by Keyword: ICP

Eills, James, Azagra, Marc, Gomez-Cabeza, David, Tayler, Michael C D, Marco-Rius, Irene, (2024). Polarization losses from the nonadiabatic passage of hyperpolarized solutions through metallic components Journal Of Magnetic Resonance Open 18, 100144

From complex -mixture analysis to in vivo molecular imaging, applications of liquid -state nuclear spin hyperpolarization have expanded widely over recent years. In most cases, hyperpolarized solutions are generated and transported from the polarization instrument to the measurement device. The sample hyperpolarization usually survives this transport, since the changes in magnetic fields that are external to the sample are typically adiabatic (slow) with respect to the internal nuclear spin dynamics. The passage of polarized samples through weakly magnetic components such as stainless steel syringe needles and ferrules is not always adiabatic, can lead to near -complete destruction of the magnetization. To avoid this effect becoming "folklore"in field of hyperpolarized NMR, we present a systematic investigation to highlight the problem and investigate possible solutions. Experiments were carried out on: (i) dissolution-DNP-polarized [1-13C]pyruvate with detection at 1.4 T, and (ii) 1.5 -T -polarized H2O with NMR detection at 2.5 mu T. We show that the degree adiabaticity of solutions passing through metal parts is intrinsically unpredictable, likely depending on factors such as solution flow rate, degree of remanent ferromagnetism in the metal, and nuclear spin However, the magnetization destruction effects can be suppressed by application of an external field order of 0.1-10 mT.

JTD Keywords: Benchtop nmr, Hyperpolarization, Low-field mri, Non-adiabatic, Para-hydrogen, Spin relaxation

Smith, CS, Alvarez, Z, Qiu, RM, Sasselli, IR, Clemons, T, Ortega, JA, Vilela-Picos, M, Wellman, H, Kiskinis, E, Stupp, SI, (2023). Enhanced Neuron Growth and Electrical Activity by a Supramolecular Netrin-1 Mimetic Nanofiber Acs Nano 17, 19887-19902

Neurotrophic factors are essential not only for guiding the organization of the developing nervous system but also for supporting the survival and growth of neurons after traumatic injury. In the central nervous system (CNS), inhibitory factors and the formation of a glial scar after injury hinder the functional recovery of neurons, requiring exogenous therapies to promote regeneration. Netrin-1, a neurotrophic factor, can initiate axon guidance, outgrowth, and branching, as well as synaptogenesis, through activation of deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) receptors. We report here the development of a nanofiber-shaped supramolecular mimetic of netrin-1 with monomers that incorporate a cyclic peptide sequence as the bioactive component. The mimetic structure was found to activate the DCC receptor in primary cortical neurons using low molar ratios of the bioactive comonomer. The supramolecular nanofibers enhanced neurite outgrowth and upregulated maturation as well as pre- and postsynaptic markers over time, resulting in differences in electrical activity similar to neurons treated with the recombinant netrin-1 protein. The results suggest the possibility of using the supramolecular structure as a therapeutic to promote regenerative bioactivity in CNS injuries.

JTD Keywords: axon growth, axon guidance, cell-migration, colorectal-cancer, dcc, dopaminergic-neurons, force-field, functional recovery, netrin-1, neurite outgrowth, neuronal maturation, neurotrophic factor, neurotrophicfactor mimetic, synapsis, Axon growth, Coarse-grained model, Netrin-1, Neuronal maturation, Neurotrophic factor mimetic, Peptide amphiphile, Synapsis

Puiggalí-Jou, A., del Valle, L. J., Alemán, C., (2019). Drug delivery systems based on intrinsically conducting polymers Journal of Controlled Release 309, 244-264

This work provides an overview of the up to date research related to intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs) and their function as novel drug delivery systems (DDSs). Drugs administrated to patients do not always reach the targeted organ, which may affect other tissues leading to undesired side-effects. To overcome these problems, DDSs are under development. Nowadays, it is possible to target the administration and, most importantly, to achieve a controlled drug dosage upon external stimuli. Particularly, the attention of this work focuses on the drug release upon electrical stimuli employing ICPs. These are well-known organic polymers with outstanding electrical properties similar to metals but also retaining some advantageous characteristics normally related to polymers, like mechanical stability and easiness of processing. Depending on the redox state, ICPs can incorporate or release anionic or cationic molecules on-demand. Besides, the releasing rate can be finely tuned by the type of electrical stimulation applied. Another interesting feature is that ICPs are capable to sense redox molecules such as dopamine, serotonin or ascorbic acid among others. Therefore, future prospects go towards the design of materials where the releasing rate could be self-adjusted in response to changes in the surrounding environment. This recompilation of ideas and projects provides a critic outline of ICPs synthesis progress related to their use as DDSs. Definitely, ICPs are a very promising branch of DDSs where the dose can be finely tuned by the exertion of an external stimulus, hence optimizing the repercussions of the drug and diminishing its side effects.

JTD Keywords: Controlled release, DDS, Drug delivery, Electrical stimuli, ICP, Intrinsically conducting polymers