by Keyword: gut

Pérez-González, Carlos, Ceada, Gerardo, Matejcic, Marija, Trepat, Xavier, (2022). Digesting the mechanobiology of the intestinal epithelium Current Opinion In Genetics & Development 72, 82-90

The dizzying life of the homeostatic intestinal epithelium is governed by a complex interplay between fate, form, force and function. This interplay is beginning to be elucidated thanks to advances in intravital and ex vivo imaging, organoid culture, and biomechanical measurements. Recent discoveries have untangled the intricate organization of the forces that fold the monolayer into crypts and villi, compartmentalize cell types, direct cell migration, and regulate cell identity, proliferation and death. These findings revealed that the dynamic equilibrium of the healthy intestinal epithelium relies on its ability to precisely coordinate tractions and tensions in space and time. In this review, we discuss recent findings in intestinal mechanobiology, and highlight some of the many fascinating questions that remain to be addressed in this emerging field.Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: crypt fission, designer matrices, differentiation, growth, gut, migration, model, scaffold, tissue mechanics, Cell migration, Cell proliferation, Ex vivo study, Human tissue, Intestine epithelium, Monolayer culture, Organoid, Review, Stem-cell, Tension, Traction therapy

Pérez-González C, Ceada G, Greco F, Matejcic M, Gómez-González M, Castro N, Menendez A, Kale S, Krndija D, Clark AG, Gannavarapu VR, Álvarez-Varela A, Roca-Cusachs P, Batlle E, Vignjevic DM, Arroyo M, Trepat X, (2021). Mechanical compartmentalization of the intestinal organoid enables crypt folding and collective cell migration Nature Cell Biology 23, 745-757

Intestinal organoids capture essential features of the intestinal epithelium such as crypt folding, cellular compartmentalization and collective movements. Each of these processes and their coordination require patterned forces that are at present unknown. Here we map three-dimensional cellular forces in mouse intestinal organoids grown on soft hydrogels. We show that these organoids exhibit a non-monotonic stress distribution that defines mechanical and functional compartments. The stem cell compartment pushes the extracellular matrix and folds through apical constriction, whereas the transit amplifying zone pulls the extracellular matrix and elongates through basal constriction. The size of the stem cell compartment depends on the extracellular-matrix stiffness and endogenous cellular forces. Computational modelling reveals that crypt shape and force distribution rely on cell surface tensions following cortical actomyosin density. Finally, cells are pulled out of the crypt along a gradient of increasing tension. Our study unveils how patterned forces enable compartmentalization, folding and collective migration in the intestinal epithelium. Perez-Gonzalez et al. explore the mechanical properties of intestinal organoids, and report the existence of distinct mechanical domains and that cells are pulled out of the central crypt along a gradient of increasing tension.

JTD Keywords: Forces, Growth, Gut, Monolayers, Morphogenesis, Reveal, Stem-cells, Tension

Cereta, AD, Oliveira, VR, Costa, IP, Guimaraes, LL, Afonso, JPR, Fonseca, AL, de Sousa, ART, Silva, GAM, Mello, DACPG, de Oliveira, LVF, da Palma, RK, (2021). Early Life Microbial Exposure and Immunity Training Effects on Asthma Development and Progression Frontiers Of Medicine 8, 662262

Asthma is the most common inflammatory disease affecting the lungs, which can be caused by intrauterine or postnatal insults depending on the exposure to environmental factors. During early life, the exposure to different risk factors can influence the microbiome leading to undesired changes to the immune system. The modulations of the immunity, caused by dysbiosis during development, can increase the susceptibility to allergic diseases. On the other hand, immune training approaches during pregnancy can prevent allergic inflammatory diseases of the airways. In this review, we focus on evidence of risk factors in early life that can alter the development of lung immunity associated with dysbiosis, that leads to asthma and affect childhood and adult life. Furthermore, we discuss new ideas for potential prevention strategies that can be applied during pregnancy and postnatal period.

JTD Keywords: asthma, dysbiosis, early life immunity, lung microbiome, Adulthood, Antibiotic exposure, Asthma, Childhood, Disease, Disease exacerbation, Dysbiosis, Early life immunity, Gut microbiome, Human, Immunity, Intestine flora, Lung development, Lung microbiome, Lung microbiota, Nonhuman, Perinatal period, Pregnancy, Prevention, Prevention strategies, Review, Risk, Risk factor, Sensitization, Supplementation, Vitamin-d, Wheeze

Allaw, M., Manca, M. L., Caddeo, C., Recio, M. C., Pérez-Brocal, V., Moya, A., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., Manconi, M., (2020). Advanced strategy to exploit wine-making waste by manufacturing antioxidant and prebiotic fibre-enriched vesicles for intestinal health Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 193, 111146

Grape extract-loaded fibre-enriched vesicles, nutriosomes, were prepared by combining antioxidant extracts obtained from grape pomaces and a prebiotic, soluble fibre (Nutriose®FM06). The nutriosomes were small in size (from ∼140 to 260 nm), homogeneous (polydispersity index < 0.2) and highly negative (∼ −79 mV). The vesicles were highly stable during 12 months of storage at 25 °C. When diluted with warmed (37 °C) acidic medium (pH 1.2) of high ionic strength, the vesicles only displayed an increase of the mean diameter and a low release of the extract, which were dependent on Nutriose concentration. The formulations were highly biocompatible and able to protect intestinal cells (Caco-2) from oxidative stress damage. In vivo results underlined that the composition of mouse microbiota was not affected by the vesicular formulations. Overall results support the potential application of grape nutriosomes as an alternative strategy for the protection of the intestinal tract.

JTD Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Grape pomace, Gut microbiota, In vivo studies, Intestinal cells, Nutriosomes, Phospholipid vesicles, Prebiotic activity