by Keyword: Conductivity

Pankratov D, Hidalgo Martinez S, Karman C, Gerzhik A, Gomila G, Trashin S, Boschker HTS, Geelhoed JS, Mayer D, De Wael K, JR Meysman F, (2024). The organo-metal-like nature of long-range conduction in cable bacteria Bioelectrochemistry 157, 108675

Cable bacteria are filamentous, multicellular microorganisms that display an exceptional form of biological electron transport across centimeter-scale distances. Currents are guided through a network of nickel-containing protein fibers within the cell envelope. Still, the mechanism of long-range conduction remains unresolved. Here, we characterize the conductance of the fiber network under dry and wet, physiologically relevant, conditions. Our data reveal that the fiber conductivity is high (median value: 27 S cm−1; range: 2 to 564 S cm−1), does not show any redox signature, has a low thermal activation energy (Ea = 69 ± 23 meV), and is not affected by humidity or the presence of ions. These features set the nickel-based conduction mechanism in cable bacteria apart from other known forms of biological electron transport. As such, conduction resembles that of an organic semi-metal with a high charge carrier density. Our observation that biochemistry can synthesize an organo-metal-like structure opens the way for novel bio-based electronic technologies. © 2024 The Authors

JTD Keywords: 'current, Activation energy, Bacteria, Bioelectronic, Bioelectronics, Cable bacteria, Cables, Centimeter-scale, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Electrochemical-impedance spectroscopies, Electron transport, Electron transport properties, Long-distance electron transport, Nickel, Nickel containing, Protein conductivity, Protein fibers, Proteins

Molina, Brenda G, Fuentes, Judith, Aleman, Carlos, Sanchez, Samuel, (2024). Merging BioActuation and BioCapacitive properties: A 3D bioprinted devices to self-stimulate using self-stored energy Biosensors & Bioelectronics 251, 116117

Biofabrication of three-dimensional (3D) cultures through the 3D Bioprinting technique opens new perspectives and applications of cell-laden hydrogels. However, to continue with the progress, new BioInks with specific properties must be carefully designed. In this study, we report the synthesis and 3D Bioprinting of an electroconductive BioInk made of gelatin/fibrinogen hydrogel, C2C12 mouse myoblast and 5% w/w of conductive poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanoparticles (PEDOT NPs). The influence of PEDOT NPs, incorporated in the cellladen BioInk, not only showed a positive effect in cells viability, differentiation and myotube functionalities, also allowed the printed constructs to behaved as BioCapacitors. Such devices were able to electrochemically store a significant amount of energy (0.5 mF/cm2), enough to self-stimulate as BioActuator, with typical contractions ranging from 27 to 38 mu N, during nearly 50 min. The biofabrication of 3D constructs with the proposed electroconductive BioInk could lead to new devices for tissue engineering, biohybrid robotics or bioelectronics.

JTD Keywords: 3d bioprinting, Animal, Animals, Bioactuator, Bioactuators, Biocapacitor, Biofabrication, Bioprinting, Biosensing techniques, C2c12 myoblasts, Cells, Chemistry, Electric conductivity, Electroconductive, Electroconductive bioink, Ethylenedioxythiophenes, Genetic procedures, Hydrogel, Hydrogels, Mice, Mouse, Pedot nps, Pedot nps,3d bioprinting,electroconductive bioink,bioactuator,biocapacito, Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanoparticle, Printing, three-dimensional, Procedures, Skeletal-muscle,cytotoxicity,polymer, Synthesis (chemical), Three dimensional printing, Tissue engineering, Tissue scaffolds

Tanwar, S, Millan-Solsona, R, Ruiz-Molina, S, Mas-Torrent, M, Kyndiah, A, Gomila, G, (2024). Nanoscale Operando Characterization of Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors Reveals Charge Transport Bottlenecks Advanced Materials 36, 2309767

