by Keyword: biomaterial
Mestre, R, Fuentes, J, Lefaix, L, Wang, JJ, Guix, M, Murillo, G, Bashir, R, Sanchez, S, (2023). Improved Performance of Biohybrid Muscle-Based Bio-Bots Doped with Piezoelectric Boron Nitride Nanotubes Advanced Materials Technologies , 2200505
Biohybrid robots, or bio-bots, integrate living and synthetic materials following a synergistic strategy to acquire some of the unique properties of biological organisms, like adaptability or bio-sensing, which are difficult to obtain exclusively using artificial materials. Skeletal muscle is one of the preferred candidates to power bio-bots, enabling a wide variety of movements from walking to swimming. Conductive nanocomposites, like gold nanoparticles or graphene, can provide benefits to muscle cells by improving the scaffolds' mechanical and conductive properties. Here, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), with piezoelectric properties, are integrated in muscle-based bio-bots and an improvement in their force output and motion speed is demonstrated. A full characterization of the BNNTs is provided, and their piezoelectric behavior with piezometer and dynamometer measurements is confirmed. It is hypothesized that the improved performance is a result of an electric field generated by the nanocomposites due to stresses produced by the cells during differentiation. This hypothesis is backed with finite element simulations supporting that this stress can generate a non-zero electric field within the matrix. With this work, it is shown that the integration of nanocomposite into muscle-based bio-bots can improve their performance, paving the way toward stronger and faster bio-hybrid robots.
JTD Keywords: Bio-bots, Biohybrid robots, Biomaterials, Boron nitride nanotubes, Cells, Cytotoxicity, Differentiation, Myoblasts, Skeletal muscle tissue, Skeletal-muscle, Stimulation
Carter SD, Atif AR, Diez-Escudero A, Grape M, Ginebra MP, Tenje M, Mestres G, (2022). A microfluidic-based approach to investigate the inflammatory response of macrophages to pristine and drug-loaded nanostructured hydroxyapatite Materials Today Bio 16, 100351
The in vitro biological characterization of biomaterials is largely based on static cell cultures. However, for highly reactive biomaterials such as calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), this static environment has limitations. Drastic alterations in the ionic composition of the cell culture medium can negatively affect cell behavior, which can lead to misleading results or data that is difficult to interpret. This challenge could be addressed by a microfluidics-based approach (i.e. on-chip), which offers the opportunity to provide a continuous flow of cell culture medium and a potentially more physiologically relevant microenvironment. The aim of this work was to explore microfluidic technology for its potential to characterize CDHA, particularly in the context of inflammation. Two different CDHA substrates (chemically identical, but varying in microstructure) were integrated on-chip and subsequently evaluated. We demonstrated that the on-chip environment can avoid drastic ionic alterations and increase protein sorption, which was reflected in cell studies with RAW 264.7 macrophages. The cells grown on-chip showed a high cell viability and enhanced proliferation compared to cells maintained under static conditions. Whereas no clear differences in the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were found, variations in cell morphology suggested a more anti-inflammatory environment on-chip. In the second part of this study, the CDHA substrates were loaded with the drug Trolox. We showed that it is possible to characterize drug release on-chip and moreover demonstrated that Trolox affects the TNF-α secretion and morphology of RAW 264.7 cells. Overall, these results highlight the potential of microfluidics to evaluate (bioactive) biomaterials, both in pristine form and when drug-loaded. This is of particular interest for the latter case, as it allows the biological characterization and assessment of drug release to take place under the same dynamic in vitro environment.© 2022 The Authors.
JTD Keywords: alpha-tocopherol, antioxidant, biomaterials, calcium phosphate cement, culture, delivery, drug release, in vitro, in-vitro, ion, macrophage, on-chip, release, tool, Biomaterial, Calcium phosphate cement, Calcium-phosphate cements, Drug release, In vitro, Macrophage, On-chip
Mochi F, Scatena E, Rodriguez D, Ginebra MP, Del Gaudio C, (2022). Scaffold-based bone tissue engineering in microgravity: potential, concerns and implications Npj Microgravity 8, 45
One of humanity's greatest challenges is space exploration, which requires an in-depth analysis of the data continuously collected as a necessary input to fill technological gaps and move forward in several research sectors. Focusing on space crew healthcare, a critical issue to be addressed is tissue regeneration in extreme conditions. In general, it represents one of the hottest and most compelling goals of the scientific community and the development of suitable therapeutic strategies for the space environment is an urgent need for the safe planning of future long-term manned space missions. Osteopenia is a commonly diagnosed disease in astronauts due to the physiological adaptation to altered gravity conditions. In order to find specific solutions to bone damage in a reduced gravity environment, bone tissue engineering is gaining a growing interest. With the aim to critically investigate this topic, the here presented review reports and discusses bone tissue engineering scenarios in microgravity, from scaffolding to bioreactors. The literature analysis allowed to underline several key points, such as the need for (i) biomimetic composite scaffolds to better mimic the natural microarchitecture of bone tissue, (ii) uniform simulated microgravity levels for standardized experimental protocols to expose biological materials to the same testing conditions, and (iii) improved access to real microgravity for scientific research projects, supported by the so-called democratization of space.© 2022. The Author(s).
