by Keyword: rats
Ortiz, Cristina, Klein, Sabine, Reul, Winfried H., Magdaleno, Fernando, Gröschl, Stefanie, Dietrich, Peter, Schierwagen, Robert, Uschner, Frank E., Torres, Sandra, Hieber, Christoph, Meier, Caroline, Kraus, Nico, Tyc, Olaf, Brol, Maximilian, Zeuzem, Stefan, Welsch, Christoph, Poglitsch, Marco, Hellerbrand, Claus, Alfonso-Prieto, Mercedes, Mira, Fabio, Keller, Ulrich auf dem, Tetzner, Anja, Moore, Andrew, Walther, Thomas, Trebicka, Jonel, (2023). Neprilysin-dependent neuropeptide Y cleavage in the liver promotes fibrosis by blocking NPY-receptor 1 Cell Reports 42, 112059
Development of liver fibrosis is paralleled by contraction of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the main profibrotic hepatic cells. Yet, little is known about the interplay of neprilysin (NEP) and its substrate neuropeptide Y (NPY), a potent enhancer of contraction, in liver fibrosis. We demonstrate that HSCs are the source of NEP. Importantly, NPY originates majorly from the splanchnic region and is cleaved by NEP in order to terminate contraction. Interestingly, NEP deficiency (Nep-/-) showed less fibrosis but portal hypertension upon liver injury in two different fibrosis models in mice. We demonstrate the incremental benefit of Nep-/- in addition to AT1R blocker (ARB) or ACE inhibitors for fibrosis and portal hypertension. Finally, oral administration of Entresto, a combination of ARB and NEP inhibitor, decreased hepatic fibrosis and portal pressure in mice. These results provide a mechanistic rationale for translation of NEP-AT1R-blockade in human liver fibrosis and portal hypertension.Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
JTD Keywords: activation, cirrhosis, cirrhotic rats, cp: cell biology, expression, hepatic stellate cell, identification, inhibition, mechanisms, modulation, neprilysin, neuropeptide y, neuropeptide y receptor 1, portal hypertension, portal-hypertension, web server, Renin-angiotensin system
Madrid-Gambin F, Gomez-Gomez A, Busquets-Garcia A, Haro N, Marco S, Mason NL, Reckweg JT, Mallaroni P, Kloft L, van Oorsouw K, Toennes SW, de la Torre R, Ramaekers JG, Pozo OJ, (2022). Metabolomics and integrated network analysis reveal roles of endocannabinoids and large neutral amino acid balance in the ayahuasca experience Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 149, 112845
There has been a renewed interest in the potential use of psychedelics for the treatment of psychiatric conditions. Nevertheless, little is known about the mechanism of action and molecular pathways influenced by ayahuasca use in humans. Therefore, for the first time, our study aims to investigate the human metabolomics signature after consumption of a psychedelic, ayahuasca, and its connection with both the psychedelic-induced subjective effects and the plasma concentrations of ayahuasca alkaloids. Plasma samples of 23 individuals were collected both before and after ayahuasca consumption. Samples were analysed through targeted metabolomics and further integrated with subjective ratings of the ayahuasca experience (i.e., using the 5-Dimension Altered States of Consciousness Rating Scale [ASC]), and plasma ayahuasca-alkaloids using integrated network analysis. Metabolic pathways enrichment analysis using diffusion algorithms for specific KEGG modules was performed on the metabolic output. Compared to baseline, the consumption of ayahuasca increased N-acyl-ethanolamine endocannabinoids, decreased 2-acyl-glycerol endocannabinoids, and altered several large-neutral amino acids (LNAAs). Integrated network results indicated that most of the LNAAs were inversely associated with 9 out of the 11 subscales of the ASC, except for tryptophan which was positively associated. Several endocannabinoids and hexosylceramides were directly associated with the ayahuasca alkaloids. Enrichment analysis confirmed dysregulation in several pathways involved in neurotransmission such as serotonin and dopamine synthesis. In conclusion, a crosstalk between the circulating LNAAs and the subjective effects is suggested, which is independent of the alkaloid concentrations and provides insights into the specific metabolic fingerprint and mechanism of action underlying ayahuasca experiences. © 2022 The Authors
JTD Keywords: anxiety, ayahuasca, dimethyltryptamine, integrative network analysis, metabolism, metabolomics, psychedelics, rats, subjective effects, system, tryptophan, Ayahuasca, Dimethyltryptamine, Integrative network analysis, Metabolomics, Psychedelics, Serotonin 5-ht2a, Subjective effects
