by Keyword: In-vivo

Humbert, P, Kampleitner, C, De Lima, J, Brennan, MA, Lodoso-Torrecilla, I, Sadowska, JM, Blanchard, F, Canal, C, Ginebra, MP, Hoffmann, O, Layrolle, P, (2024). Phase composition of calcium phosphate materials affects bone formation by modulating osteoclastogenesis Acta Biomaterialia 176, 417-431

Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) seeded on calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramics are extensively explored in bone tissue engineering and have recently shown effective clinical outcomes. In previous pre-clinical studies, hMSCs-CaP-mediated bone formation was preceded by osteoclastogenesis at the implantation site. The current study evaluates to what extent phase composition of CaPs affects the osteoclast response and ultimately influence bone formation. To this end, four different CaP bioceramics were used, hydroxyapatite (HA), beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and two biphasic composites of HA/beta- TCP ratios of 60/40 and 20/80 respectively, for in vitro osteoclast differentiation and correlation with in vivo osteoclastogenesis and bone formation. All ceramics allowed osteoclast formation in vitro from mouse and human precursors, except for pure HA, which significantly impaired their maturation. Ectopic implantation alongside hMSCs in subcutis sites of nude mice revealed new bone formation at 8 weeks in all conditions with relative amounts for beta-TCP > biphasic CaPs > HA. Surprisingly, while hMSCs were essential for osteoinduction, their survival did not correlate with bone formation. By contrast, the degree of early osteoclastogenesis (2 weeks) seemed to define the extent of subsequent bone formation. Together, our findings suggest that the osteoclastic response could be used as a predictive marker in hMSC-CaPbased bone regeneration and strengthens the need to understand the underlying mechanisms for future biomaterial development. Statement of significance The combination of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and calcium phosphate (CaP) materials has demonstrated its safety and efficacy for bone regeneration in clinical trials, despite our insufficient understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms. Osteoclasts were previously suggested as key mediators between the early inflammatory phase following biomaterial implantation and the subsequent bone formation. Here we compared the affinity of osteoclasts for various CaP materials with different ratios of hydroxyapatite to beta-tricalcium phosphate. We found that osteoclast formation, both in vitro and at early stages in vivo, correlates with bone formation when the materials were implanted alongside MSCs in mice. Surprisingly, MSC survival did not correlate with bone formation, suggesting that the number or phenotype of osteoclasts formed was more important. (c) 2024 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( )

JTD Keywords: Acid phosphatase tartrate resistant isoenzyme, Animal, Animal cell, Animal experiment, Animal tissue, Animals, Article, Beta-tricalcium phosphate, Bioceramics, Biocompatible materials, Biomaterial, Bone, Bone development, Bone formation, Bone regeneration, Calcium phosphate, Calcium phosphate materials, Calcium phosphates, Cd14 antigen, Cell differentiation, Cell engineering, Cell maturation, Cell survival, Ceramics, Chemical composition, Controlled study, Correlation analysis, Correlation coefficient, Data correlation, Durapatite, Engraftment, Flowcharting, Human, Human cell, Human mesenchymal stromal cell, Human mesenchymal stromal cells, Humans, Hydroxyapatite, Hydroxyapatites, In vitro study, In vivo study, In-vitro, In-vivo, Mammals, Marrow stromal cells, Material composition, Material compositions, Mesenchymal stroma cell, Mesenchymal stromal cells, Mice, Mice, nude, Monocyte, Mouse, Nonhuman, Nude mouse, Ossification, Osteoclast, Osteoclastogenesis, Osteoclasts, Osteogenesis, Osteoinduction, Phase composition, Regeneration strategies, Resorption, Scaffolds, Stem-cells, Subcutaneous tissue, Tissue engineering, Transmission control protocol, Tri-calcium phosphates, Vimentin

Simo, C, Serra-Casablancas, M, Hortelao, AC, Di Carlo, V, Guallar-Garrido, S, Plaza-Garcia, S, Rabanal, RM, Ramos-Cabrer, P, Yaguee, B, Aguado, L, Bardia, L, Tosi, S, Gomez-Vallejo, V, Martin, A, Patino, T, Julian, E, Colombelli, J, Llop, J, Sanchez, S, (2024). Urease-powered nanobots for radionuclide bladder cancer therapy Nature Nanotechnology 19, 554-564