JTD Keywords: biomaterials, collagen/hydroxyapatite, composite scaffolds, in-vitro, mineralization, proliferation, regenerative medicine, stem-cells, vivo, Hydroxyapatite scaffolds
Clua-Ferre, L, De Chiara, F, Rodriguez-Comas, J, Comelles, J, Martinez, E, Godeau, AL, Garcia-Alaman, A, Gasa, R, Ramon-Azcon, J, (2022). Collagen-Tannic Acid Spheroids for beta-Cell Encapsulation Fabricated Using a 3D Bioprinter Advanced Materials Technologies 7, 2101696
JTD Keywords: beta-cell, biomaterial, collagen, encapsulation, mechanics, microspheres, survival, 3d bioprinter, ?-cell, Advanced material technologies, Biocompatibility, Cell encapsulations, Cells, Collagen, Cross-linking, Cytology, Drug delivery, Encapsulation, Fabrication, Flavonoids, Gelation, In-vitro, Insulin injections, Insulin release, Microspheres, Tannic acid, Tannins, Throughput, Tissue grafts, Type 1 diabetes
Herrero-Gomez, A, Azagra, M, Marco-Rius, I, (2022). A cryopreservation method for bioengineered 3D cell culture models Biomedical Materials 17, 045023
Technologies to cryogenically preserve (a.k.a. cryopreserve) living tissue, cell lines and primary cells have matured greatly for both clinicians and researchers since their first demonstration in the 1950s and are widely used in storage and transport applications. Currently, however, there remains an absence of viable cryopreservation and thawing methods for bioengineered, three-dimensional (3D) cell models, including patients' samples. As a first step towards addressing this gap, we demonstrate a viable protocol for spheroid cryopreservation and survival based on a 3D carboxymethyl cellulose scaffold and precise conditions for freezing and thawing. The protocol is tested using hepatocytes, for which the scaffold provides both the 3D structure for cells to self-arrange into spheroids and to support cells during freezing for optimal post-thaw viability. Cell viability after thawing is improved compared to conventional pellet models where cells settle under gravity to form a pseudo-tissue before freezing. The technique may advance cryobiology and other applications that demand high-integrity transport of pre-assembled 3D models (from cell lines and in future cells from patients) between facilities, for example between medical practice, research and testing facilities.
JTD Keywords: 3d cell culture, Biofabrication, Biomaterials, Carboxymethyl cellulose, Cryopreservation, Hepatocytes, Prevention, Scaffolds, Spheroids
Iglesias-Fernandez, M, Buxadera-Palomero, J, Sadowska, JM, Espanol, M, Ginebra, MP, (2022). Implementation of bactericidal topographies on biomimetic calcium phosphates and the potential effect of its reactivity Biomaterials Advances 136, 212797
Since the discovery that nanostructured surfaces were able to kill bacteria, many works have been published focusing on the design of nanopatterned surfaces with antimicrobial properties. Synthetic bone grafts, based on calcium phosphate (CaP) formulations, can greatly benefit from this discovery if adequate nanotopographies can be developed. However, CaP are reactive materials and experience ionic exchanges when placed into aqueous solutions which may in turn affect cell behaviour and complicate the interpretation of the bactericidal results. The present study explores the bactericidal potential of two nanopillared CaP prepared by hydrolysis of two different sizes of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) powders under biomimetic or hydrothermal conditions. A more lethal bactericidal response toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa (similar to 75% killing efficiency of adhered bacteria) was obtained from the hydrothermally treated CaP which consisted in a more irregular topography in terms of pillar size (radius: 20-60 nm), interpillar distances (100-1500 nm) and pillar distribution (pillar groups forming bouquets) than the biomimetically treated one (radius: 20-40 nm and interpillar distances: 50-200 nm with a homogeneous pillar distribution). The material reactivity was greatly influenced by the type of medium (nutrient-rich versus nutrient-free) and the presence or not of bacteria. A lower reactivity and superior bacterial attachment were observed in the nutrient-free medium while a lower attachment was observed for the nutrient rich medium which was explained by a superior reactivity of the material paired with the lower tendency of planktonic bacteria to adhere on surfaces in the presence of nutrients. Importantly, the ionic exchanges produced by the presence of materials were not toxic to planktonic cells. Thus, we can conclude that topography was the main contributor to mortality in the bacterial adhesion tests.
JTD Keywords: Adhesion, Antibacterial, Bactericidal, Biomaterials, Calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, Calcium phosphates, Hydroxyapatite, In-vitro, Infections, Nanopillars, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas-aeruginosa, Reactivity, Recent progress, Silver, Topography, Transmission
Schieber, Romain, Mas-Moruno, Carlos, Lasserre, Federico, Roa, Joan Josep, Ginebra, Maria-Pau, Mücklich, Frank, Pegueroles, Marta, (2022). Effectiveness of Direct Laser Interference Patterning and Peptide Immobilization on Endothelial Cell Migration for Cardio-Vascular Applications: An In Vitro Study Nanomaterials 12, 1217
Endothelial coverage of an exposed cardiovascular stent surface leads to the occurrence of restenosis and late-stent thrombosis several months after implantation. To overcome this difficulty, modification of stent surfaces with topographical or biochemical features may be performed to increase endothelial cells’ (ECs) adhesion and/or migration. This work combines both strategies on cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy and studies the potential synergistic effect of linear patterned surfaces that are obtained by direct laser interference patterning (DLIP), coupled with the use of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and Tyr-Ile-Gly-Ser-Arg (YIGSR) peptides. An extensive characterization of the modified surfaces was performed by using AFM, XPS, surface charge, electrochemical analysis and fluorescent methods. The biological response was studied in terms of EC adhesion, migration and proliferation assays. CoCr surfaces were successfully patterned with a periodicity of 10 µm and two different depths, D (≈79 and 762 nm). RGD and YIGSR were immobilized on the surfaces by CPTES silanization. Early EC adhesion was increased on the peptide-functionalized surfaces, especially for YIGSR compared to RGD. High-depth patterns generated 80% of ECs’ alignment within the topographical lines and enhanced EC migration. It is noteworthy that the combined use of the two strategies synergistically accelerated the ECs’ migration and proliferation, proving the potential of this strategy to enhance stent endothelialization.
