by Keyword: controlled-release

Andrade, F, Roca-Melendres, MM, Llaguno, M, Hide, D, Raurell, I, Martell, M, Vijayakumar, S, Oliva, M, Jr, SS, Duran-Lara, EF, Rafael, D, Abasolo, I, (2022). Smart and eco-friendly N-isopropylacrylamide and cellulose hydrogels as a safe dual-drug local cancer therapy approach Carbohydrate Polymers 295, 119859

Local cancer treatment by in situ injections of thermo-responsive hydrogels (HG) offers several advantages over conventional systemic anti-cancer treatments. In this work, a biodegradable and multicompartmental HG composed of N-isopropylacrylamide, cellulose, citric acid, and ceric ammonium nitrate was developed for the controlled release of hydrophilic (doxorubicin) and hydrophobic (niclosamide) drugs. The formulation presented ideal properties regarding thermo-responsiveness, rheological behavior, drug release profile, biocompatibility, and biological activity in colon and ovarian cancer cells. Cellulose was found to retard drugs release rate, being only 4 % of doxorubicin and 30 % of niclosamide released after 1 week. This low release was sufficient to cause cell death in both cell lines. Moreover, HG demonstrated a proper injectability, in situ prevalence, and safety profile in vivo. Overall, the HG properties, together with its natural and eco-friendly composition, create a safe and efficient platform for the local treatment of non-resectable tumors or tumors requiring pre-surgical adjuvant therapy.

JTD Keywords: biodegradable, cellulose, controlled-release formulation, drug delivery systems, hydrogel, thermo-responsiveness, Ammonium-nitrate, Biodegradable, Cancer treatment, Cellulose, Controlled-release formulation, Delivery, Drug delivery systems, Hydrogel, Reduce, Thermo-responsiveness

De Lama-Odría, MD, Del Valle, LJ, Puiggalí, J, (2022). Hydroxyapatite Biobased Materials for Treatment and Diagnosis of Cancer International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 11352

Great advances in cancer treatment have been undertaken in the last years as a consequence of the development of new antitumoral drugs able to target cancer cells with decreasing side effects and a better understanding of the behavior of neoplastic cells during invasion and metastasis. Specifically, drug delivery systems (DDS) based on the use of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAp NPs) are gaining attention and merit a comprehensive review focused on their potential applications. These are derived from the intrinsic properties of HAp (e.g., biocompatibility and biodegradability), together with the easy functionalization and easy control of porosity, crystallinity and morphology of HAp NPs. The capacity to tailor the properties of DLS based on HAp NPs has well-recognized advantages for the control of both drug loading and release. Furthermore, the functionalization of NPs allows a targeted uptake in tumoral cells while their rapid elimination by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) can be avoided. Advances in HAp NPs involve not only their use as drug nanocarriers but also their employment as nanosystems for magnetic hyperthermia therapy, gene delivery systems, adjuvants for cancer immunotherapy and nanoparticles for cell imaging.

JTD Keywords: antitumoral, cancer, cell imaging, controlled-release, drug-carrier, efficient drug-delivery, fatty-acid-metabolism, fe3o4 nanoparticles, gene delivery, hydroxyapatite, hyperthermia, immunotherapy, in-vitro, magnetic hydroxyapatite, nano-hydroxyapatite, protein adsorption, tumor-growth, Calcium-phosphate nanoparticles, Cancer, Immunotherapy

Enshaei, H, Molina, BG, Puiggali-Jou, A, Saperas, N, Aleman, C, (2022). Polypeptide hydrogel loaded with conducting polymer nanoparticles as electroresponsive delivery system of small hydrophobic drugs European Polymer Journal 173, 111199

A hydrogel/nanoparticle-loaded system for the controlled delivery of small hydrophobic drugs has been prepared using poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (PGGA), a naturally occurring biopolymer made of glutamic acid units connected by amide linkages between alpha-amino and gamma-carboxylic acid groups, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), a very stable conducting polymer with excellent electrochemical response. Specifically, curcumin (CUR)-loaded PEDOT nanoparticles (PEDOT/CUR) were incorporated to the PGGA hydrogel during the crosslinking reaction. After chemical, morphological and electrochemical characterization, the release profiles of PEDOT/CUR and PGGA/PEDOT/CUR system have been compared in absence and presence of electrical stimuli, which consisted on the application of a voltage of -0.5 V for 15 min every 24 h. Results show that the release is higher for electrically stimulated systems by more than twice, even though due to its hydrophobicity and poor solubility in water the release was relatively slow in both cases. This feature could be advantageous when the therapeutic treatment requires slow, controlled and sustained CUR release.