Bladder cancer treatment via intravesical drug administration achieves reasonable survival rates but suffers from low therapeutic efficacy. To address the latter, self-propelled nanoparticles or nanobots have been proposed, taking advantage of their enhanced diffusion and mixing capabilities in urine when compared with conventional drugs or passive nanoparticles. However, the translational capabilities of nanobots in treating bladder cancer are underexplored. Here, we tested radiolabelled mesoporous silica-based urease-powered nanobots in an orthotopic mouse model of bladder cancer. In vivo and ex vivo results demonstrated enhanced nanobot accumulation at the tumour site, with an eightfold increase revealed by positron emission tomography in vivo. Label-free optical contrast based on polarization-dependent scattered light-sheet microscopy of cleared bladders confirmed tumour penetration by nanobots ex vivo. Treating tumour-bearing mice with intravesically administered radio-iodinated nanobots for radionuclide therapy resulted in a tumour size reduction of about 90%, positioning nanobots as efficient delivery nanosystems for bladder cancer therapy.© 2024. The Author(s).

JTD Keywords: cell, drug-delivery, nanomotors, tissue, Bladder cancers, Cancer therapy, Diseases, Drug administration, Drug delivery, Enhanced diffusion, Enhanced mixing, Ex-vivo, In-vivo, Mammals, Nanobots, Nanoparticles, Nanosystems, Oncology, Positron emission tomography, Radioisotopes, Silica, Survival rate, Therapeutic efficacy, Tumor penetration, Tumors

Rae, CD, Baur, JA, Borges, K, Dienel, G, Díaz-García, CM, Douglass, SR, Drew, K, Duarte, JMN, Duran, J, Kann, O, Kristian, T, Lee-Liu, D, Lindquist, BE, Mcnay, EC, Robinson, MB, Rothman, DL, Rowlands, BD, Ryan, TA, Scafidi, J, Scafidi, S, Shuttleworth, CW, Swanson, RA, Uruk, G, Vardjan, N, Zorec, R, Mckenna, MC, (2024). Brain energy metabolism: A roadmap for future research Journal Of Neurochemistry 168, 910-954

Although we have learned much about how the brain fuels its functions over the last decades, there remains much still to discover in an organ that is so complex. This article lays out major gaps in our knowledge of interrelationships between brain metabolism and brain function, including biochemical, cellular, and subcellular aspects of functional metabolism and its imaging in adult brain, as well as during development, aging, and disease. The focus is on unknowns in metabolism of major brain substrates and associated transporters, the roles of insulin and of lipid droplets, the emerging role of metabolism in microglia, mysteries about the major brain cofactor and signaling molecule NAD+, as well as unsolved problems underlying brain metabolism in pathologies such as traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, and metabolic downregulation during hibernation. It describes our current level of understanding of these facets of brain energy metabolism as well as a roadmap for future research. This article details current knowledge and major unknowns in brain energy metabolism and lays out a roadmap for future research.image

JTD Keywords: Acetate, Acetyl-coa, Aerobic glycolysis, Atp-citrate lyase, Extracellular glutamate concentration, Fatty-acid transport, Glucose-metabolism, Glut4, In-vivo, Insulin, Lipid droplet accumulation, Nicotinamide adenine-dinucleotide, Noradrenaline, Obese zucker rats, Rat cerebral-cortex

Eills, J, Picazo-Frutos, R, Burueva, DB, Kovtunova, LM, Azagra, M, Marco-Rius, I, Budker, D, Koptyug, IV, (2023). Combined homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrogenation to yield catalyst-free solutions of parahydrogen-hyperpolarized [1-13C]succinate Chemical Communications 59, 9509-9512

We show that catalyst-free aqueous solutions of hyperpolarized [1-13C]succinate can be produced using parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) and a combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation reactions. We generate hyperpolarized [1-13C]fumarate via PHIP using para-enriched hydrogen gas with a homogeneous ruthenium catalyst, and subsequently remove the toxic catalyst and reaction side products via a purification procedure. Following this, we perform a second hydrogenation reaction using normal hydrogen gas to convert the fumarate into succinate using a solid Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. This inexpensive polarization protocol has a turnover time of a few minutes, and represents a major advance for in vivo applications of [1-13C]succinate as a hyperpolarized contrast agent.