Charge transport in electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors (EGOFETs) is governed by the microstructural property of the semiconducting thin film that is in direct contact with the electrolyte. Therefore, a comprehensive nanoscale operando characterization of the active channel is crucial to pinpoint various charge transport bottlenecks for rational and targeted optimization of the devices. Here, the local electrical properties of EGOFETs are systematically probed by in-liquid scanning dielectric microscopy (in-liquid SDM) and a direct picture of their functional mechanism at the nanoscale is provided across all operational regimes, starting from subthreshold, linear to saturation, until the onset of pinch-off. To this end, a robust interpretation framework of in-liquid SDM is introduced that enables quantitative local electric potential mapping directly from raw experimental data without requiring calibration or numerical simulations. Based on this development, a straightforward nanoscale assessment of various charge transport bottlenecks is performed, like contact access resistances, inter- and intradomain charge transport, microstructural inhomogeneities, and conduction anisotropy, which have been inaccessible earlier. Present results contribute to the fundamental understanding of charge transport in electrolyte-gated transistors and promote the development of direct structure-property-function relationships to guide future design rules. This study delves into the charge transport properties of electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors by employing in-liquid scanning dielectric microscopy. By introducing a novel interpretation framework, the research achieves quantitative mapping of the local electric potential, facilitating a detailed assessment of charge transport bottlenecks across all operational regimes. The findings can fosterthe formulation ofstructure-property-function relationships for device optimization.image

JTD Keywords: Conduction anisotropy, Conductivity maps, Electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors, Nanoscale, Operando, Operation regimes, Potential maps, Scanning dielectric microscopy

Fontana-Escartin, A, Lanzalaco, S, Bertran, O, Aleman, C, (2022). Electrochemical multi-sensors obtained by applying an electric discharge treatment to 3D-printed poly(lactic acid) Applied Surface Science 597, 153623

Electrochemical sensors for real-time detection of several bioanalytes have been prepared by additive manufacturing, shaping non-conductive poly(lactic acid) (PLA) filaments, and applying a physical treatment to create excited species. The latter process, which consists of the application of power discharge of 100 W during 2 min in a chamber at a low pressure of O-2, converts electrochemically inert PLA into an electrochemically responsive material. The electric discharge caused the oxidation of the PLA surface as evidenced by the increment in the quantity of oxygenated species detected by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Indeed, changes in the surface chemical composition became more pronounced with increasing O-2 pressure. After demonstrating the performance of the chemically modified material as individual dopamine and glucose sensors, multiplexed detection has been achieved by measuring simultaneously the two voltammetric signals. This has been performed by collecting the signals in two different regions, a naked chemically modified PLA for dopamine detection and a chemically modified PLA region functionalized with Glucose Oxidase. These outcomes led to define a new paradigm for manufacturing electrodes for electrochemical sensors based on 3D printing without using conducting materials at any stage of the process.

JTD Keywords: Additive manu f a c turing, Carbon, Conductivity, Degradation, Dopamine, Dopamine detection, Glucose detection, Glucose sensors, Immobilization, Multiplexed detect i o n, Oxidase, Plasma treatment

Freire, R, Mego, M, Oliveira, LF, Mas, S, Azpiroz, F, Marco, S, Pardo, A, (2022). Quantitative GC–TCD Measurements of Major Flatus Components: A Preliminary Analysis of the Diet Effect Sensors 22, 838

The impact of diet and digestive disorders in flatus composition remains largely unexplored. This is partially due to the lack of standardized sampling collection methods, and the easy atmospheric contamination. This paper describes a method to quantitatively determine the major gases in flatus and their application in a nutritional intervention. We describe how to direct sample flatus into Tedlar bags, and simultaneous analysis by gas chromatography–thermal conductivity detection (GC–TCD). Results are analyzed by univariate hypothesis testing and by multilevel principal component analysis. The reported methodology allows simultaneous determination of the five major gases with root mean measurement errors of 0.8% for oxygen (O2), 0.9% for nitrogen (N2), 0.14% for carbon dioxide (CO2), 0.11% for methane (CH4), and 0.26% for hydrogen (H2). The atmospheric contamination was limited to 0.86 (95% CI: [0.7–1.0])% for oxygen and 3.4 (95% CI: [1.4–5.3])% for nitrogen. As an illustration, the method has been successfully applied to measure the response to a nutritional intervention in a reduced crossover study in healthy subjects. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: breath, colonic microbiota, diet effect on flatus, disorders, evacuation, excretion, flatulence, hydrogen gas, major flatus gas components, multilevel principal component analysis, rectal gas collection, systems, volume, Atmospheric contamination, Carbon dioxide, Conductivity detection, Diet effect on flatus, Gas chromatography, Gas collections, Gas component, Gases, Major flatus gas component, Major flatus gas components, Multilevel principal component analyse, Multilevel principal component analysis, Multilevels, Nitrogen, Nutrition, Oxygen, Principal component analysis, Principal-component analysis, Rectal gas collection, Volatile organic-compounds