JTD Keywords: adhesion, bare-metal, biofunctionalization, biomaterials, cell adhesive peptides, cobalt-chromium alloy, endothelial cell migration, functionalization, matrix, proliferation, selectivity, shear-stress, surfaces, Direct laser interference patterning (dlip), Drug-eluting stents
Raymond, Yago, Johansson, Linh, Thorel, Emilie, Ginebra, Maria-Pau, (2022). Translation of three-dimensional printing of ceramics in bone tissue engineering and drug delivery Mrs Bulletin 47, 59-69
JTD Keywords: augmentation, calcium-phosphate, expansion, fabrication, hydroxyapatite, made artificial bones, osteogenesis, reconstruction, regeneration, 3-d printing, 3d printers, 3d printing, 3d-printing, Abstracting, Additives, Biomaterial, Bone, Bone regeneration, Bone substitution, Bone tissue engineering, Ceramic, Ceramics, Clinic, Controlled drug delivery, Personalized medicines, Surgical planning, Targeted drug delivery, Three-dimensional-printing, Tricalcium phosphate scaffolds
Raymond Y, Pastorino D, Ginebreda I, Maazouz Y, Ortiz M, Manzanares M-C, Ginebra M-P, (2021). Computed tomography and histological evaluation of xenogenic and biomimetic bone grafts in three-wall alveolar defects in minipigs Clinical Oral Investigations 25, 6695-6706
Objectives This study aimed to compare the performance of a xenograft (XG) and a biomimetic synthetic graft (SG) in three-wall alveolar defects in minipigs by means of 3D computerised tomography and histology. Materials and methods Eight minipigs were used. A total of eight defects were created in the jaw of each animal, three of which were grafted with XGs, three with SGs, and two were left empty as a negative control. The allocation of the different grafts was randomised. Four animals were euthanised at 6 weeks and four at 12 weeks. The grafted volume was then measured by spiral computed tomography to assess volume preservation. Additionally, a histological analysis was performed in undecalcified samples by backscattered scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy after Masson's trichrome staining. Results A linear mixed-effects model was applied considering four fixed factors (bone graft type, regeneration time, anatomic position, and maxilla/mandible) and one random factor (animal). The SG exhibited significantly larger grafted volume (19%) than the XG. The anterior sites preserved better the grafted volume than the posterior ones. Finally, regeneration time had a positive effect on the grafted volume. Histological observations revealed excellent osseointegration and osteoconductive properties for both biomaterials. Some concavities found in the spheroidal morphologies of SGs were associated with osteoclastic resorption. Conclusions Both biomaterials met the requirements for bone grafting, i.e. biocompatibility, osseointegration, and osteoconduction. Granule morphology was identified as an important factor to ensure a good volume preservation.
JTD Keywords: bone graft, bone regeneration, in vivo, miniature swine, synthetic graft, 3-dimensional changes, Anorganic bovine bone, Autogenous bone, Bio-oss, Biomaterials, Bone graft, Bone regeneration, Calcium-phosphate, Hydroxyapatite, In vivo, Miniature swine, Sinus floor augmentation, Substitute, Synthetic graft, Volume, Xenograft
Rodríguez-Contreras A, Torres D, Rafik B, Ortiz-Hernandez M, Ginebra MP, Calero JA, Manero JM, Ruperez E, (2021). Bioactivity and antibacterial properties of calcium- and silver-doped coatings on 3D printed titanium scaffolds Surface & Coatings Technology 421
One of the major problems faced by metallic implants is the high probability of bacterial infections, with significant consequences for the patient. In this work, a thermochemical treatment is proposed to obtain silver-doped calcium titanate coatings on the Ti surface to improve the bioactivity of porous 3D-printed Ti structures and simultaneously provide them with antibacterial properties. A complete characterization of the new coating, the study of the ion release and the analysis of its cytotoxicity were carried out together with evaluation of the natural apatite forming in simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the antibacterial properties of the coatings were assessed against Pseudomona aeruginosa and Escherichia coli as gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis as gram-positive bacterial strains. Ag ions were integrated into the Ca titanate layer and Ag nanoparticles were formed within the entire 3D Ti surface. Ca and Ag ions were released from both porous and solid samples into the Hanks' solution for 48 h. The treated surfaces showed no cytotoxicity and an apatite layer precipitated on the entire porous surface when the samples were immersed in SBF. The release of Ag from the surface had a strong antibacterial effect and prevented bacterial adhesion and proliferation on the surface. Moreover, the nanostructured topography of the coating resulted also in a reduction of bacterial adhesion and proliferation, even in absence of Ag. In conclusion, the cost-effective approach here reported provided protection against the most predominant bacterial colonizers to the Ti porous implants, while maintaining their bioactivity.
JTD Keywords: 3d-printing, alkaline, antibacterial activity, arthroplasty, bacterial adhesion, biomaterials, generation, ions, nanoparticles, osseointegration, silver, surface-layer, titanium implants, toxicity, 3d-printing, Antibacterial activity, Biomaterials, Porous structures, Silver, Ti metal, Titanium implants
Konka, J, Espanol, M, Bosch, BM, de Oliveira, E, Ginebra, MP, (2021). Maturation of biomimetic hydroxyapatite in physiological fluids: a physicochemical and proteomic study Materials Today Bio 12,
Biomimetic calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) as a bioactive material exhibits exceptional intrinsic osteoinductive and osteogenic properties because of its nanostructure and composition, which promote a favorable microenvironment. Its high reactivity has been hypothesized to play a relevant role in the in vivo performance, mediated by the interaction with the biological fluids, which is amplified by its high specific surface area. Paradoxically, this high reactivity is also behind the in vitro cytotoxicity of this material, especially pro-nounced in static conditions. The present work explores the structural and physicochemical changes that CDHA undergoes in contact with physiological fluids and to investigate its interaction with proteins. Calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite discs with different micro/nanostructures, coarse (C) and fine (F), were exposed to cell-free complete culture medium over extended periods of time: 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 50 days. Precipitate formation was not observed in any of the materials in contact with the physiological fluid, which would indicate that the ionic exchanges were linked to incorporation into the crystal structure of CDHA or in the hydrated layer. In fact, CDHA experienced a maturation process, with a progressive increase in crystallinity and the Ca/P ratio, accompanied by an uptake of Mg and a B-type carbonation process, with a gradual propagation into the core of the samples. However, the reactivity of biomimetic hydroxyapatite was highly dependent on the specific surface area and was amplified in nanosized needle-like crystal structures (F), whereas in coarse specimens the ionic exchanges were restricted to the surface, with low penetration in the material bulk. In addition to showing a higher protein adsorption on F substrates, the proteomics study revealed the existence of protein selectivity to-ward F or C microstructures, as well as the capability of CDHA, and more remarkably of F-CDHA, to concentrate specific proteins from the culture medium. Finally, a substantial improvement in the material's ability to support cell proliferation was observed after the CDHA maturation process.