JTD Keywords: acid, c-13, conversion, fumarate, in-vivo, metabolism, order, Induced polarization

Fontcuberta-PiSunyer, M, García-Alamán, A, Prades, É, Téllez, N, Alves-Figueiredo, H, Ramos-Rodríguez, M, Enrich, C, Fernandez-Ruiz, R, Cervantes, S, Clua, L, Ramón-Azcón, J, Broca, C, Wojtusciszyn, A, Montserrat, N, Pasquali, L, Novials, A, Servitja, JM, Vidal, J, Gomis, R, Gasa, R, (2023). Direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts into insulin-producing cells using transcription factors Commun Biol 6, 256

Direct lineage reprogramming of one somatic cell into another without transitioning through a progenitor stage has emerged as a strategy to generate clinically relevant cell types. One cell type of interest is the pancreatic insulin-producing β cell whose loss and/or dysfunction leads to diabetes. To date it has been possible to create β-like cells from related endodermal cell types by forcing the expression of developmental transcription factors, but not from more distant cell lineages like fibroblasts. In light of the therapeutic benefits of choosing an accessible cell type as the cell of origin, in this study we set out to analyze the feasibility of transforming human skin fibroblasts into β-like cells. We describe how the timed-introduction of five developmental transcription factors (Neurog3, Pdx1, MafA, Pax4, and Nkx2-2) promotes conversion of fibroblasts toward a β-cell fate. Reprogrammed cells exhibit β-cell features including β-cell gene expression and glucose-responsive intracellular calcium mobilization. Moreover, reprogrammed cells display glucose-induced insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo. This work provides proof-of-concept of the capacity to make insulin-producing cells from human fibroblasts via transcription factor-mediated direct reprogramming.© 2023. The Author(s).

JTD Keywords: adult, beta-cells, differentiation, direct conversion, genes, in-vivo, islets, maturation, pancreatic progenitors, Pluripotent stem-cells

Escartín, A, El Hauadi, K, Lanzalaco, S, Perez-Madrigal, MM, Armelin, E, Turon, P, Alemán, C, (2023). Preparation and Characterization of Functionalized Surgical Meshes for Early Detection of Bacterial Infections Acs Biomaterials Science & Engineering 9, 1104-1115

Isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) nonabsorbable surgical meshes are modified by incorporating a conducting polymer (CP) layer to detect the adhesion and growth of bacteria by sensing the oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), a metabolite produced by the respiration reactions of such microorganisms, to NAD+. A three-step process is used for such incorporation: (1) treat pristine meshes with low-pressure O2 plasma; (2) functionalize the surface with CP nanoparticles; and (3) coat with a homogeneous layer of electropolymerized CP using the nanoparticles introduced in (2) as polymerization nuclei. The modified meshes are stable and easy to handle and also show good electrochemical response. The detection by cyclic voltammetry of NADH within the interval of concentrations reported for bacterial cultures is demonstrated for the two modified meshes. Furthermore, Staphylococcus aureus and both biofilm-positive (B+) and biofilm-negative (B-) Escherichia coli cultures are used to prove real-time monitoring of NADH coming from aerobic respiration reactions. The proposed strategy, which offers a simple and innovative process for incorporating a sensor for the electrochemical detection of bacteria metabolism to currently existing surgical meshes, holds considerable promise for the future development of a new generation of smart biomedical devices to fight against post-operative bacterial infections.

JTD Keywords: adhesion, bacteria metabolism, behavior, biocompatibility, conducting polymer, electrochemical sensor, hernia repair, in-vivo, liquid, nadh detection, plasma treatment, prevention, reinforcement, sensor, smart meshes, Bacteria metabolism, Polypropylene mesh, Smart meshes

Kostas Mouloudakis, Sven Bodenstedt, Marc Azagra, Morgan W. Mitchell, Irene Marco-Rius, and Michael C. D. Tayler, (2023). Real-Time Polarimetry of Hyperpolarized 13C Nuclear Spins Using an Atomic Magnetometer Journal Of Physical Chemistry Letters 14, 1192-1197

