by Keyword: Cancers

Cassani, M, Fernandes, S, Cruz, JOD, Durikova, H, Vrbsky, J, Patocka, M, Hegrova, V, Klimovic, S, Pribyl, J, Debellis, D, Skladal, P, Cavalieri, F, Caruso, F, Forte, G, (2024). YAP Signaling Regulates the Cellular Uptake and Therapeutic Effect of Nanoparticles Advanced Science 11, e2302965

Interactions between living cells and nanoparticles are extensively studied to enhance the delivery of therapeutics. Nanoparticles size, shape, stiffness, and surface charge are regarded as the main features able to control the fate of cell-nanoparticle interactions. However, the clinical translation of nanotherapies has so far been limited, and there is a need to better understand the biology of cell-nanoparticle interactions. This study investigates the role of cellular mechanosensitive components in cell-nanoparticle interactions. It is demonstrated that the genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of yes-associated protein (YAP), a key component of cancer cell mechanosensing apparatus and Hippo pathway effector, improves nanoparticle internalization in triple-negative breast cancer cells regardless of nanoparticle properties or substrate characteristics. This process occurs through YAP-dependent regulation of endocytic pathways, cell mechanics, and membrane organization. Hence, the study proposes targeting YAP may sensitize triple-negative breast cancer cells to chemotherapy and increase the selectivity of nanotherapy.© 2023 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: cancer treatment, cells, differentiation, hippo pathway, mechanics, mechanobiology, mechanotransduction, nanoparticles, progression, protein, resistance, yap-signaling, yap/taz, Adaptor proteins, signal transducing, Bio-nano interaction, Bio-nano interactions, Breast cancer cells, Cancer cells, Cancer treatment, Cells, Cellular therapeutics, Cellular uptake, Chemotherapy, Cytology, Diseases, Extracellular-matrix, Human, Humans, Mechano-biology, Mechanobiology, Metabolism, Nanoparticle, Nanoparticle interaction, Nanoparticles, Physiology, Protein serine threonine kinase, Protein serine-threonine kinases, Protein signaling, Signal transducing adaptor protein, Signal transduction, Therapeutic effects, Triple negative breast cancer, Triple negative breast neoplasms, Triple-negative breast cancers, Yap-signaling, Yap-signaling proteins, Yes-associated protein-signaling

Simo, C, Serra-Casablancas, M, Hortelao, AC, Di Carlo, V, Guallar-Garrido, S, Plaza-Garcia, S, Rabanal, RM, Ramos-Cabrer, P, Yaguee, B, Aguado, L, Bardia, L, Tosi, S, Gomez-Vallejo, V, Martin, A, Patino, T, Julian, E, Colombelli, J, Llop, J, Sanchez, S, (2024). Urease-powered nanobots for radionuclide bladder cancer therapy Nature Nanotechnology 19, 554-564

Bladder cancer treatment via intravesical drug administration achieves reasonable survival rates but suffers from low therapeutic efficacy. To address the latter, self-propelled nanoparticles or nanobots have been proposed, taking advantage of their enhanced diffusion and mixing capabilities in urine when compared with conventional drugs or passive nanoparticles. However, the translational capabilities of nanobots in treating bladder cancer are underexplored. Here, we tested radiolabelled mesoporous silica-based urease-powered nanobots in an orthotopic mouse model of bladder cancer. In vivo and ex vivo results demonstrated enhanced nanobot accumulation at the tumour site, with an eightfold increase revealed by positron emission tomography in vivo. Label-free optical contrast based on polarization-dependent scattered light-sheet microscopy of cleared bladders confirmed tumour penetration by nanobots ex vivo. Treating tumour-bearing mice with intravesically administered radio-iodinated nanobots for radionuclide therapy resulted in a tumour size reduction of about 90%, positioning nanobots as efficient delivery nanosystems for bladder cancer therapy.© 2024. The Author(s).

