiology (CinC) 2020 Computing in Cardiology , IEEE (Rimini, Italy) 47, 1-4

A novel ECG-derived respiration (EDR) approach is presented to efficiently estimate the respiratory rate. It combines spatial rotations and magnitude variations of the heart's electrical vector due to respiration. Orthogonal leads X, Y and Z from 10 volunteers were analyzed during a tilt table test. The largest vector magnitude (VM) within each QRS loop was assessed, and its 3D coordinates were converted into unit quaternion qb. Angular distances between these quaternions and the axes of the reference coordinate system, θ x , θ y and θ z , were then computed as EDR signals to track their relative variations caused by respiration. The respiratory rate was estimated on the spectrum of individual EDR signals obtained from the angular distances and VM time-series, but also on EDR signals obtained by principal component analysis (PCA). Relative errors (eR) to the reference respiratory signal exhibited relatively low values. The combination of EDR signals' spectrum {θ X ,θ Y, θ Z , VM} (eR=0.63±4.15%) and individual signals derived from θ X (e R =0.46±8.22%) and PCA (eR=0.36±6.58%) achieved the overall best results. The proposed method represents a computationally efficient alternative to other EDR approaches, but its robustness should be further investigated. The method could be enhanced if combined with other features tracking morphological changes induced by respiration.

JTD Keywords: Heart, Three-dimensional displays, Quaternions, Robustness, Computational efficiency, Cardiology, Principal component analysis

Said Al-Tawaha, A.R.M., Singh, S., Singh, V., Kafeel, U., Naikoo, M.I., Kumari, A., Amanullah, I., Al-Tawaha, A.R., Qaisi, A.M., Khanum, S., Thangadurai, D, Sangeetha, J., Islam, S., Etesami, H., Kerkoub, N., Amrani, A., Labidi, Z., Maaref, H., Nasri, H., Sanmukh, S.G., Torrents, E. , (2020). Improving water use efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency in rice through breeding and genomics approaches Rice Research for Quality Improvement: Genomics and Genetic Engineering (ed. Roychoudhury, A.), Springer (Singapore, Singapore) Volume 2: Nutrient Biofortification and Herbicide and Biotic Stress Resistance in Rice, 307-337

Rice is a staple food of more than half of the world’s population; more than 3.5 billion inhabitants depend on rice for obtaining 20% of their daily calorie intake. Nitrogen is the most important for crop growth and yield potential. Indeed, nitrogen is essential to stimulate tillering, leaf growth, photosynthesis, and protein synthesis. Significant achievements have recently been observed at the molecular level in nitrogen use efficiency and water use efficiency in plants. In this chapter we will discuss the following issue: (i) definition of both nitrogen use efficiency and water use efficiency, (ii) genes responsible for nitrogen use efficiency and water use efficiency, (iii) best ways for improving water and nutrient use efficiency in rice, and (iv) optimizing nitrogen options for improving water and nitrogen use efficiency of rice under different water regimes.

JTD Keywords: Rice, Water use efficiency, Nitrogen use efficiency, Breeding, Genomics approaches