Boschker, HTS, Cook, PLM, Polerecky, L, Eachambadi, RT, Lozano, H, Hidalgo-Martinez, S, Khalenkow, D, Spampinato, V, Claes, N, Kundu, P, Wang, D, Bals, S, Sand, KK, Cavezza, F, Hauffman, T, Bjerg, JT, Skirtach, AG, Kochan, K, McKee, M, Wood, B, Bedolla, D, Gianoncelli, A, Geerlings, NMJ, Van Gerven, N, Remaut, H, Geelhoed, JS, Millan-Solsona, R, Fumagalli, L, Nielsen, LP, Franquet, A, Manca, JV, Gomila, G, Meysman, FJR, (2021). Efficient long-range conduction in cable bacteria through nickel protein wires Nature Communications 12, 3996

Filamentous cable bacteria display long-range electron transport, generating electrical currents over centimeter distances through a highly ordered network of fibers embedded in their cell envelope. The conductivity of these periplasmic wires is exceptionally high for a biological material, but their chemical structure and underlying electron transport mechanism remain unresolved. Here, we combine high-resolution microscopy, spectroscopy, and chemical imaging on individual cable bacterium filaments to demonstrate that the periplasmic wires consist of a conductive protein core surrounded by an insulating protein shell layer. The core proteins contain a sulfur-ligated nickel cofactor, and conductivity decreases when nickel is oxidized or selectively removed. The involvement of nickel as the active metal in biological conduction is remarkable, and suggests a hitherto unknown form of electron transport that enables efficient conduction in centimeter-long protein structures. Filamentous cable bacteria conduct electrical currents over centimeter distances through fibers embedded in their cell envelope. Here, Boschker et al. show that the fibers consist of a conductive core containing nickel proteins that is surrounded by an insulating protein shell.

JTD Keywords: Bacteria (microorganisms), Bacterial protein, Bacterial proteins, Bacterium, Chemistry, Deltaproteobacteria, Electric conductivity, Electricity, Electron, Electron transport, Metabolism, Microscopy, Nanowires, Nickel, Physiology, Protein, Resonance raman, Spectroscopy, Transport electrons

Ruano, G., Díaz, A., Tononi, J., Torras, J., Puiggalí, J., Alemán, C., (2020). Biohydrogel from unsaturated polyesteramide: Synthesis, properties and utilization as electrolytic medium for electrochemical supercapacitors Polymer Testing 82, 106300

The utilization of hydrogels derived from biopolymers as solid electrolyte (SE) of electrochemical supercapacitors (ESCs) is a topic of increasing interest because of their promising applications in biomedicine (e.g. for energy storage in autonomous implantable devices). In this work an unsaturated polyesteramide that contains phenylalanine, butenediol and fumarate as building blocks has been photo-crosslinked to obtain a hydrogel (UPEA-h). The structure of UPEA-h, which is characterized by a network of open interconnected pores surrounded by regions with compact morphology, favors ion transport, while the biodegradability and biocompatibility conferred by the α-amino acid unit and the ester group are appropriated for its usage in the biomedical field. Voltammetric and galvanostatic assays have been conducted to evaluate the behavior of UPEA-h when used as SE in ESCs with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) electrodes. Hence, PEDOT/UPEA-h devices displayed supercapacitor response of up 179 F/g and capacitance retention higher than 90%. Moreover, the long-term stability, leakage-current, and self-discharging response of PEDOT/UPEA-h ESCs reflect the great potential of UPEA-h as ion-conductive electrolyte. Indeed, the performance of PEDOT/UPEA-h is higher than found in analogous devices constructed using other biohydrogels as SE (e.g. κ-carrageenan, poly-γ-glutamic acid and cellulose hydrogels).

JTD Keywords: Energy storage, Hydrogel electronics, Ion conductivity, Photo-crosslinking, Wearable electronics

Valenti, S., Yousefzade, O., Puiggalí, J., Macovez, R., (2020). Phase-selective conductivity enhancement and cooperativity length in PLLA/TPU nanocomposite blends with carboxylated carbon nanotubes Polymer 191, 122279