We introduce a method for nondestructive quantification of nuclear spin polarization, of relevance to hyperpolarized spin tracers widely used in magnetic resonance from spectroscopy to in vivo imaging. In a bias field of around 30 nT we use a high-sensitivity miniaturized 87Rb-vapor magnetometer to measure the field generated by the sample, as it is driven by a windowed dynamical decoupling pulse sequence that both maximizes the nuclear spin lifetime and modulates the polarization for easy detection. We demonstrate the procedure applied to a 0.08 M hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate solution produced by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization, measuring polarization repeatedly during natural decay at Earth's field. Application to real-time and continuous quality monitoring of hyperpolarized substances is discussed.

JTD Keywords: performance, polarization, Atomic magnetometers, Bias field, High sensitivity, Hyperpolarized, In-vivo imaging, Magnetic resonance, Magnetic-resonance, Magnetic-resonance,polarizatio, Magnetic-resonance,polarization,performanc, Magnetometers, Non destructive, Nuclear spins, Nuclear-spin polarization, Performance, Polarization, Rb vapors, Real- time, Spin dynamics, Spin polarization

Morla-Folch, J, Vargas-Nadal, G, Fuentes, E, Illa-Tuset, S, Koeber, M, Sissa, C, Pujals, S, Painelli, A, Veciana, J, Faraudo, J, Belfield, KD, Albertazzi, L, Ventosa, N, (2022). Ultrabright Foster Resonance Energy Transfer Nanovesicles: The Role of Dye Diffusion Chemistry Of Materials 34, 8517-8527

The development of contrast agents based on fluorescent nanoparticles with high brightness and stability is a key factor to improve the resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of current fluorescence imaging techniques. However, the design of bright fluorescent nanoparticles remains challenging due to fluorescence self-quenching at high concentrations. Developing bright nanoparticles showing FRET emission adds several advantages to the system, including an amplified Stokes shift, the possibility of ratiometric measurements, and of verifying the nanoparticle stability. Herein, we have developed Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based nanovesicles at different dye loadings and investigated them through complementary experimental techniques, including conventional fluorescence spectroscopy and super-resolution microscopy supported by molecular dynamics calculations. We show that the optical properties can be modulated by dye loading at the nanoscopic level due to the dye's molecular diffusion in fluid-like membranes. This work shows the first proof of a FRET pair dye's dynamism in liquid-like membranes, resulting in optimized nanoprobes that are 120-fold brighter than QDot 605 and exhibit >80% FRET efficiency with vesicle-to-vesicle variations that are mostly below 10%.

JTD Keywords: Bright, Dendrimers, Fluorescent, In-vivo, Nanoparticles, Nir, Particles

Oliver-Cervelló, L, Martin-Gómez, H, Mandakhbayar, N, Jo, YW, Cavalcanti-Adam, EA, Kim, HW, Ginebra, MP, Lee, JH, Mas-Moruno, C, (2022). Mimicking Bone Extracellular Matrix: From BMP-2-Derived Sequences to Osteogenic-Multifunctional Coatings Advanced Healthcare Materials 11, e2201339

Cell-material interactions are regulated by mimicking bone extracellular matrix on the surface of biomaterials. In this regard, reproducing the extracellular conditions that promote integrin and growth factor (GF) signaling is a major goal to trigger bone regeneration. Thus, the use of synthetic osteogenic domains derived from bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is gaining increasing attention, as this strategy is devoid of the clinical risks associated with this molecule. In this work, the wrist and knuckle epitopes of BMP-2 are screened to identify peptides with potential osteogenic properties. The most active sequences (the DWIVA motif and its cyclic version) are combined with the cell adhesive RGD peptide (linear and cyclic variants), to produce tailor-made biomimetic peptides presenting the bioactive cues in a chemically and geometrically defined manner. Such multifunctional peptides are next used to functionalize titanium surfaces. Biological characterization with mesenchymal stem cells demonstrates the ability of the biointerfaces to synergistically enhance cell adhesion and osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, in vivo studies in rat calvarial defects prove the capacity of the biomimetic coatings to improve new bone formation and reduce fibrous tissue thickness. These results highlight the potential of mimicking integrin-GF signaling with synthetic peptides, without the need for exogenous GFs.© 2022 The Authors. Advanced Healthcare Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: adhesion formation, bmp-2, cell adhesions, in-vivo, integrin, mesenchymal stem-cells, morphogenetic protein-2, multifunctionality, osteoblastic differentiation, osteogenic differentiation, rgd-dwiva, rgd-peptides, titanium biofunctionalization, titanium surfaces, Biomimetic peptides, Cell adhesions, Marrow stromal cells, Multifunctionality, Osteogenic differentiation, Rgd-dwiva, Titanium biofunctionalization