Beltrán G, Navajas D, García-Aznar JM, (2022). Mechanical modeling of lung alveoli: From macroscopic behaviour to cell mechano-sensing at microscopic level Journal Of The Mechanical Behavior Of Biomedical Materials 126, 105043
The mechanical signals sensed by the alveolar cells through the changes in the local matrix stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are determinant for regulating cellular functions. Therefore, the study of the mechanical response of lung tissue becomes a fundamental aspect in order to further understand the mechanosensing signals perceived by the cells in the alveoli. This study is focused on the development of a finite element (FE) model of a decellularized rat lung tissue strip, which reproduces accurately the mechanical behaviour observed in the experiments by means of a tensile test. For simulating the complex structure of the lung parenchyma, which consists of a heterogeneous and non-uniform network of thin-walled alveoli, a 3D model based on a Voronoi tessellation is developed. This Voronoi-based model is considered very suitable for recreating the geometry of cellular materials with randomly distributed polygons like in the lung tissue. The material model used in the mechanical simulations of the lung tissue was characterized experimentally by means of AFM tests in order to evaluate the lung tissue stiffness on the micro scale. Thus, in this study, the micro (AFM test) and the macro scale (tensile test) mechanical behaviour are linked through the mechanical simulation with the 3D FE model based on Voronoi tessellation. Finally, a micro-mechanical FE-based model is generated from the Voronoi diagram for studying the stiffness sensed by the alveolar cells in function of two independent factors: the stretch level of the lung tissue and the geometrical position of the cells on the extracellular matrix (ECM), distinguishing between pneumocyte type I and type II. We conclude that the position of the cells within the alveolus has a great influence on the local stiffness perceived by the cells. Alveolar cells located at the corners of the alveolus, mainly type II pneumocytes, perceive a much higher stiffness than those located in the flat areas of the alveoli, which correspond to type I pneumocytes. However, the high stiffness, due to the macroscopic lung tissue stretch, affects both cells in a very similar form, thus no significant differences between them have been observed. © 2021 The Authors
JTD Keywords: rat, scaffolds, stiffness, Afm, Animal cell, Animal experiment, Animal model, Animal tissue, Article, Biological organs, Cell function, Cells, Computational geometry, Cytology, Extracellular matrices, Extracellular matrix, Extracellular-matrix, Geometry, High stiffness, Human, Lung alveolus cell type 1, Lung alveolus cell type 2, Lung parenchyma, Lung tissue, Male, Mechanical behavior, Mechanical modeling, Mechanical simulations, Mechanosensing, Model-based opc, Nonhuman, Physical model, Rat, Rigidity, Stiffness, Stiffness matrix, Tensile testing, Thin walled structures, Three dimensional finite element analysis, Tissue, Type ii, Voronoi tessellations
Rubies, C, Batlle, M, Sanz-de la Garza, M, Dantas, AP, Jorba, I, Fernandez, G, Sanguesa, G, Abuli, M, Brugada, J, Sitges, M, Navajas, D, Mont, L, Guasch, E, (2022). Long-Term Strenuous Exercise Promotes Vascular Injury by Selectively Damaging the Tunica Media Experimental Evidence Jacc Basic Transl Sci 7, 681-693
Moderate exercise has well-founded benefits in cardiovascular health. However, increasing, yet controversial, evidence suggests that extremely trained athletes may not be protected from cardiovascular events as much as moderately trained individuals. In our rodent model, intensive but not moderate training promoted aorta and carotid stiffening and elastic lamina ruptures, tunica media thickening of intramyocardial arteries, and an imbalance between vasoconstrictor and relaxation agents. An up-regulation of angiotensin-converter enzyme, miR-212, miR-132, and miR-146b might account for this deleterious remodeling. Most changes remained after a 4-week detraining. In conclusion, our results suggest that intensive training blunts the benefits of moderate exercise. (C) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier on behalf of the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