JTD Keywords: cell, drug-delivery, nanomotors, tissue, Bladder cancers, Cancer therapy, Diseases, Drug administration, Drug delivery, Enhanced diffusion, Enhanced mixing, Ex-vivo, In-vivo, Mammals, Nanobots, Nanoparticles, Nanosystems, Oncology, Positron emission tomography, Radioisotopes, Silica, Survival rate, Therapeutic efficacy, Tumor penetration, Tumors

Gallo, J, Villasante, A, (2023). Recent Advances in Biomimetic Nanocarrier-Based Photothermal Therapy for Cancer Treatment International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 24, 15484

Nanomedicine presents innovative solutions for cancer treatment, including photothermal therapy (PTT). PTT centers on the design of photoactivatable nanoparticles capable of absorbing non-toxic near-infrared light, generating heat within target cells to induce cell death. The successful transition from benchside to bedside application of PTT critically depends on the core properties of nanoparticles responsible for converting light into heat and the surface properties for precise cell-specific targeting. Precisely targeting the intended cells remains a primary challenge in PTT. In recent years, a groundbreaking approach has emerged to address this challenge by functionalizing nanocarriers and enhancing cell targeting. This strategy involves the creation of biomimetic nanoparticles that combine desired biocompatibility properties with the immune evasion mechanisms of natural materials. This review comprehensively outlines various strategies for designing biomimetic photoactivatable nanocarriers for PTT, with a primary focus on its application in cancer therapy. Additionally, we shed light on the hurdles involved in translating PTT from research to clinical practice, along with an overview of current clinical applications.

JTD Keywords: biomimetic nanoparticles, cancer treatment, diagnosis, drug-delivery, erythrocyte-membrane, facile synthesis, iron-oxide nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles, metastatic breast-cancer, size, stem-cells, Biomimetic nanoparticles, Cancer treatment, Membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles, Photothermal therapy

Alcaraz, J, Ikemori, R, Llorente, A, Díaz-Valdivia, N, Reguart, N, Vizoso, M, (2021). Epigenetic reprogramming of tumor-associated fibroblasts in lung cancer: Therapeutic opportunities Cancers 13, 3782

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The desmoplastic stroma of lung cancer and other solid tumors is rich in tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) exhibiting an activated/myofibroblast-like phenotype. There is growing awareness that TAFs support key steps of tumor progression and are epigenetically reprogrammed compared to healthy fibroblasts. Although the mechanisms underlying such epigenetic reprogramming are incompletely understood, there is increasing evidence that they involve interactions with either cancer cells, pro-fibrotic cytokines such as TGF-β, the stiffening of the surrounding extracellular matrix, smoking cigarette particles and other environmental cues. These aberrant interactions elicit a global DNA hypomethylation and a selective transcriptional repression through hypermethylation of the TGF-β transcription factor SMAD3 in lung TAFs. Likewise, similar DNA methylation changes have been reported in TAFs from other cancer types, as well as histone core modifications and altered microRNA expression. In this review we summarize the evidence of the epigenetic reprogramming of TAFs, how this reprogramming contributes to the acquisition and maintenance of a tumor-promoting phenotype, and how it provides novel venues for therapeutic intervention, with a special focus on lung TAFs.

JTD Keywords: cancer-associated fibroblasts, desmoplasia, dna methylation, epigenetics, expression, genomic dna, lung cancer, mechanical memory, myofibroblast differentiation, pulmonary fibroblasts, smoking, stromal fibroblasts, tgf-?, tgf-beta, tgf-β, transforming growth-factor-beta-1, tumor stroma, Cancer-associated fibroblasts, Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts, Desmoplasia, Epigenetics, Lung cancer, Smoking, Tgf-β, Tumor stroma

Blanco-Fernandez, B, Gaspar, VM, Engel, E, Mano, JF, (2021). Proteinaceous Hydrogels for Bioengineering Advanced 3D Tumor Models Advanced Science 8, 2003129

© 2020 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH The establishment of tumor microenvironment using biomimetic in vitro models that recapitulate key tumor hallmarks including the tumor supporting extracellular matrix (ECM) is in high demand for accelerating the discovery and preclinical validation of more effective anticancer therapeutics. To date, ECM-mimetic hydrogels have been widely explored for 3D in vitro disease modeling owing to their bioactive properties that can be further adapted to the biochemical and biophysical properties of native tumors. Gathering on this momentum, herein the current landscape of intrinsically bioactive protein and peptide hydrogels that have been employed for 3D tumor modeling are discussed. Initially, the importance of recreating such microenvironment and the main considerations for generating ECM-mimetic 3D hydrogel in vitro tumor models are showcased. A comprehensive discussion focusing protein, peptide, or hybrid ECM-mimetic platforms employed for modeling cancer cells/stroma cross-talk and for the preclinical evaluation of candidate anticancer therapies is also provided. Further development of tumor-tunable, proteinaceous or peptide 3D microtesting platforms with microenvironment-specific biophysical and biomolecular cues will contribute to better mimic the in vivo scenario, and improve the predictability of preclinical screening of generalized or personalized therapeutics.

