by Keyword: pathogenesis

van Aalen, EA, Rosier, BJHM, Jansen, T, Wouters, SFA, Vermathen, RT, van der Veer, HJ, Lozano, JY, Mughal, S, Fernández-Costa, J, Ramón-Azcón, J, den Toonder, JMJ, Merkx, M, (2023). Integrated Bioluminescent Immunoassays for High-Throughput Sampling and Continuous Monitoring of Cytokines Analytical Chemistry 95, 8922-8931

Immunoassays show great potential for the detection of low levels of cytokines, due to their high sensitivity and excellent specificity. There is a particular demand for biosensors that enable both high-throughput screening and continuous monitoring of clinically relevant cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα). To this end, we here introduce a novel bioluminescent immunoassay based on the ratiometric plug-and-play immunodiagnostics (RAPPID) platform, with an improved intrinsic signal-to-background and an >80-fold increase in the luminescent signal. The new dRAPPID assay, comprising a dimeric protein G adapter connected via a semiflexible linker, was applied to detect the secretion of IL-6 by breast carcinoma cells upon TNFα stimulation and the production of low concentrations of IL-6 (∼18 pM) in an endotoxin-stimulated human 3D muscle tissue model. Moreover, we integrated the dRAPPID assay in a newly developed microfluidic device for the simultaneous and continuous monitoring of changes in IL-6 and TNFα in the low-nanomolar range. The luminescence-based read-out and the homogeneous nature of the dRAPPID platform allowed for detection with a simple measurement setup, consisting of a digital camera and a light-sealed box. This permits the usage of the continuous dRAPPID monitoring chip at the point of need, without the requirement for complex or expensive detection techniques.

JTD Keywords: cells, code, elisa, il-6, inflammation, kits, pathogenesis, procalcitonin, release, Interleukin-6

Júnior, C, Ulldemolins, A, Narciso, M, Almendros, I, Farré, R, Navajas, D, López, J, Eroles, M, Rico, F, Gavara, N, (2023). Multi-Step Extracellular Matrix Remodelling and Stiffening in the Development of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 24, 1708

The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the lung is a filamentous network composed mainly of collagens, elastin, and proteoglycans that provides structural and physical support to its populating cells. Proliferation, migration and overall behaviour of those cells is greatly determined by micromechanical queues provided by the ECM. Lung fibrosis displays an aberrant increased deposition of ECM which likely changes filament organization and stiffens the ECM, thus upregulating the profibrotic profile of pulmonary cells. We have previously used AFM to assess changes in the Young’s Modulus (E) of the ECM in the lung. Here, we perform further ECM topographical, mechanical and viscoelastic analysis at the micro- and nano-scale throughout fibrosis development. Furthermore, we provide nanoscale correlations between topographical and elastic properties of the ECM fibres. Firstly, we identify a softening of the ECM after rats are instilled with media associated with recovery of mechanical homeostasis, which is hindered in bleomycin-instilled lungs. Moreover, we find opposite correlations between fibre stiffness and roughness in PBS- vs bleomycin-treated lung. Our findings suggest that changes in ECM nanoscale organization take place at different stages of fibrosis, with the potential to help identify pharmacological targets to hinder its progression.

JTD Keywords: atomic force microscopy, cells, deposition, extracellular matrix, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, mechanisms, mechanosensing, membranes, micromechanical properties, pathogenesis, stiffness, tissues, viscoelasticity, Extracellular matrix, Induced lung fibrosis, Mechanosensing

Bertran, O, Martí, D, Torras, J, Turon, P, Alemán, C, (2022). Computer simulations on oxidative stress-induced reactions in SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein: a multi-scale approach Molecular Diversity 26, 3143-3155

Abstract Oxidative stress, which occurs when an organism is exposed to an adverse stimulus that results in a misbalance of antioxidant and pro-oxidants species, is the common denominator of diseases considered as a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 lethality. Indeed, reactive oxygen species caused by oxidative stress have been related to many virus pathogenicity. In this work, simulations have been performed on the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein to study what residues are more susceptible to be attacked by ·OH, which is one of the most reactive radicals associated to oxidative stress. The results indicate that isoleucine (ILE) probably plays a crucial role in modification processes driven by radicals. Accordingly, QM/MM-MD simulations have been conducted to study both the ·OH-mediated hydrogen abstraction of ILE residues and the induced modification of the resulting ILE radical through hydroxylation or nitrosylation reactions. All in all, in silico studies show the importance of the chemical environment triggered by oxidative stress on the modifications of the virus, which is expected to help for foreseeing the identification or development of antioxidants as therapeutic drugs. Graphic abstract

