by Keyword: Fluorescent

Pedraz, L, Torrents, E, (2023). An easy method for quantification of anaerobic and microaerobic gene expression with fluorescent reporter proteins Biotechniques 75, 250-255

Fluorescent proteins, such as green fluorescent proteins, are invaluable tools for detecting and quantifying gene expression in high-throughput reporter gene assays. However, they introduce significant inaccuracies in studies involving microaerobiosis or anaerobiosis, as oxygen is required for the maturation of these proteins' chromophores. In this study, the authors highlight the errors incurred by using fluorescent proteins under limited oxygenation by comparing standard fluorescence-based reporter gene assays to quantitative real-time PCR data in the study of a complex oxygen-regulated gene network. Furthermore, a solution to perform quantification of anaerobic and microaerobic gene expression with fluorescent reporter proteins using a microplate reader with an oxygen control system and applying pulses of full oxygenation before fluorescence measurements is provided.

JTD Keywords: fluorescent proteins, gene expression, gfp, microaerobiosis, promoters, reporter gene assay, transcriptional fusion, Anaerobiosis, Fluorescent proteins, Gene expression, Gfp, Microaerobiosis, Pseudomonas-aeruginosa, Reporter gene assay, Transcriptional fusion

Liu, TY, De Pace, C, Huang, RD, Bruno, G, Shao, T, Tian, YP, Chen, B, Chen, L, Luo, K, Gong, QY, Ruiz-Pérez, L, Battaglia, G, Tian, XH, (2023). An Iridium (III) complex revealing cytoskeleton nanostructures under super-resolution nanoscopy and liquid-phase electron microscopy Sensors And Actuators B-Chemical 388, 133839

Live cell actin visualization is fundamental for exploring cellular motility, cytokinesis, intracellular transport, and other correlated functions. The current imaging techniques that allow imaging of actin in its native environment are optical and electron microscopy. Such imaging techniques offer high enough resolution to investigate the ultrastructure of actin however they come at the expense of actin integrity. Inspired by the lack of suitable probes that preserve actin's integrity, we designed a cyclometalated Ir (III) complex that interacts with live cells and displays light switch behaviour upon specific actin binding. The exceptional photophysical properties of the proposed probe allow unprecedented resolution of cytoskeleton ultrastructures under stimulated emission depletion (STED) super-resolution nanoscopy. Moreover, the Ir complex enables the capability of visualizing actin polymers and periodicity under correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) and liquid-phase electron microscopy (LPEM) at similar to 8 nm resolution.

JTD Keywords: Actin dynamics, Actin targeting, Adhesion, Cells, Clem, Fluorescent, Iridium (iii) complex, Lead, Light, Lpem, Super-resolution ultrastructures

De Matteis, V, Rizzello, L, Cascione, M, Pellegrino, P, Singh, J, Manno, D, Rinaldi, R, (2022). Sustainable Synthesis of FITC Chitosan-Capped Gold Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications Clean Technologies 4, 942-953

The quest for novel nanoscale materials for different applications necessitates that they are easy to obtain and have excellent physical properties and low toxicity. Moreover, considering the ongoing environmental impact of noxious chemical waste products, it is important to adopt eco-friendly approaches for nanoparticle synthesis. In this work, a natural polymer (medium molecular weight chitosan) derived from chitin was employed as a reducing agent to obtain gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with a chitosan shell (AuNPs@CS) by a microwave oven. The chitosan is economically viable and cost-competitive in the market showing also nontoxic behavior in the environment and living organisms. The synthesized AuNPs@CS-FITC NPs were fully characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic characterization techniques. The size distribution of NPs was about 15 nm, which is a suitable dimension to use in biomedical applications due to their high tissue penetration, great circulation in blood, and optimal clearance as well as low toxicity. The prepared polymer-capped NPs were further functionalized with a fluorescent molecule, i.e., Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC), to perform imaging in the cell. The results highlighted the goodness of the synthesis procedure, as well as the high internalization rate that resulted in an optimal fluorescence intensity. Thus, this work presents a good sustainable/green approach-mediated polymer nanocomposite for various applications in the field of diagnostic imaging.