Solomon, M, Loeck, M, Silva-Abreu, M, Moscoso, R, Bautista, R, Vigo, M, Muro, S, (2022). Altered blood-brain barrier transport of nanotherapeutics in lysosomal storage diseases Journal Of Controlled Release 349, 1031-1044

Treatment of neurological lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are limited because of impermeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to macromolecules. Nanoformulations targeting BBB transcytosis are being explored, but the status of these routes in LSDs is unknown. We studied nanocarriers (NCs) targeted to the transferrin receptor (TfR), ganglioside GM1 or ICAM1, associated to the clathrin, caveolar or cell adhesion molecule (CAM) routes, respectively. We used brain endothelial cells and mouse models of acid sphingomyelinase-deficient Niemann Pick disease (NPD), and postmortem LSD patients' brains, all compared to respective controls. NC transcytosis across brain endothelial cells and brain distribution in mice were affected, yet through different mechanisms. Reduced TfR and clathrin expression were found, along with decreased transcytosis in cells and mouse brain distribution. Caveolin-1 expression and GM1 transcytosis were also reduced, yet increased GM1 levels seemed to compensate, providing similar NC brain distribution in NPD vs. control mice. A tendency to lower NHE-1 levels was seen, but highly increased ICAM1 expression in cells and human brains correlated with increased transcytosis and brain distribution in mice. Thus, transcytosis-related alterations in NPD and likely other LSDs may impact therapeutic access to the brain, illustrating the need for these mechanistic studies.Copyright © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: acid sphingomyelinase, antibody-affinity, blood -brain barrier, drug-delivery, icam-1-targeted nanocarriers, in-vivo, mediated endocytosis, model, neurological diseases, niemann-pick, targeted nanocarriers, trafficking, transcytosis pathways, Blood-brain barrier, Central-nervous-system, Lysosomal storage disorders, Neurological diseases, Targeted nanocarriers, Transcytosis pathways

Murar, M, Albertazzi, L, Pujals, S, (2022). Advanced Optical Imaging-Guided Nanotheranostics toward Personalized Cancer Drug Delivery Nanomaterials 12, 399

Nanomedicine involves the use of nanotechnology for clinical applications and holds promise to improve treatments. Recent developments offer new hope for cancer detection, prevention and treatment; however, being a heterogenous disorder, cancer calls for a more targeted treatment approach. Personalized Medicine (PM) aims to revolutionize cancer therapy by matching the most effective treatment to individual patients. Nanotheranostics comprise a combination of therapy and diagnostic imaging incorporated in a nanosystem and are developed to fulfill the promise of PM by helping in the selection of treatments, the objective monitoring of response and the planning of follow-up therapy. Although well-established imaging techniques, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), are primarily used in the development of theranostics, Optical Imaging (OI) offers some advantages, such as high sensitivity, spatial and temporal resolution and less invasiveness. Additionally, it allows for multiplexing, using multi-color imaging and DNA barcoding, which further aids in the development of personalized treatments. Recent advances have also given rise to techniques permitting better penetration, opening new doors for OI-guided nanotheranostics. In this review, we describe in detail these recent advances that may be used to design and develop efficient and specific nanotheranostics for personalized cancer drug delivery. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: 5-aminolevulinic acid, cancer, contrast agents, in-vivo, malignant gliomas, multifunctional nanoparticles, nanomedicine, optical imaging, ovarian-cancer, personalized medicine, quantum dots, silica nanoparticles, targeted probes, theranostics, Cancer, Nanomedicine, Optical imaging, Personalized medicine, Superparamagnetic iron-oxide, Theranostics