JTD Keywords: atherosclerosis, cacs, coronary artery calcium score, cad, coronary artery disease, coronary artery disease, cv, cardiovascular, endurance exercise, extreme sport, mmp9, matrix metalloproteinase 9, no, nitric oxide, phe, phenylephrine, vsmc, vascular smooth muscle cell, Age, Atherosclerosis, Cacs, coronary artery calcium score, Cad, coronary artery disease, Coronary artery disease, Coronary atherosclerosis, Cv, cardiovascular, Disease, Endurance exercise, Extreme sport, Metalloproteinases, Micrornas, Mmp9, matrix metalloproteinase 9, No, nitric oxide, Phe, phenylephrine, Physical-activity, Prevalence, Rats, Relevance, Risk, Vascular stiffening, Vsmc, vascular smooth muscle cell
Andreu, I, Falcones, B, Hurst, S, Chahare, N, Quiroga, X, Le Roux, AL, Kechagia, Z, Beedle, AEM, Elosegui-Artola, A, Trepat, X, Farre, R, Betz, T, Almendros, I, Roca-Cusachs, P, (2021). The force loading rate drives cell mechanosensing through both reinforcement and cytoskeletal softening Nature Communications 12, 4229
Cell response to force regulates essential processes in health and disease. However, the fundamental mechanical variables that cells sense and respond to remain unclear. Here we show that the rate of force application (loading rate) drives mechanosensing, as predicted by a molecular clutch model. By applying dynamic force regimes to cells through substrate stretching, optical tweezers, and atomic force microscopy, we find that increasing loading rates trigger talin-dependent mechanosensing, leading to adhesion growth and reinforcement, and YAP nuclear localization. However, above a given threshold the actin cytoskeleton softens, decreasing loading rates and preventing reinforcement. By stretching rat lungs in vivo, we show that a similar phenomenon may occur. Our results show that cell sensing of external forces and of passive mechanical parameters (like tissue stiffness) can be understood through the same mechanisms, driven by the properties under force of the mechanosensing molecules involved. Cells sense mechanical forces from their environment, but the precise mechanical variable sensed by cells is unclear. Here, the authors show that cells can sense the rate of force application, known as the loading rate, with effects on YAP nuclear localization and cytoskeletal stiffness remodelling.
JTD Keywords: Actin cytoskeleton, Actin filament, Actin-filament, Adhesion, Animal, Animals, Atomic force microscopy, Breathing, Cell, Cell adhesion, Cell culture, Cell nucleus, Cells, cultured, Cytoplasm, Extracellular-matrix, Fibroblast, Fibroblasts, Fibronectin, Frequency, Gene knockdown, Gene knockdown techniques, Genetics, Germfree animal, Integrin, Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins, Knockout mouse, Lung, Male, Mechanotransduction, Mechanotransduction, cellular, Metabolism, Mice, Mice, knockout, Microscopy, atomic force, Mouse, Optical tweezers, Paxillin, Physiology, Primary cell culture, Pxn protein, mouse, Rat, Rats, Rats, sprague-dawley, Respiration, Signal peptide, Softening, Specific pathogen-free organisms, Sprague dawley rat, Stress, Substrate, Substrate rigidity, Talin, Talin protein, mouse, Tln2 protein, mouse, Traction, Transmission, Ultrastructure, Yap1 protein, rat
Blanco-Fernandez, B, Castano, O, Mateos-Timoneda, MA, Engel, E, Perez-Amodio, S, (2021). Nanotechnology Approaches in Chronic Wound Healing Advances In Wound Care 10, 234-256
Significance: The incidence of chronic wounds is increasing due to our aging population and the augment of people afflicted with diabetes. With the extended knowledge on the biological mechanisms underlying these diseases, there is a novel influx of medical technologies into the conventional wound care market. Recent Advances: Several nanotechnologies have been developed demonstrating unique characteristics that address specific problems related to wound repair mechanisms. In this review, we focus on the most recently developed nanotechnology-based therapeutic agents and evaluate the efficacy of each treatment in in vivo diabetic models of chronic wound healing. Critical Issues: Despite the development of potential biomaterials and nanotechnology-based applications for wound healing, this scientific knowledge is not translated into an increase of commercially available wound healing products containing nanomaterials. Future Directions: Further studies are critical to provide insights into how scientific evidences from nanotechnology-based therapies can be applied in the clinical setting.