JTD Keywords: calcium phosphates, ion exchange, nanostructure, protein adsorption, Biological-systems, Biomaterials, Biomimetic hydroxyapatites, Biomimetics, Bone-formation, Calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, Calcium phosphate, Calcium phosphates, Cell proliferation, Crystal structure, Crystallinity, Crystals structures, Culture medium, Growth, High reactivity, Hydroxyapatite, In-vitro, Ion exchange, Ionic exchange, Molecular biology, Nanocrystalline apatites, Nanostructure, Nanostructures, Octacalcium phosphate, Physicochemical studies, Physiological fluids, Physiology, Protein adsorption, Proteins, Proteomic studies, Raman spectroscopy, Serum-albumin, Specific surface area
Velasco-Mallorqui, F, Rodriguez-Comas, J, Ramon-Azcon, J, (2021). Cellulose-based scaffolds enhance pseudoislets formation and functionality Biofabrication 13,
In vitro research for the study of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is frequently limited by the availability of a functional model for islets of Langerhans. To overcome the limitations of obtaining pancreatic islets from different sources, such as animal models or human donors, immortalized cell lines as the insulin-producing INS1E beta-cells have appeared as a valid alternative to model insulin-related diseases. However, immortalized cell lines are mainly used in flat surfaces or monolayer distributions, not resembling the spheroid-like architecture of the pancreatic islets. To generate islet-like structures, the use of scaffolds appeared as a valid tool to promote cell aggregations. Traditionally-used hydrogel encapsulation methods do not accomplish all the requisites for pancreatic tissue engineering, as its poor nutrient and oxygen diffusion induces cell death. Here, we use cryogelation technology to develop a more resemblance scaffold with the mechanical and physical properties needed to engineer pancreatic tissue. This study shows that carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) cryogels prompted cells to generate beta-cell clusters in comparison to gelatin-based scaffolds, that did not induce this cell organization. Moreover, the high porosity achieved with CMC cryogels allowed us to create specific range pseudoislets. Pseudoislets formed within CMC-scaffolds showed cell viability for up to 7 d and a better response to glucose over conventional monolayer cultures. Overall, our results demonstrate that CMC-scaffolds can be used to control the organization and function of insulin-producing beta-cells, representing a suitable technique to generate beta-cell clusters to study pancreatic islet function.
JTD Keywords: biomaterial, cryogel, pancreatic islets, scaffold, tissue engineering, ?-cell, Architecture, Beta-cell, Beta-cell heterogeneity, Biomaterial, Carboxymethyl cellulose, Cell culture, Cell death, Cell engineering, Cell organization, Cells, Cellulose, Cryogel, Cryogels, Cytoarchitecture, Delivery, Encapsulation methods, Gelation, Gene-expression, Immortalized cells, Insulin, Insulin secretory responses, Islets of langerhans, Mechanical and physical properties, Monolayer culture, Monolayers, Pancreatic islets, Pancreatic tissue, Pancreatic-islets, Proliferation, Scaffold, Scaffolds, Scaffolds (biology), Size, Tissue, Tissue engineering
Oliver-Cervelló L, Martin-Gómez H, Reyes L, Noureddine F, Ada Cavalcanti-Adam E, Ginebra MP, Mas-Moruno C, (2021). An Engineered Biomimetic Peptide Regulates Cell Behavior by Synergistic Integrin and Growth Factor Signaling Advanced Healthcare Materials 10,
© 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH Recreating the healing microenvironment is essential to regulate cell–material interactions and ensure the integration of biomaterials. To repair bone, such bioactivity can be achieved by mimicking its extracellular matrix (ECM) and by stimulating integrin and growth factor (GF) signaling. However, current approaches relying on the use of GFs, such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), entail clinical risks. Here, a biomimetic peptide integrating the RGD cell adhesive sequence and the osteogenic DWIVA motif derived from the wrist epitope of BMP-2 is presented. The approach offers the advantage of having a spatial control over the single binding of integrins and BMP receptors. Such multifunctional platform is designed to incorporate 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine to bind metallic oxides with high affinity in a one step process. Functionalization of glass substrates with the engineered peptide is characterized by physicochemical methods, proving a successful surface modification. The biomimetic interfaces significantly improve the adhesion of C2C12 cells, inhibit myotube formation, and activate the BMP-dependent signaling via p38. These effects are not observed on surfaces displaying only one bioactive motif, a mixture of both motifs or soluble DWIVA. These data prove the biological potential of recreating the ECM and engaging in integrin and GF crosstalk via molecular-based mimics.
JTD Keywords: binding, biomaterials, biomimetic peptides, bone, cell adhesion, cell differentiation, differentiation, dwiva, multifunctional coatings, osseointegration, osteoblasts, rgd, surface, surface functionalization, Biomimetic peptides, Cell adhesion, Cell differentiation, Dwiva, Matrix-bound bmp-2, Rgd, Surface functionalization
Sans J, Sanz V, Puiggalí J, Turon P, Alemán C, (2021). Controlled Anisotropic Growth of Hydroxyapatite by Additive-Free Hydrothermal Synthesis Crystal Growth & Design 21, 748-756
© 2020 American Chemical Society. The synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) with different shapes and sizes has attracted increasing attention because the applicability of this ceramic material depends on structure-properties relationships (i.e., the dimensions and morphology of HAp crystals determine properties such as the bioactivity and mechanical strength). Although different synthetic routes based on the addition of surfactants, organic modifiers, or dispersants have been proposed to control the growth of HAp crystals, many efforts are being devoted to simplify the whole process using simple parameters such as pH. However, the control of the morphology is still poor and shows low reproducibility. In this work, a new additive-free synthetic route, which is based on the hydrothermal method and the utilization of nonaqueous solvents, is proposed. The influence of the synthesis parameters such as pH, concentration of starting solutions, and the solvent on relevant features such as phase purity, crystallinity, crystallite size, and morphology has been examined using spectroscopic techniques, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. As a consequence, this work presents an easy and robust method based only on the use of organic solvent and the control of the pH that produces pure and crystalline HAp with a controlled shape and size. This method has been used to elucidate some of the key aspects of the crystal growth mechanism and to synthesize HAp crystals with different and well-defined shapes (e.g., belts, rods, flakes needle-like, or polymorph) and sizes, in a reproducible way.