Moya-Andérico, L, Vukomanovic, M, Cendra, MD, Segura-Feliu, M, Gil, V, del Río, JA, Torrents, E, (2021). Utility of Galleria mellonella larvae for evaluating nanoparticle toxicology Chemosphere 266, 129235

© 2020 Elsevier Ltd The use of nanoparticles in consumer products is currently on the rise, so it is important to have reliable methods to predict any associated toxicity effects. Traditional in vitro assays fail to mimic true physiological responses of living organisms against nanoparticles whereas murine in vivo models are costly and ethically controversial. For these reasons, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Galleria mellonella as an alternative, non-rodent in vivo model for examining nanoparticle toxicity. Silver, selenium, and functionalized gold nanoparticles were synthesized, and their toxicity was assessed in G. mellonella larvae. The degree of acute toxicity effects caused by each type of NP was efficiently detected by an array of indicators within the larvae: LD50 calculation, hemocyte proliferation, NP distribution, behavioral changes, and histological alterations. G. mellonella larvae are proposed as a nanotoxicological model that can be used as a bridge between in vitro and in vivo murine assays in order to obtain better predictions of NP toxicity.

JTD Keywords: cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, galleria mellonella, gold nanoparticles, hemocytes, nanoparticles, nanotoxicity, non-rodent in vivo model, non-rodent in vivo model, oxidative stress, selenium-compounds, silica nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, toxicity, toxicity screening, vitro, Galleria mellonella, Hemocytes, In-vivo model, Nanoparticles, Nanotoxicity, Non-rodent in vivo model, Toxicity screening

Rivas, L., Dulay, S., Miserere, S., Pla, L., Marin, S. B., Parra, J., Eixarch, E., Gratacós, E., Illa, M., Mir, M., Samitier, J., (2020). Micro-needle implantable electrochemical oxygen sensor: ex-vivo and in-vivo studies Biosensors and Bioelectronics 153, 112028

Oxygen is vital for energy metabolism in mammals and the variability of the concentration is considered a clinical alert for a wide range of metabolic malfunctions in medicine. In this article, we describe the development and application of a micro-needle implantable platinum-based electrochemical sensor for measuring partial pressure of oxygen in intramuscular tissue (in-vivo) and vascular blood (ex-vivo). The Pt-Nafion® sensor was characterized morphological and electrochemically showing a higher sensitivity of −2.496 nA/mmHg (−1.495 nA/μM) when comparing with its bare counterpart. Our sensor was able to discriminate states with different oxygen partial pressures (pO2) for ex-vivo (blood) following the same trend of the commercial gas analyzer used as standard. For in-vivo (intramuscular) experiments, since there is not a gold standard for measuring pO2 in tissue, it was not possible to correlate the obtained currents with the pO2 in tissue. However, our sensor was able to detect clear statistical differences of O2 between hyperoxia and hypoxia states in tissue.

JTD Keywords: Hypoxia, Implantable sensor, In-vivo test, Ischemia, Nafion, Oxygen sensor

Juanola-Feliu, E., Miribel-Català, P. L., Avilés, C. P., Colomer-Farrarons, J., González-Piñero, M., Samitier, J., (2014). Design of a customized multipurpose nano-enabled implantable system for in-vivo theranostics Sensors 14, (10), 19275-19306

The first part of this paper reviews the current development and key issues on implantable multi-sensor devices for in vivo theranostics. Afterwards, the authors propose an innovative biomedical multisensory system for in vivo biomarker monitoring that could be suitable for customized theranostics applications. At this point, findings suggest that cross-cutting Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) could improve the overall performance of the system given that the convergence of technologies in nanotechnology, biotechnology, micro&nanoelectronics and advanced materials permit the development of new medical devices of small dimensions, using biocompatible materials, and embedding reliable and targeted biosensors, high speed data communication, and even energy autonomy. Therefore, this article deals with new research and market challenges of implantable sensor devices, from the point of view of the pervasive system, and time-to-market. The remote clinical monitoring approach introduced in this paper could be based on an array of biosensors to extract information from the patient. A key contribution of the authors is that the general architecture introduced in this paper would require minor modifications for the final customized bio-implantable medical device.