JTD Keywords: chronic, diabetes, liposomes, nanofibers, nanoparticles, Chronic, Chronic wound, Diabetes, Diabetic wound, Diabetic-rats, Dressings, Drug mechanism, Extracellular-matrix, Growth-factor, Human, In-vitro, Liposome, Liposomes, Mesenchymal stem-cells, Metal nanoparticle, Nanofiber, Nanofibers, Nanofibrous scaffolds, Nanoparticles, Nanotechnology, Nonhuman, Polyester, Polymer, Polysaccharide, Priority journal, Protein, Review, Self assembled protein nanoparticle, Silk fibroin, Skin wounds, Wound healing, Wound healing promoting agent
Romero D, Jane R, (2021). Global and Transient Effects of Intermittent Hypoxia on Heart Rate Variability Markers: Evaluation using an Obstructive Sleep Apnea Model Ieee Access 9, 19043-19052
CCBY Intermittent hypoxia (IH) produces autonomic dysfunction that promotes the development of arrhythmia and hypertension in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This paper investigated different heart rate variability (HRV) indices in the context of IH using a rat model for OSA. Linear and non-linear HRV parameters were assessed from ultra-short (15-s segments) and short-term (5 min) analyses of heartbeat time-series. Transient changes observed from pre-apnea segments to hypoxia episodes were evaluated, besides the relative and global impact of IH, as a function of its severity. Results showed an overall increase in ultra-short HRV markers as immediate response to hypoxia: standard deviation of normal RR intervals, SDNN=1.2 ms (IQR: 1.1-2.1) vs 1.4 ms (IQR: 1.2-2.2), p=0.015; root mean square of the successive differences, RMSSD=1.7 ms (IQR: 1.5-2.2) vs 1.9 ms (IQR: 1.6-2.4), p=0.031. The power in the very low frequency (VLF) band also showed a significant increase: 0.09 ms2 (IQR: 0.05-0.20) vs 0.16 ms2 (IQR: 0.12-0.23), p=0.016, probably associated with the potentiation of the carotid body chemo-sensory response to hypoxia. Moreover, a clear link between severity of IH and short-term HRV measures was found in VLF and LF power, besides their progressive increase seen throughout the experiment after each apnea sequence. However, only those markers quantifying fragmentation levels in RR series were significantly affected when the experiment ended, as compared to baseline measures: percentage of inflection points, PIP=49% (IQR: 45-51) vs 53% (IQR: 47-53), p=0.031; percentage of short (≥3 RR intervals) accelerated/decelerated segments, PSS=75% (IQR: 51-81) vs 87% (IQR: 51-90), p=0.046. These findings suggest a significant deterioration of cardiac rhythm with a more erratic behavior beyond the normal sinus arrhythmia, that may lead to a future cardiac condition.