Transmission electron microscopy, temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry, and broadband dielectric spectroscopy were employed to characterize ternary nanocomposites consisting of carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNT) dispersed in a blend of two immiscible polymers, poly(L,lactide) (PLLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The nanocomposite blends were obtained by melt-compounding of PLLA and TPU in the presence of 0.2 wt-% CNT, either in the presence or absence of a Joncryl® ADR chain extender for PLLA, leading to reactive and non-reactive melt mixed samples. In both cases, the binary PLLA/TPU blend is characterized by phase separation into submicron TPU droplets dispersed in the PLLA matrix, and displays two separate glass transition temperatures. The carbon nanotubes are present either inside the TPU phase (samples obtained without chain extender), or at their boundaries (reactive-melt mixed samples). The effect of the sub-micron confinement of the TPU component is to decrease the cooperativity length of the primary segmental relaxation of this polymer, which is accentuated by the presence of the CNT fillers. Depending on the type of sample, five or six distinct relaxations are observed by means of dielectric spectroscopy, which we are able to assign to different dielectric phenomena. Our dielectric data show that the CNT fillers do not contribute directly to the long-range charge transport in the nanocomposite blends, consistent with the nanocomposites morphology, but rather result in a shift of the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars space-charge frequency associated with charge accumulation at the PLLA/TPU boundary. Such shift testifies to a selective conductivity enhancement of the TPU phase due to the filler.

JTD Keywords: Conductivity enhancement, Cooperatively rearranging region, Dielectric spectroscopy, Glass transition, Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars relaxation, Nanofiller

Darwish, Nadim., Aragonès, A. C., Darwish, T., Ciampi, S., Díez-Pérez, I., (2014). Multi-responsive photo- and chemo-electrical single-molecule switches Nano Letters 14, (12), 7064-7070

Incorporating molecular switches as the active components in nanoscale electrical devices represents a current challenge in molecular electronics. It demands key requirements that need to be simultaneously addressed including fast responses to external stimuli and stable attachment of the molecules to the electrodes while mimicking the operation of conventional electronic components. Here, we report a single-molecule switching device that responds electrically to optical and chemical stimuli. A light pointer or a chemical signal can rapidly and reversibly induce the isomerization of bifunctional spiropyran derivatives in the bulk reservoir and, consequently, switch the electrical conductivity of the single-molecule device between a low and a high level. The spiropyran derivatives employed are chemically functionalized such that they can respond in fast but practical time scales. The unique multistimuli response and the synthetic versatility to control the switching schemes of this single-molecule device suggest spiropyran derivatives as key candidates for molecular circuitry.

JTD Keywords: Molecular Electronics, Multi-Responsive Molecular Switches, Photo- and Chemo-Switches Spiropyran, Single-Molecule Conductance, STM Break-Junction, Electronic equipment, Isomerization, Molecular electronics, Photochromism, Electrical conductivity, Electronic component, Molecular switches, Single-molecule conductances, Single-molecule devices, Spiropyran derivatives, Spiropyrans, STM Break-Junction, Molecules

Udina, S., Carmona, M., Carles, G., Santander, J., Fonseca, L., Marco, S., (2008). A micromachined thermoelectric sensor for natural gas analysis: Thermal model and experimental results Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 134, (2), 551-558

Natural gas may show significant changes in its chemical composition depending on its origin. Typically, natural gas analysis is carried out using process gas chromatography. However, other methods based on the evaluation of physical properties have recently been reported. Thermal conductivity sensors are currently used in the analysis of binary mixtures of dissimilar gases. In contrast, natural gas is a complex mixture of mainly hydrocarbons, plus other residual gases as carbon dioxide and nitrogen. In this work, the response of a micromachined sensor integrating a heater and a thermopile is studied, regarding its potential use for natural gas analysis. A finite element thermal model of the device is described, and thermal operation simulations as well as a preliminary sensitivity analysis are reported. Experimental data has been collected and compared with simulated data, showing very good agreement. Results show that small variations in the gas mixture composition can be clearly detected. The sensor appears as a good candidate to be included in low-cost natural gas property analysis and quality control systems.

JTD Keywords: Natural gas, Thermopile, MEMS, Thermal conductivity, Modeling, FEM simulation

Udina, S., Pardo, A., Marco, S., Santander, J., Fonseca, L., (2008). Thermoelectric MEMS sensors for natural gas analysis Electronic Proceedings of the Seventh IEEE Sensors Conference 2008 Sensors, 2008 IEEE (ed. Frech, P., Siciliano, P.), IEEE (Lecce, Italy) , 1364-1367

T Multivariate data analysis techniques have been used for the first time in thermoelectric MEMS sensors in order to determine the composition of natural gas mixtures. Experimental measurements with different thermoelectric devices have been performed, the gathered data have been used to calibrate the sensor responses to four main components of natural gas: CH4, C2H6, N2 and CO2. Presence of the three first components was predicted with good accuracy while CO2 prediction was poor. Presented results indicate that thremoelectric sensors operated at different heater temperatures open the possibility of low-cost natural gas analysis.

JTD Keywords: Natural gas, Multivariate calibration, Thermal conductivity, Thermal sensor