JTD Keywords: biomaterial, bone, crystals, ethanol, size, solubility, Morphology
Fernández-Costa JM, Fernández-Garibay X, Velasco-Mallorquí F, Ramón-Azcón J, (2021). Bioengineered in vitro skeletal muscles as new tools for muscular dystrophies preclinical studies Journal Of Tissue Engineering 12,
© The Author(s) 2021. Muscular dystrophies are a group of highly disabling disorders that share degenerative muscle weakness and wasting as common symptoms. To date, there is not an effective cure for these diseases. In the last years, bioengineered tissues have emerged as powerful tools for preclinical studies. In this review, we summarize the recent technological advances in skeletal muscle tissue engineering. We identify several ground-breaking techniques to fabricate in vitro bioartificial muscles. Accumulating evidence shows that scaffold-based tissue engineering provides topographical cues that enhance the viability and maturation of skeletal muscle. Functional bioartificial muscles have been developed using human myoblasts. These tissues accurately responded to electrical and biological stimulation. Moreover, advanced drug screening tools can be fabricated integrating these tissues in electrical stimulation platforms. However, more work introducing patient-derived cells and integrating these tissues in microdevices is needed to promote the clinical translation of bioengineered skeletal muscle as preclinical tools for muscular dystrophies.
JTD Keywords: biomaterials, drug screening platforms, muscular dystrophy, skeletal muscle, tissue engineering, Biomaterials, Drug screening platforms, Muscular dystrophy, Skeletal muscle, Tissue engineering
Rodríguez-Contreras, A., Torres, D., Guillem-Marti, J., Sereno, P., Ginebra, M. P., Calero, J. A., Manero, J. M., Rupérez, E., (2020). Development of novel dual-action coatings with osteoinductive and antibacterial properties for 3D-printed titanium implants Surface and Coatings Technology 403, 126381
Gallium (Ga) has been recently proposed as a novel therapeutic agent, since it promotes bone formation and exhibits antibacterial properties. This work focuses on the optimization of a thermochemical treatment that incorporates Ga ions by the addition of the body-friendly Ga nitrate approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The objective was to simultaneously provide the inner and the outer surfaces of porousâ€‘titanium surfaces obtained by 3D-printing with bioactivity and antibacterial properties. The apatite-forming ability of the coating, as well as the antibacterial activity and SaOS-2 cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and mineralization were evaluated and compared with untreated Ti surfaces. The characterization of the surfaces revealed the presence of a Ga-containing calcium titanate layer, which was non cytotoxic and in simulated body fluid produced a homogeneous apatite coating well adhered to the substrate. The formation of this apatite layer was accelerated with increasing Ga amounts present on the surface, resulting also in an increase in thickness. An initial quick release of Ga ion promoted the antibacterial effect against gram positive strains, especially for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the most frequent resistant pathogens in nosocomial infections. SaOS-2 cells adhered and proliferated on the Ga-doped Ti surfaces, its presence contributed to cell differentiation and to considerably increase the mineralization levels. Thus, the developed multifunctional coatings could provide bioactivity to the porous Ti implants while protecting them from the most frequent gram-negative pathogens.
JTD Keywords: 3D-printing, Antibacterial activity, Biomaterials, Gallium, Porous structures, Titanium implants
Hakimi, O., Gelpi, J. L., Krallinger, M., Curi, F., Repchevsky, D., Ginebra, M. P., (2020). The devices, experimental scaffolds, and biomaterials ontology (DEB): A tool for mapping, annotation, and analysis of biomaterials data Advanced Functional Materials 30, (16), 1909910
The size and complexity of the biomaterials literature makes systematic data analysis an excruciating manual task. A practical solution is creating databases and information resources. Implant design and biomaterials research can greatly benefit from an open database for systematic data retrieval. Ontologies are pivotal to knowledge base creation, serving to represent and organize domain knowledge. To name but two examples, GO, the gene ontology, and CheBI, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest ontology and their associated databases are central resources to their respective research communities. The creation of the devices, experimental scaffolds, and biomaterials ontology (DEB), an open resource for organizing information about biomaterials, their design, manufacture, and biological testing, is described. It is developed using text analysis for identifying ontology terms from a biomaterials gold standard corpus, systematically curated to represent the domain's lexicon. Topics covered are validated by members of the biomaterials research community. The ontology may be used for searching terms, performing annotations for machine learning applications, standardized meta-data indexing, and other cross-disciplinary data exploitation. The input of the biomaterials community to this effort to create data-driven open-access research tools is encouraged and welcomed.
JTD Keywords: Biomaterials, Databases, Ontology
Rubi-Sans, G., Castaño, O., Cano, I., Mateos-Timoneda, M. A., Perez-Amodio, S., Engel, E., (2020). Engineering cell-derived matrices: From 3D models to advanced personalized therapies Advanced Functional Materials 30, (44), e2000496
Regenerative medicine and disease models have evolved in recent years from two to three dimensions, providing in vitro constructs that are more similar to in vivo tissues. By mimicking native tissues, cell-derived matrices (CDMs) have emerged as new modifiable extracellular matrices for a variety of tissues, allowing researchers to study basic cellular processes in tissue-like structures, test tissue regeneration approaches, and model disease development. In this review, different fabrication techniques and characterization methods of CDMs are presented and examples of their application in cell behavior studies, tissue regeneration, and disease models are provided. In addition, future guidelines and perspectives in the field of CDMs are discussed.
JTD Keywords: 3D models, Biomaterials, Cell-derived matrices, Extracellular matrix, Personalized therapies
Park, D., Wershof, E., Boeing, S., Labernadie, A., Jenkins, R. P., George, S., Trepat, X., Bates, P. A., Sahai, E., (2020). Extracellular matrix anisotropy is determined by TFAP2C-dependent regulation of cell collisions Nature Materials 19, 227-238
The isotropic or anisotropic organization of biological extracellular matrices has important consequences for tissue function. We study emergent anisotropy using fibroblasts that generate varying degrees of matrix alignment from uniform starting conditions. This reveals that the early migratory paths of fibroblasts are correlated with subsequent matrix organization. Combined experimentation and adaptation of Vicsek modelling demonstrates that the reorientation of cells relative to each other following collision plays a role in generating matrix anisotropy. We term this behaviour ‘cell collision guidance’. The transcription factor TFAP2C regulates cell collision guidance in part by controlling the expression of RND3. RND3 localizes to cell–cell collision zones where it downregulates actomyosin activity. Cell collision guidance fails without this mechanism in place, leading to isotropic matrix generation. The cross-referencing of alignment and TFAP2C gene expression signatures against existing datasets enables the identification and validation of several classes of pharmacological agents that disrupt matrix anisotropy.