JTD Keywords: artificial intelligence, atmospheric modeling, electrocardiography, heart rate variability, hypoxia rat model, intermittent hypoxia, obstructive apneas, protocols, radio access technologies, Artificial intelligence, Atmospheric modeling, Electrocardiography, Heart rate variability, Hypoxia rat model, Intermittent hypoxia, Obstructive apneas, Protocols, Radio access technologies, Rats
Romero, D., Jané, R., (2020). Hypoxia-induced effects on ECG depolarization by time warping analysis during recurrent obstructive apnea Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC) 42nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Montreal, Canada) , 2626-2629
In this work, we evaluated a non-linear approach to estimate morphological variations in ECG depolarization, in the context of intermittent hypoxia (IH). Obstructive apnea sequences were provoked for 15 minutes in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, alternating with equal periods of normal breathing, in a recurrent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) model. Each apnea episode lasted 15 s, while the frequency used for each sequence was randomly selected. Average heartbeats obtained before the start and at the end of each episode, were delineated to extract only the QRS wave. Then, the segmented QRS waves were non-linearly aligned using the dynamic time warping (DWT) algorithm. Morphological QRS changes in both the amplitude and temporal domains were estimated from this alignment procedure. The hypoxic and basal segments were analyzed using ECG (lead I) recordings acquired during the experiment. To assess the effects of IH over time, the changes relative to the basal QRS wave were determined, in the intervals prior to each successive events until the end of the experiment. The results showed a progressive increase in the amplitude and time-domain morphological markers of the QRS wave along the experiment, which were strongly correlated with the changes in traditional QRS markers (r ≈ 0.9). Significant changes were found between pre-apnea and hypoxic measures only for the time-domain analysis (p<0.001), probably due to the short duration of the simulated apnea episodes.Clinical relevance Increased variability in ECG depolarization morphology during recurrent hypoxic episodes would be closely related to the expression of cardiovascular dysfunction in OSA patients.
JTD Keywords: Electrocardiography, Rats, Heart rate variability, Sleep apnea, Protocols, Heuristic algorithms
Romero, D., Jané, R., (2019). Non-linear HRV analysis to quantify the effects of intermittent hypoxia using an OSA rat model Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Berlín, Germany) , 4994-4997
In this paper, a non-linear HRV analysis was performed to assess fragmentation signatures observed in heartbeat time series after intermittent hypoxia (IH). Three markers quantifying short-term fragmentation levels, PIP, IALS and PSS, were evaluated on R-R interval series obtained in a rat model of recurrent apnea. Through airway obstructions, apnea episodes were periodically simulated in six anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. The number of apnea events per hour (AHI index) was varied during the first half of the experiment while apnea episodes lasted 15 s. For the second part, apnea episodes lasted 5, 10 or 15 s, but the AHI index was fixed. Recurrent apnea was repeated for 15-min time intervals in all cases, alternating with basal periods of the same duration. The fragmentation markers were evaluated in segments of 5 minutes, selected at the beginning and end of the experiment. The impact of the heart and breathing rates (HR and BR, respectively) on the parameter estimates was also investigated. The results obtained show a significant increase (from 5 to 10%, p <; 0.05) in fragmentation measures of heartbeat time series after IH, indicating a clear deterioration of the initial conditions. Moreover, there was a strong linear relationship (r > 0.9) between these markers and BR, as well as with the ratio given by HR/BR. Although fragmentation may be impacted by IH, we found that it is highly dependent on HR and BR values and thus, they should be considered during its calculation or used to normalize the fragmentation estimates.
JTD Keywords: Rats, Time series analysis, Radio access technologies, Protocols, Heart beat
Castillo-Escario, Y., Rodríguez-Cañón, M., García-Alías, G., Jané, R., (2019). Onset detection to study muscle activity in reaching and grasping movements in rats Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Berlín, Germany) , 5113-5116
EMG signals reflect the neuromuscular activation patterns related to the execution of a certain movement or task. In this work, we focus on reaching and grasping (R&G) movements in rats. Our objective is to develop an automatic algorithm to detect the onsets and offsets of muscle activity and use it to study muscle latencies in R&G maneuvers. We had a dataset of intramuscular EMG signals containing 51 R&G attempts from 2 different animals. Simultaneous video recordings were used for segmentation and comparison. We developed an automatic onset/offset detector based on the ratio of local maxima of Teager-Kaiser Energy (TKE). Then, we applied it to compute muscle latencies and other features related to the muscle activation pattern during R&G cycles. The automatic onsets that we found were consistent with visual inspection and video labels. Despite the variability between attempts and animals, the two rats shared a sequential pattern of muscle activations. Statistical tests confirmed the differences between the latencies of the studied muscles during R&G tasks. This work provides an automatic tool to detect EMG onsets and offsets and conducts a preliminary characterization of muscle activation during R&G movements in rats. This kind of approaches and data processing algorithms can facilitate the studies on upper limb motor control and motor impairment after spinal cord injury or stroke.