JTD Keywords: 3d in vitro models, cancers, hydrogels, peptides, 3d in vitro models, Cancers, Hydrogels, Peptides, Proteins

Blanco-Fernandez, B, Cano-Torres, I, Garrido, C, Rubi-Sans, G, Sanchez-Cid, L, Guerra-Rebollo, M, Rubio, N, Blanco, J, Perez-Amodio, S, Mateos-Timoneda, MA, Engel, E, (2021). Engineered microtissues for the bystander therapy against cancer Materials Science & Engineering C-Materials For Biological Applications 121, 111854

© 2021 Elsevier B.V. Thymidine kinase expressing human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (TK-hAMSCs) in combination with ganciclovir (GCV) are an effective platform for antitumor bystander therapy in mice models. However, this strategy requires multiple TK-hAMSCs administrations and a substantial number of cells. Therefore, for clinical translation, it is necessary to find a biocompatible scaffold providing TK-hAMSCs retention in the implantation site against their rapid wash-out. We have developed a microtissue (MT) composed by TKhAMSCs and a scaffold made of polylactic acid microparticles and cell-derived extracellular matrix deposited by hAMSCs. The efficacy of these MTs as vehicles for TK-hAMSCs/GCV bystander therapy was evaluated in a rodent model of human prostate cancer. Subcutaneously implanted MTs were integrated in the surrounding tissue, allowing neovascularization and maintenance of TK-hAMSCs viability. Furthermore, MTs implanted beside tumors allowed TK-hAMSCs migration towards tumor cells and, after GCV administration, inhibited tumor growth. These results indicate that TK-hAMSCs-MTs are promising cell reservoirs for clinical use of therapeutic MSCs in bystander therapies.

JTD Keywords: adipose mesenchymal stem cells, bioluminescence, bystander therapy, cancer, Adipose mesenchymal stem cells, Bioluminescence, Bystander therapy, Cancer, Self-assembled cell-based microtissues

Almendros, I., Montserrat, J. M., Torres, M., Bonsignore, M. R., Chimenti, L., Navajas, D., Farre, R., (2012). Obesity and intermittent hypoxia increase tumor growth in a mouse model of sleep apnea Sleep Medicine , 13, (10), 1254-1260

Background: Intermittent hypoxia and obesity which are two pathological conditions commonly found in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), potentially enhance cancer progression. Objective: To investigate whether obesity and/or intermittent hypoxia (IH) mimicking OSA affect tumor growth. Methods: A subcutaneous melanoma was induced in 40 mice [22 obese (40-45 g) and 18 lean (20-25 g)] by injecting 10(6) B16F10 cells in the flank. Nineteen mice (10 obese/9 lean) were subjected to IH (6 h/day for 17 days). A group of 21 mice (12 obese/9 lean) were kept under normoxia. At day 17, tumors were excised, weighed and processed to quantify necrosis and endothelial expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD-31. VEGF in plasma was also assessed. Results: In lean animals, IH enhanced tumor growth from 0.81 +/- 0.17 to 1.95 +/- 0.32 g. In obese animals, a similar increase in tumor growth (1.94 +/- 0.18 g) was observed under normoxia, while adding IH had no further effect (1.69 +/- 0.23 g). IH only promoted an increase in tumoral necrosis in lean animals. However, obesity under normoxic conditions increased necrosis, VEGF and CD-31 expression in tumoral tissue. Plasma VEGF strongly correlated with tumor weight (rho = 0.76, p < 0.001) in the whole sample; it increased in lean IH-treated animals from 66.40 +/- 3.47 to 108.37 +/- 9.48 pg/mL, p < 0.001), while the high baseline value in obese mice (106.90 +/- 4.32 pg/mL) was unaffected by IH. Conclusions: Obesity and IH increased tumor growth, but did not appear to exert any synergistic effects. Circulating VEGF appeared as a crucial mediator of tumor growth in both situations.

JTD Keywords: Intermittent hypoxia, Obesity, Cancer, Sleep apnea, Animal model