JTD Keywords: Biomaterials – cells, Cell migration, Self-assembly, Tissues
Monferrer, Ezequiel, Martínn-Vañó, Susana, Carretero, Aitor, Garcíaa-Lizarribar, Andrea, Burgos-Panadero, Rebeca, Navarro, Samuel, Samitier, Josep, Noguera, Rosa, (2020). A three-dimensional bioprinted model to evaluate the effect of stiffness on neuroblastoma cell cluster dynamics and behavior Scientific Reports 10, (1), 6370
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted culture systems allow to accurately control microenvironment components and analyze their effects at cellular and tissue levels. The main objective of this study was to identify, quantify and localize the effects of physical-chemical communication signals between tumor cells and the surrounding biomaterial stiffness over time, defining how aggressiveness increases in SK-N-BE(2) neuroblastoma (NB) cell line. Biomimetic hydrogels with SK-N-BE(2) cells, methacrylated gelatin and increasing concentrations of methacrylated alginate (AlgMA 0%, 1% and 2%) were used. Young’s modulus was used to define the stiffness of bioprinted hydrogels and NB tumors. Stained sections of paraffin-embedded hydrogels were digitally quantified. Human NB and 1% AlgMA hydrogels presented similar Young´s modulus mean, and orthotopic NB mice tumors were equally similar to 0% and 1% AlgMA hydrogels. Porosity increased over time; cell cluster density decreased over time and with stiffness, and cell cluster occupancy generally increased with time and decreased with stiffness. In addition, cell proliferation, mRNA metabolism and antiapoptotic activity advanced over time and with stiffness. Together, this rheological, optical and digital data show the potential of the 3D in vitro cell model described herein to infer how intercellular space stiffness patterns drive the clinical behavior associated with NB patients.
JTD Keywords: Biomaterials - cells, Paediatric cancer
Marti-Muñoz, Joan, Xuriguera, Elena, Layton, John W., Planell, Josep A., Rankin, Stephen E., Engel, Elisabeth, Castaño, Oscar, (2019). Feasible and pure P2O5-CaO nanoglasses: An in-depth NMR study of synthesis for the modulation of the bioactive ion release Acta Biomaterialia 94, 574-584
The use of bioactive glasses (e.g. silicates, phosphates, borates) has demonstrated to be an effective therapy for the restoration of bone fractures, wound healing and vascularization. Their partial dissolution towards the surrounding tissue has shown to trigger positive bioactive responses, without the necessity of using growth factors or cell therapy, which reduces money-costs, side effects and increases their translation to the clinics. However, bioactive glasses often need from stabilizers (e.g. SiO44−, Ti4+, Co2+, etc.) that are not highly abundant in the body and which metabolization is not fully understood. In this study, we were focused on synthesizing pure calcium phosphate glasses without the presence of such stabilizers. We combined a mixture of ethylphosphate and calcium 2-methoxyethoxide to synthesize nanoparticles with different compositions and degradability. Synthesis was followed by an in-depth nuclear magnetic resonance characterization, complemented with other techniques that helped us to correlate the chemical structure of the glasses with their physiochemical properties and reaction mechanism. After synthesis, the organically modified xerogel (i.e. calcium monoethylphosphate) was treated at 200 or 350 °C and its solubility was maintained and controlled due to the elimination of organics, increase of phosphate-calcium interactions and phosphate polycondensation. To the best of our knowledge, we are reporting the first sol-gel synthesis of binary (P2O5-CaO) calcium phosphate glass nanoparticles in terms of continuous polycondensated phosphate chains structure without the addition of extra ions. The main goal is to straightforward the synthesis, to get a safer metabolization and to modulate the bioactive ion release. Additionally, we shed light on the chemical structure, reaction mechanism and properties of calcium phosphate glasses with high calcium contents, which nowadays are poorly understood.
Statement of Significance
The use of bioactive inorganic materials (i.e. bioactive ceramics, glass-ceramics and glasses) for biomedical applications is attractive due to their good integration with the host tissue without the necessity of adding exogenous cells or growth factors. In particular, degradable calcium phosphate glasses are completely resorbable, avoiding the retention in the body of the highly stable silica network of silicate glasses, and inducing a more controllable degradability than bioactive ceramics. However, most calcium phosphate glasses include the presence of stabilizers (e.g. Ti4+, Na+, Co2+), which metabolization is not fully understood and complicates their synthesis. The development of binary calcium phosphate glasses with controlled degradability reduces these limitations, offering a simple and completely metabolizable material with higher transfer to the clinics.
JTD Keywords: Calcium phosphate glasses, Sol-gel process, NMR spectroscopy, Ion release, Biomaterials
Diez-Escudero, A., Torreggiani, E., Di Pompo, G., Espanol, M., Persson, C., Ciapetti, G., Baldini, N., Ginebra, M. P., (2019). Effect of calcium phosphate heparinization on the in vitro inflammatory response and osteoclastogenesis of human blood precursor cells Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 13, (7), 1217-1229
The immobilization of natural molecules on synthetic bone grafts stands as a strategy to enhance their biological interactions. During the early stages of healing, immune cells and osteoclasts (OC) modulate the inflammatory response and resorb the biomaterial, respectively. In this study, heparin, a naturally occurring molecule in the bone extracellular matrix, was covalently immobilized on biomimetic calcium‐deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). The effect of heparin‐functionalized CDHA on inflammation and osteoclastogenesis was investigated using primary human cells and compared with pristine CDHA and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). Biomimetic substrates led to lower oxidative stresses by neutrophils and monocytes than sintered β-TCP, even though no further reduction was induced by the presence of heparin. In contrast, heparinized CDHA fostered osteoclastogenesis. Optical images of stained TRAP positive cells showed an earlier and higher presence of multinucleated cells, compatible with OC at 14 days, while pristine CDHA and β-TCP present OC at 21–28 days. Although no statistically significant differences were found in the OC activity, microscopy images evidenced early stages of degradation on heparinized CDHA, compatible with osteoclastic resorption. Overall, the results suggest that the functionalization with heparin fostered the formation and activity of OC, thus offering a promising strategy to integrate biomaterials in the bone remodelling cycle by increasing their OC-mediated resorption.