JTD Keywords: Muscles, Electromyography, Rats, Low pass filters, Microsoft Windows, Band-pass filters
Jané, R., Lazaro, J., Ruiz, P., Gil, E., Navajas, D., Farre, R., Laguna, P., (2013). Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a rat model: Effects of anesthesia on autonomic evaluation from heart rate variability measures CinC 2013 Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC) , IEEE (Zaragoza, Spain) , 1011-1014
Rat model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a realistic approach for studying physiological mechanisms involved in sleep. Rats are usually anesthetized and autonomic nervous system (ANS) could be blocked. This study aimed to assess the effect of anesthesia on ANS activity during OSA episodes. Seven male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized intraperitoneally with urethane (1g/kg). The experiments were conducted applying airway obstructions, simulating 15s-apnea episodes for 15 minutes. Five signals were acquired: respiratory pressure and flow, SaO2, ECG and photoplethysmography (PPG). In total, 210 apnea episodes were studied. Normalized power spectrum of Pulse Rate Variability (PRV) was analyzed in the Low Frequency (LF) and High Frequency (HF) bands, for each episode in consecutive 15s intervals (before, during and after the apnea). All episodes showed changes in respiratory flow and SaO2 signal. Conversely, decreases in the amplitude fluctuations of PPG (DAP) were not observed. Normalized LF presented extremely low values during breathing (median=7,67%), suggesting inhibition of sympathetic system due to anesthetic effect. Subtle increases of LF were observed during apnea. HRV and PPG analysis during apnea could be an indirect tool to assess the effect and deep of anesthesia.
JTD Keywords: electrocardiography, fluctuations, medical disorders, medical signal detection, medical signal processing, neurophysiology, photoplethysmography, pneumodynamics, sleep, ECG, SaO2 flow, SaO2 signal, airway obstructions, amplitude fluctuations, anesthesia effects, anesthetized nervous system, autonomic evaluation, autonomic nervous system, breathing, heart rate variability, high-frequency bands, low-frequency bands, male Sprague-Dawley rats, normalized power spectrum, obstructive sleep apnea, photoplethysmography, physiological mechanisms, pulse rate variability, rat model, respiratory flow, respiratory pressure, signal acquisition, sympathetic system inhibition, time 15 min, time 15 s, Abstracts, Atmospheric modeling, Computational modeling, Electrocardiography, Rats, Resonant frequency
Carreras, A., Almendros, I., Acerbi, I., Montserrat, J. M., Navajas, D., Farre, R., (2009). Obstructive apneas induce early release of mesenchymal stem cells into circulating blood Sleep , 32, (1), 117-119
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether noninvasive application of recurrent airway obstructions induces early release of mesenchymal stem cells into the circulating blood in a rat model of obstructive sleep apnea. DESIGN: Prospective controlled animal study. SETTING: University laboratory. PATIENTS OR PARTICIPANTS: Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g). INTERVENTIONS: A specially designed nasal mask was applied to the anesthetized rats. Ten rats were subjected to a pattern of recurrent obstructive apneas (60 per hour, lasting 15 seconds each) for 5 hours. Ten anesthetized rats were used as controls. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Mesenchymal stem cells from the blood and bone marrow samples were isolated and cultured to count the total number of colony-forming unit fibroblasts (CFU-F) of adherent cells after 9 days in culture. The number of CFU-F from circulating blood was significantly (P = 0.02) higher in the rats subjected to recurrent obstructive apneas (5.00 +/- 1.16; mean +/- SEM) than in controls (1.70 +/- 0.72). No significant (P = 0.54) differences were observed in CFU-F from bone marrow. CONCLUSIONS: Application of a pattern of airway obstructions similar to those experienced by patients with sleep apnea induced an early mobilization of mesenchymal stem cells into circulating blood.
JTD Keywords: Adipocytes/cytology, Animals, Blood Cell Count, Bone Marrow Cells/ cytology, Cell Adhesion/physiology, Cell Count, Cell Differentiation/physiology, Cell Division/physiology, Disease Models, Animal, Fibroblasts/cytology, Male, Mesenchymal Stem Cells/ cytology, Osteocytes/cytology, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/ blood, Stem Cells/cytology