by Keyword: Graphene

Lopez-Muñoz GA, Mughal S, Ramón-Azcón J, (2022). Sensors and Biosensors in Organs-on-a-Chip Platforms Advances In Experimental Medicine And Biology 1379, 55-80

Biosensors represent a powerful analytical tool for analyzing biomolecular interactions with the potential to achieve real-time quantitative analysis with high accuracy using low sample volumes, minimum sample pretreatment with high potential for the development of in situ and highly integrated monitoring platforms. Considering these advantages, their use in cell-culture systems has increased over the last few years. Between the different technologies for cell culture, organs-on-a-chip (OOCs) represent a novel technology that tries to mimic an organ's functionality by combining tissue engineering/organoid with microfluidics. Although there are still challenges to achieving OOC models with high organ mimicking relevance, these devices can offer effective models for drug treatment development by identifying drug targets, screening toxicity, and determining the potential effects of drugs in living beings. Consequently, in the future, we might replace animal studies by offering more ethical test models. Considering the relevance that different physiological and biochemical parameters have in the correct functionality of cells, sensing and biosensing platforms can offer an effective way for the real-time monitoring of physiological parameters and, in our opinion, more relevant, the secretion of biomarkers such as cytokines, growth factors, and others related with the influence of drugs or other types of stimulus in cell metabolism. Keeping this concept in mind, in this chapter, we focus on describing the potential use of sensors and biosensors in OOC devices to achieve fully integrated platforms that monitor physiological parameters and cell metabolism.© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

JTD Keywords: alignment, biosensors, cell, crystal microbalance biosensor, electrochemical biosensors, future, graphene oxide, label-free detection, organ-on-a-chip, oxygen, pre-clinical platforms, real-time analysis, screening, Biosensors, Organ-on-a-chip, Pre-clinical platforms, Screening, Sensors, Surface-plasmon resonance

Olate-Moya, F., Arens, L., Wilhelm, M., Mateos-Timoneda, M. A., Engel, E., Palza, H., (2020). Chondroinductive alginate-based hydrogels having graphene oxide for 3D printed scaffold fabrication ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 12, (4), 4343-4357

Scaffolds based on bioconjugated hydrogels are attractive for tissue engineering because they can partly mimic human tissue characteristics. For example, they can further increase their bioactivity with cells. However, most of the hydrogels present problems related to their processability, consequently limiting their use in 3D printing to produce tailor-made scaffolds. The goal of this work is to develop bioconjugated hydrogel nanocomposite inks for 3D printed scaffold fabrication through a micro-extrusion process having improved both biocompatibility and processability. The hydrogel is based on a photocrosslinkable alginate bioconjugated with both gelatin and chondroitin sulfate in order to mimic the cartilage extracellular matrix, while the nanofiller is based on graphene oxide to enhance the printability and cell proliferation. Our results show that the incorporation of graphene oxide into the hydrogel inks considerably improved the shape fidelity and resolution of 3D printed scaffolds because of a faster viscosity recovery post extrusion of the ink. Moreover, the nanocomposite inks produce anisotropic threads after the 3D printing process because of the templating of the graphene oxide liquid crystal. The in vitro proliferation assay of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) shows that bioconjugated scaffolds present higher cell proliferation than pure alginate, with the nanocomposites presenting the highest values at long times. Live/Dead assay otherwise displays full viability of hADMSCs adhered on the different scaffolds at day 7. Notably, the scaffolds produced with nanocomposite hydrogel inks were able to guide the cell proliferation following the direction of the 3D printed threads. In addition, the bioconjugated alginate hydrogel matrix induced chondrogenic differentiation without exogenous pro-chondrogenesis factors as concluded from immunostaining after 28 days of culture. This high cytocompatibility and chondroinductive effect toward hADMSCs, together with the improved printability and anisotropic structures, makes these nanocomposite hydrogel inks a promising candidate for cartilage tissue engineering based on 3D printing.

JTD Keywords: 3D printing, Chondrogenesis, Graphene oxide, Hydrogels, Liquid crystals

Convertino, D., Fabbri, F., Mishra, N., Mainardi, M., Cappello, V., Testa, G., Capsoni, S., Albertazzi, L., Luin, S., Marchetti, L., Coletti, C., (2020). Graphene promotes axon elongation through local stall of nerve growth factor signaling endosomes Nano Letters 20, (5), 3633-3641

Several works reported increased differentiation of neuronal cells grown on graphene; however, the molecular mechanism driving axon elongation on this material has remained elusive. Here, we study the axonal transport of nerve growth factor (NGF), the neurotrophin supporting development of peripheral neurons, as a key player in the time course of axonal elongation of dorsal root ganglion neurons on graphene. We find that graphene drastically reduces the number of retrogradely transported NGF vesicles in favor of a stalled population in the first 2 days of culture, in which the boost of axon elongation is observed. This correlates with a mutual charge redistribution, observed via Raman spectroscopy and electrophysiological recordings. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis indicates a reduced microtubule distance and an elongated axonal topology. Thus, both electrophysiological and structural effects can account for graphene action on neuron development. Unraveling the molecular players underneath this interplay may open new avenues for axon regeneration applications.

JTD Keywords: Axon elongation, Graphene, Material-neuron interface, Membrane-associated periodic skeleton, Nerve growth factor retrograde transport, Peripheral dorsal root ganglion neuron

Samitier, Josep, Correia, A., (2019). Biomimetic Nanotechnology for Biomedical Applications (NanoBio&Med 2018) Biomimetics MDPI

Emerging nanobiotechnologies can offer solutions to the current and future challenges in medicine. By covering topics from regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, drug delivery, bionanofabrication, and molecular biorecognition, this Special Issue aims to provide an update on the trends in nanomedicine and drug delivery using biomimetic approaches, and the development of novel biologically inspired devices for the safe and effective diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease.

JTD Keywords: Bioinspired nanotechnologies, Bionanofabrication, Bio-nano measurement and microscopy, Nanomaterials for biological and medical applications, Nanoassemblies, Nanostructured surfaces, Drug delivery, Nanobioelectronics, Integrated systems/nanobiosensors, Nanotoxicology, Graphene-based applications

Ma, X., Katuri, J., Zeng, Y., Zhao, Y., Sánchez, S., (2015). Surface conductive graphene-wrapped micromotors exhibiting enhanced motion Small 11, (38), 5023–5027

Surface-conductive Janus spherical motors are fabricated by wrapping silica particles with reduced graphene oxide capped with a thin Pt layer. These motors exhibit a 100% enhanced velocity as compared to standard SiO2–Pt motors. Furthermore, the versatility of graphene may open up possibilities for a diverse range of applications from active drug delivery systems to water remediation.

JTD Keywords: Enhanced speed, Graphene wrapping, Janus micromotors, Janus particles, Micromotors, Surface conduction