JTD Keywords: Biomaterial, Heparin, Hydroxyapatite, Inflammation, Osteoclastogenesis
Castaño, O., Pérez-Amodio, S., Navarro, C., Mateos-Timoneda, M.A., Engel, E., (2018). Instructive microenvironments in skin wound healing: Biomaterials as signal releasing platforms Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 129, 95-117
Skin wound healing aims to repair and restore tissue through a multistage process that involves different cells and signalling molecules that regulate the cellular response and the dynamic remodelling of the extracellular matrix. Nowadays, several therapies that combine biomolecule signals (growth factors and cytokines) and cells are being proposed. However, a lack of reliable evidence of their efficacy, together with associated issues such as high costs, a lack of standardization, no scalable processes, and storage and regulatory issues, are hampering their application. In situ tissue regeneration appears to be a feasible strategy that uses the body's own capacity for regeneration by mobilizing host endogenous stem cells or tissue-specific progenitor cells to the wound site to promote repair and regeneration. The aim is to engineer instructive systems to regulate the spatio-temporal delivery of proper signalling based on the biological mechanisms of the different events that occur in the host microenvironment. This review describes the current state of the different signal cues used in wound healing and skin regeneration, and their combination with biomaterial supports to create instructive microenvironments for wound healing.
JTD Keywords: Instructive biomaterials, Skin regeneration, Wound healing, Signalling release, In situ tissue engineering
Fraioli, R., Tsimbouri, P. M., Fisher, L. E., Nobbs, A. H., Su, B., Neubauer, S., Rechenmacher, F., Kessler, H., Ginebra, M. P., Dalby, M. J., Manero, J. M., Mas-Moruno, C., (2017). Towards the cell-instructive bactericidal substrate: Exploring the combination of nanotopographical features and integrin selective synthetic ligands Scientific Reports 7, (1), 16363
Engineering the interface between biomaterials and tissues is important to increase implant lifetime and avoid failures and revision surgeries. Permanent devices should enhance attachment and differentiation of stem cells, responsible for injured tissue repair, and simultaneously discourage bacterial colonization; this represents a major challenge. To take first steps towards such a multifunctional surface we propose merging topographical and biochemical cues on the surface of a clinically relevant material such as titanium. In detail, our strategy combines antibacterial nanotopographical features with integrin selective synthetic ligands that can rescue the adhesive capacity of the surfaces and instruct mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) response. To this end, a smooth substrate and two different high aspect ratio topographies have been produced and coated either with an αvβ3-selective peptidomimetic, an α5β1-selective peptidomimetic, or an RGD/PHSRN peptidic molecule. Results showed that antibacterial effects of the substrates could be maintained when tested on pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further, functionalization increased MSC adhesion to the surfaces and the αvβ3-selective peptidomimetic-coated nanotopographies promoted osteogenesis. Such a dual physicochemical approach to achieve multifunctional surfaces represents a first step in the design of novel cell-instructive biomaterial surfaces.
JTD Keywords: Bioinspired materials, Biomaterials – cells
Arcos, D., Boccaccini, A. R., Bohner, M., Díez-Pérez, A., Epple, M., Gómez-Barrena, E., Herrera, A., Planell, J. A., Rodríguez-Mañas, L., Vallet-Regí, M., (2014). The relevance of biomaterials to the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis Acta Biomaterialia 10, (5), 1793-1805
Osteoporosis is a worldwide disease with a very high prevalence in humans older than 50. The main clinical consequences are bone fractures, which often lead to patient disability or even death. A number of commercial biomaterials are currently used to treat osteoporotic bone fractures, but most of these have not been specifically designed for that purpose. Many drug- or cell-loaded biomaterials have been proposed in research laboratories, but very few have received approval for commercial use. In order to analyze this scenario and propose alternatives to overcome it, the Spanish and European Network of Excellence for the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporotic Fractures, "Ageing", was created. This network integrates three communities, e.g. clinicians, materials scientists and industrial advisors, tackling the same problem from three different points of view. Keeping in mind the premise "living longer, living better", this commentary is the result of the thoughts, proposals and conclusions obtained after one year working in the framework of this network.
JTD Keywords: Ageing, Biomaterials, Bone, Osteoporosis
Ginebra, M. P., Canal, C., Espanol, M., Pastorino, D., Montufar, E. B., (2012). Calcium phosphate cements as drug delivery materials Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 64, (12), 1090-1110
Calcium phosphate cements are used as synthetic bone grafts, with several advantages, such as their osteoconductivity and injectability. Moreover, their low-temperature setting reaction and intrinsic porosity allow for the incorporation of drugs and active principles in the material. It is the aim of the present work to: a) provide an overview of the different approaches taken in the application of calcium phosphate cements for drug delivery in the skeletal system, and b) identify the most significant achievements. The drugs or active principles associated to calcium phosphate cements are classified in three groups, i) low molecular weight drugs; ii) high molecular weight biomolecules; and iii) ions.
JTD Keywords: Antibiotic, Bioceramic, Biomaterial, Bone regeneration, Calcium phosphate cement, Ceramic matrix, Growth factor, Hydroxyapatite, Ions, Protein
Aguirre, A., Gonzalez, A., Navarro, M., Castano, O., Planell, J. A., Engel, E., (2012). Control of microenvironmental cues with a smart biomaterial composite promotes endothelial progenitor cell angiogenesis European Cells & Materials , 24, 90-106
Smart biomaterials play a key role when aiming at successful tissue repair by means of regenerative medicine approaches, and are expected to contain chemical as well as mechanical cues that will guide the regenerative process. Recent advances in the understanding of stem cell biology and mechanosensing have shed new light onto the importance of the local microenvironment in determining cell fate. Herein we report the biological properties of a bioactive, biodegradable calcium phosphate glass/polylactic acid composite biomaterial that promotes bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) mobilisation, differentiation and angiogenesis through the creation of a controlled bone healing-like microenvironment. The angiogenic response is triggered by biochemical and mechanical cues provided by the composite, which activate two synergistic cell signalling pathways: a biochemical one mediated by the calcium-sensing receptor and a mechanosensitive one regulated by non-muscle myosin II contraction. Together, these signals promote a synergistic response by activating EPCs-mediated VEGF and VEGFR-2 synthesis, which in turn promote progenitor cell homing, differentiation and tubulogenesis. These findings highlight the importance of controlling microenvironmental cues for stem/progenitor cell tissue engineering and offer exciting new therapeutical opportunities for biomaterialbased vascularisation approaches and clinical applications.