JTD Keywords: Biocompatible, Biosensor, Biotelemetry, Implantable multi-sensor, Innovation, KET, Nanomedicine, Personalized medicine, Biotelemetry, Innovation, Medical nanotechnology, Biocompatible, Implantable system, In-vivo, KET, Multi sensor, Personalized medicines, Theranostics, Biosensors

Juanola-Feliu, E., Colomer-Farrarons, J., Miribel-Català , P., Samitier, J., Valls-Pasola, J., (2012). Market challenges facing academic research in commercializing nano-enabled implantable devices for in-vivo biomedical analysis Technovation , 32, (3-4), 193-204

This article reports on the research and development of a cutting-edge biomedical device for continuous in-vivo glucose monitoring. This entirely public-funded process of technological innovation has been conducted at the University of Barcelona within a context of converging technologies involving the fields of medicine, physics, chemistry, biology, telecommunications, electronics and energy. The authors examine the value chain and the market challenges faced by in-vivo implantable biomedical devices based on nanotechnologies. In so doing, they trace the process from the point of applied research to the final integration and commercialization of the product, when the social rate of return from academic research can be estimated. Using a case-study approach, the paper also examines the high-tech activities involved in the development of this nano-enabled device and describes the technology and innovation management process within the value chain conducted in a University-Hospital-Industry-Administration-Citizens framework. Here, nanotechnology is seen to represent a new industrial revolution, boosting the biomedical devices market. Nanosensors may well provide the tools required for investigating biological processes at the cellular level in vivo when embedded into medical devices of small dimensions, using biocompatible materials, and requiring reliable and targeted biosensors, high speed data transfer, safely stored data, and even energy autonomy.

JTD Keywords: Biomedical device, Diabetes, Innovation management, Nanobiosensor, Nanotechnology, Research commercialization, Technology transfer, Academic research, Applied research, Barcelona, Biocompatible materials, Biological process, Biomedical analysis, Biomedical devices, Cellular levels, Converging technologies, Glucose monitoring, High-speed data transfer, Implantable biomedical devices, Implantable devices, In-vivo, Industrial revolutions, Innovation management, Medical Devices, Nanobiosensor, Rate of return, Research and development, Technological innovation, Value chains, Biological materials, Biomedical engineering, Biosensors, Commerce, Data transfer, Earnings, Engineering education, Glucose, Implants (surgical), Industrial research, Innovation, Medical problems, Nanosensors, Nanotechnology, Technology transfer, Equipment

Llorens, Franc, Hummel, Manuela, Pastor, Xavier, Ferrer, Anna, Pluvinet, Raquel, Vivancos, Ana, Castillo, Ester, Iraola, Susana, Mosquera, Ana M., Gonzalez, Eva, Lozano, Juanjo, Ingham, Matthew, Dohm, Juliane C., Noguera, Marc, Kofler, Robert, Antonio del Rio, Jose, Bayes, Monica, Himmelbauer, Heinz, Sumoy, Lauro, (2011). Multiple platform assessment of the EGF dependent transcriptome by microarray and deep tag sequencing analysis BMC Genomics 12, 326

Background: Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is a key regulatory growth factor activating many processes relevant to normal development and disease, affecting cell proliferation and survival. Here we use a combined approach to study the EGF dependent transcriptome of HeLa cells by using multiple long oligonucleotide based microarray platforms (from Agilent, Operon, and Illumina) in combination with digital gene expression profiling (DGE) with the Illumina Genome Analyzer. Results: By applying a procedure for cross-platform data meta-analysis based on RankProd and GlobalAncova tests, we establish a well validated gene set with transcript levels altered after EGF treatment. We use this robust gene list to build higher order networks of gene interaction by interconnecting associated networks, supporting and extending the important role of the EGF signaling pathway in cancer. In addition, we find an entirely new set of genes previously unrelated to the currently accepted EGF associated cellular functions. Conclusions: We propose that the use of global genomic cross-validation derived from high content technologies (microarrays or deep sequencing) can be used to generate more reliable datasets. This approach should help to improve the confidence of downstream in silico functional inference analyses based on high content data.

JTD Keywords: Gene-expression measurements, Quality-control maqc, Cancer-cell-lines, Real-time pcr, Oligonucleotide microarrays, Phosphorylation dynamics, In-vivo, Networks, Signal, Technologies