JTD Keywords: Agent, Biomedical, Fluorescent, Gold nanoparticles, Green synthesis, Nanomaterials, Silver nanoparticles

Morla-Folch, J, Vargas-Nadal, G, Fuentes, E, Illa-Tuset, S, Koeber, M, Sissa, C, Pujals, S, Painelli, A, Veciana, J, Faraudo, J, Belfield, KD, Albertazzi, L, Ventosa, N, (2022). Ultrabright Foster Resonance Energy Transfer Nanovesicles: The Role of Dye Diffusion Chemistry Of Materials 34, 8517-8527

The development of contrast agents based on fluorescent nanoparticles with high brightness and stability is a key factor to improve the resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of current fluorescence imaging techniques. However, the design of bright fluorescent nanoparticles remains challenging due to fluorescence self-quenching at high concentrations. Developing bright nanoparticles showing FRET emission adds several advantages to the system, including an amplified Stokes shift, the possibility of ratiometric measurements, and of verifying the nanoparticle stability. Herein, we have developed Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based nanovesicles at different dye loadings and investigated them through complementary experimental techniques, including conventional fluorescence spectroscopy and super-resolution microscopy supported by molecular dynamics calculations. We show that the optical properties can be modulated by dye loading at the nanoscopic level due to the dye's molecular diffusion in fluid-like membranes. This work shows the first proof of a FRET pair dye's dynamism in liquid-like membranes, resulting in optimized nanoprobes that are 120-fold brighter than QDot 605 and exhibit >80% FRET efficiency with vesicle-to-vesicle variations that are mostly below 10%.

JTD Keywords: Bright, Dendrimers, Fluorescent, In-vivo, Nanoparticles, Nir, Particles

Andrian, T, Bakkum, T, van Elsland, DM, Bos, E, Koster, AJ, Albertazzi, L, van Kasteren, SI, Pujals, S, (2021). Super-resolution correlative light-electron microscopy using a click-chemistry approach for studying intracellular trafficking Methods In Cell Biology 162, 303-331

© 2020 Elsevier Inc. Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) entails a group of multimodal imaging techniques that are combined to pinpoint to the location of fluorescently labeled molecules in the context of their ultrastructural cellular environment. Here we describe a detailed workflow for STORM-CLEM, in which STochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM), an optical super-resolution technique, is correlated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This protocol has the advantage that both imaging modalities have resolution at the nanoscale, bringing higher synergies on the information obtained. The sample is prepared according to the Tokuyasu method followed by click-chemistry labeling and STORM imaging. Then, after heavy metal staining, electron microscopy imaging is performed followed by correlation of the two images. The case study presented here is on intracellular pathogens, but the protocol is versatile and could potentially be applied to many types of samples.

JTD Keywords: cells, click-chemistry, complex, correlative light and electron microscopy, cycloaddition, ligation, localization, proteins, resolution limit, single molecule localization microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (storm), storm, super-resolution microscopy, tokuyasu cryo-sectioning, tool, Click-chemistry, Correlative light and electron microscopy, Fluorescent-probes, Single molecule localization microscopy, Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (storm), Super-resolution microscopy, Tokuyasu cryo-sectioning, Transmission electron microscopy

del Rio, Jose Antonio, Soriano, Eduardo, (2010). Regenerating cortical connections in a dish: the entorhino-hippocampal organotypic slice co-culture as tool for pharmacological screening of molecules promoting axon regeneration Nature Protocols 5, (2), 217-226

We present a method for using long-term organotypic slice co-cultures of the entorhino-hippocampal formation to analyze the axon-regenerative properties of a determined compound. The culture method is based on the membrane interphase method, which is easy to perform and is generally reproducible. The degree of axonal regeneration after treatment in lesioned cultures can be seen directly using green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice or by axon tracing and histological methods. Possible changes in cell morphology after pharmacological treatment can be determined easily by focal in vitro electroporation. The well-preserved cytoarchitectonics in the co-culture facilitate the analysis of identified cells or regenerating axons. The protocol takes up to a month.

JTD Keywords: Cajal-retzius cells, Green-fluorescent-protein, In-vitro model, Rat hippocampus, Nervous-tissue, Brain-slices, Dentate gyrus, Gene-transfer, Cultures, Damage