JTD Keywords: atom abstraction, damage, density functionals, hydrogen abstraction, isoleucine, molecular dynamics, pathogenesis, protein, reactive oxygen species, receptor binding domain, residues, spike protein, Amino-acids, Hydrogen abstraction, Isoleucine, Molecular dynamics, Reactive oxygen species, Receptor binding domain, Spike protein

Azagra, M, Pose, E, De Chiara, F, Perez, M, Avitabile, E, Servitja, JM, Brugnara, L, Ramon-Azcón, J, Marco-Rius, I, (2022). Ammonium quantification in human plasma by proton nuclear magnetic resonance for staging of liver fibrosis in alcohol-related liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Nmr In Biomedicine 35, e4745

Liver fibrosis staging is a key element driving the prognosis of patients with chronic liver disease. Currently, biopsy is the only technique capable of diagnosing liver fibrosis in patients with alcohol-related liver disease (ArLD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) unequivocally. Non-invasive (e.g. plasma-based) biomarker assays are attractive tools to diagnose and stage disease, yet must prove that they are reliable and sensitive to be used clinically. Here we demonstrate 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance as a method to rapidly quantify the endogenous concentration of ammonium ions from human plasma extracts and show their ability to report upon early and advanced stages of ArLD and NAFLD. We show that, irrespective of the disease aetiology, ammonium concentration is a more robust and informative marker of fibrosis stage than current clinically assessed blood hepatic biomarkers. Subject to validation in larger cohorts, the study indicates that the method can provide accurate and rapid staging of ArLD and NAFLD without need for an invasive biopsy.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: ammonium quantification, blood biomarkers, chronic liver disease, disease biomarkers, hepatic dysfunction, nmr, pathogenesis, Ammonium quantification, Hepatic dysfunction, Hepatic-encephalopathy

Gouveia, VM, Rizzello, L, Vidal, B, Nunes, C, Poma, A, Lopez-Vasquez, C, Scarpa, E, Brandner, S, Oliveira, A, Fonseca, JE, Reis, S, Battaglia, G, (2022). Targeting Macrophages and Synoviocytes Intracellular Milieu to Augment Anti-Inflammatory Drug Potency Advanced Therapeutics 5, 2100167

Tura-Ceide O, Smolders VFED, Aventin N, Morén C, Guitart-Mampel M, Blanco I, Piccari L, Osorio J, Rodríguez C, Rigol M, Solanes N, Malandrino A, Kurakula K, Goumans MJ, Quax PHA, Peinado VI, Castellà M, Barberà JA, (2021). Derivation and characterisation of endothelial cells from patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension Scientific Reports 11,

Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) resected material offers a unique opportunity to develop an in vitro endothelial cell model of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We aimed to comprehensively analyze the endothelial function, molecular signature, and mitochondrial profile of CTEPH-derived endothelial cells to better understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction behind CTEPH, and to identify potential novel targets for the prevention and treatment of the disease. Isolated cells from specimens obtained at PEA (CTEPH-EC), were characterized based on morphology, phenotype, and functional analyses (in vitro and in vivo tubule formation, proliferation, apoptosis, and migration). Mitochondrial content, morphology, and dynamics, as well as high-resolution respirometry and oxidative stress, were also studied. CTEPH-EC displayed a hyperproliferative phenotype with an increase expression of adhesion molecules and a decreased apoptosis, eNOS activity, migration capacity and reduced angiogenic capacity in vitro and in vivo compared to healthy endothelial cells. CTEPH-EC presented altered mitochondrial dynamics, increased mitochondrial respiration and an unbalanced production of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants. Our study is the foremost comprehensive investigation of CTEPH-EC. Modulation of redox, mitochondrial homeostasis and adhesion molecule overexpression arise as novel targets and biomarkers in CTEPH.

JTD Keywords: angiogenesis, cd31, dysfunction, expression, pathogenesis, thrombus, C-reactive protein