JTD Keywords: 4-ethylenedioxythiophene), Acid, Controlled-release, Curcumi n, Curcumin, Electrostimulated release, Nanocarriers, Pedotpss, Poly( ?-glutamic acid), Poly(3

Rial-Hermida, MI, Rey-Rico, A, Blanco-Fernandez, B, Carballo-Pedrares, N, Byrne, EM, Mano, JF, (2021). Recent Progress on Polysaccharide-Based Hydrogels for Controlled Delivery of Therapeutic Biomolecules Acs Biomaterials Science & Engineering 7, 4102-4127

A plethora of applications using polysaccharides have been developed in recent years due to their availability as well as their frequent nontoxicity and biodegradability. These polymers are usually obtained from renewable sources or are byproducts of industrial processes, thus, their use is collaborative in waste management and shows promise for an enhanced sustainable circular economy. Regarding the development of novel delivery systems for biotherapeutics, the potential of polysaccharides is attractive for the previously mentioned properties and also for the possibility of chemical modification of their structures, their ability to form matrixes of diverse architectures and mechanical properties, as well as for their ability to maintain bioactivity following incorporation of the biomolecules into the matrix. Biotherapeutics, such as proteins, growth factors, gene vectors, enzymes, hormones, DNA/RNA, and antibodies are currently in use as major therapeutics in a wide range of pathologies. In the present review, we summarize recent progress in the development of polysaccharide-based hydrogels of diverse nature, alone or in combination with other polymers or drug delivery systems, which have been implemented in the delivery of biotherapeutics in the pharmaceutical and biomedical fields. © 2021 American Chemical Society.

JTD Keywords: biodegradable dextran hydrogels, biotherapeutics, bone morphogenetic protein-2, carrageenan-based hydrogels, chitosan-based hydrogels, controlled delivery, controlled-release, cross-linked hydrogels, growth-factor delivery, hydrogels, in-vitro characterization, polysaccharides, self-healing hydrogel, stimuli-responsiveness, tissue engineering, Antibodies, Bioactivity, Biodegradability, Biomedical fields, Biomolecules, Biotherapeutics, Chemical modification, Circular economy, Controlled delivery, Controlled drug delivery, Delivery systems, Drug delivery system, Functional polymers, Hyaluronic-acid hydrogels, Hydrogels, Industrial processs, Polysaccharides, Recent progress, Renewable sources, Stimuli-responsiveness, Targeted drug delivery, Tissue engineering, Waste management

Mares, AG, Pacassoni, G, Marti, JS, Pujals, S, Albertazzi, L, (2021). Formulation of tunable size PLGA-PEG nanoparticles for drug delivery using microfluidic technology Plos One 16, e0251821

Amphiphilic block co-polymer nanoparticles are interesting candidates for drug delivery as a result of their unique properties such as the size, modularity, biocompatibility and drug loading capacity. They can be rapidly formulated in a nanoprecipitation process based on self-assembly, resulting in kinetically locked nanostructures. The control over this step allows us to obtain nanoparticles with tailor-made properties without modification of the co-polymer building blocks. Furthermore, a reproducible and controlled formulation supports better predictability of a batch effectiveness in preclinical tests. Herein, we compared the formulation of PLGA-PEG nanoparticles using the typical manual bulk mixing and a microfluidic chip-assisted nanoprecipitation. The particle size tunability and controllability in a hydrodynamic flow focusing device was demonstrated to be greater than in the manual dropwise addition method. We also analyzed particle size and encapsulation of fluorescent compounds, using the common bulk analysis and advanced microscopy techniques: Transmission Electron Microscopy and Total Internal Reflection Microscopy, to reveal the heterogeneities occurred in the formulated nanoparticles. Finally, we performed in vitro evaluation of obtained NPs using MCF-7 cell line. Our results show how the microfluidic formulation improves the fine control over the resulting nanoparticles, without compromising any appealing property of PLGA nanoparticle. The combination of microfluidic formulation with advanced analysis methods, looking at the single particle level, can improve the understanding of the NP properties, heterogeneities and performance.

JTD Keywords: controlled-release, doxorubicin, encapsulation, functional nanoparticles, nanoprecipitation, pharmacokinetics, polymeric nanoparticles, shape, surface-chemistry, In-vitro

Enshaei, H, Puiggalí-Jou, A, del Valle, LJ, Turon, P, Saperas, N, Alemán, C, (2021). Nanotheranostic Interface Based on Antibiotic-Loaded Conducting Polymer Nanoparticles for Real-Time Monitoring of Bacterial Growth Inhibition Advanced Healthcare Materials 10, 2001636

© 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH Conducting polymers have been increasingly used as biologically interfacing electrodes for biomedical applications due to their excellent and fast electrochemical response, reversible doping–dedoping characteristics, high stability, easy processability, and biocompatibility. These advantageous properties can be used for the rapid detection and eradication of infections associated to bacterial growth since these are a tremendous burden for individual patients as well as the global healthcare system. Herein, a smart nanotheranostic electroresponsive platform, which consists of chloramphenicol (CAM)-loaded in poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene) nanoparticles (PEDOT/CAM NPs) for concurrent release of the antibiotic and real-time monitoring of bacterial growth is presented. PEDOT/CAM NPs, with an antibiotic loading content of 11.9 ± 1.3% w/w, are proved to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus sanguinis due to the antibiotic release by cyclic voltammetry. Furthermore, in situ monitoring of bacterial activity is achieved through the electrochemical detection of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a redox active specie produced by the microbial metabolism that diffuse to the extracellular medium. According to these results, the proposed nanotheranostic platform has great potential for real-time monitoring of the response of bacteria to the released antibiotic, contributing to the evolution of the personalized medicine.

JTD Keywords: bacterial detection, chloramphenicol, conducting polymers, drug, drug release, electrochemical sensors, electrochemistry, electrostimulated release, mechanism, peptide, polythiophene, sensor, sulfonate, Bacterial detection, Chloramphenicol, Conducting polymers, Controlled-release, Drug release, Electrochemical sensors, Electrostimulated release, Polythiophene