JTD Keywords: Calcium phosphate glass composite, Smart biomaterial, Endothelial progenitor cell, Angiogenesis, Mechanosensing, Calcium-sensing receptor
Bohner, M., Loosli, Y., Baroud, G., Lacroix, D., (2011). Commentary: Deciphering the link between architecture and biological response of a bone graft substitute Acta Biomaterialia 7, (2), 478-484
Hundreds of studies have been devoted to the search for the ideal architecture for bone scaffold. Despite these efforts, results are often contradictory, and rules derived from these studies are accordingly vague. In fact, there is enough evidence to postulate that ideal scaffold architecture does not exist. The aim of this document is to explain this statement and review new approaches to decipher the existing but complex link between scaffold architecture and in vivo response.
JTD Keywords: Biomaterial, Bone, Tissue engineering, Resorbable, Graft
Miranda Coelho, Nuno, Gonzalez-Garcia, Cristina, Salmeron-Sanchez, Manuel, Altankov, George, (2011). Arrangement of type IV collagen and laminin on substrates with controlled density of -OH groups Tissue Engineering Part A , 17, (17-18), 2245-2257
Collagen IV (Col IV) and laminin (Lam) are the main structural components of the basement membrane where they form two overlapping polymeric networks. We studied the adsorption pattern of these proteins on five model surfaces with tailored density of -OH groups obtained by copolymerization of different ratios ethyl acrylate (EA) and hydroxyl EA (HEA): X(OH) = 0, X(OH) = 0.3, X(OH) = 0.5, X(OH) = 0.7, and X(OH) = 1 (where X refers the ratio of HEA). Atomic force microscopy revealed substratum-specific adsorption patterns of Col IV and Lam, ranging from single molecules deposition on more hydrophilic substrata to the formation of complex networks on hydrophobic ones. Human umbilical endothelial cells were used to study the biological performance of adsorbed proteins, following the overall cell morphology, the quantities for cell adhesion and spreading, and the development of focal adhesion complexes and actin cytoskeleton. Surprisingly, two optima in the cellular interaction were observed-one on the most hydrophilic X(OH) = 1 and other on the relatively hydrophobic X(OH) = 0.3 substrate-valid for both Col IV and Lam. When the proteins were adsorbed consecutively, a hydrophobic shift to X(OH) = 0 substratum was obtained. Collectively, these data suggest that varying with the density of -OH groups one can tailor the conformation and the functional activity of adsorbed basement membrane proteins.
JTD Keywords: Atomic-force microscopy, Fibronectin adsorption, Basement-membranes, Polymer surfaces, Cell-adhesion, Biomaterials, Wettability, Fibrinogen
Hristova, K., Pecheva, E., Pramatarova, L., Altankov, G., (2011). Improved interaction of osteoblast-like cells with apatite-nanodiamond coatings depends on fibronectin Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine , 22, (8), 1891-1900
New apatite (AP)/nanodiamond (ND) coating has been developed to improve physical and biological properties of stainless steel (SS) versus single AP coating. Homogeneously electrodeposited AP-ND layer demonstrates increased mechanical strength, interlayer cohesion and ductility. In the absence of serum, osteoblast-like MG63 cells attach well but poorly spread on both AP and AP-ND substrata. Pre-adsorption with serum or fibronectin (FN) improves the cellular interaction-an effect that is better pronounced on the AP-ND coating. In single protein adsorption study fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled FN (FITC-FN) shows enhanced deposition on the AP-ND layer consistent with the significantly improved cell adhesion, spreading and focal adhesions formation (in comparison to SS and AP), particularly at low FN adsorption concentrations (1 mu g/ml). Higher FN concentrations (20 mu g/ml) abolish this difference suggesting that the promoted cellular interaction of serum (where FN is low) is caused by the greater affinity for FN. Moreover, it is found that MG63 cells tend to rearrange both adsorbed and secreted FN on the AP-ND layer suggesting facilitated FN matrix formation.
JTD Keywords: Extracellular-matrix, Protein adsorption, Integrins, Adhesion, Biomaterials, Surfaces, Polymerization, Composite, Implants, Titanium
Lagunas, A., Comelles, J., Martinez, E., Samitier, J., (2010). Universal chemical gradient platforms using poly(methyl methacrylate) based on the biotin streptavidin interaction for biological applications Langmuir 26, (17), 14154-14161
This article describes a simple method for the construction of a universal surface chemical gradient platform based on the biotin streptavidin model. In this approach, surface chemical gradients were prepared in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PM MA), a biocompatible polymer, by a controlled hydrolysis procedure. The physicochemical properties of the resulting modified surfaces were extensively characterized. Chemical analysis carried out via time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToRSIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed the formation of a smooth, highly controllable carboxylic acid gradient of increasing concentration along the sample surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA) results indicate that, in contrast with most of the chemical gradient methods published in the literature, the chemical modification of the polymer surface barely affects its physical properties. The introduction of carboxylic acid functionality along the surface was then used for biomolecule anchoring. For this purpose, the surface was activated and derivatized first with biotin and finally with streptavidin (SA V) in a directed orientation fashion. The SAV gradient was qualitatively assessed by fluorescence microscopy analysis and quantified by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in order to establish a quantitative relationship between SAV surface densities and the surface location. The usefulness of the fabrication method described for biological applications was tested by immobilizing biotinylated bradykinin onto the SAV gradient. This proof-of-concept application shows the effectiveness of the concentration range of the gradient because the effects of bradykinin on cell morphology were observed to increase gradually with increasing drug concentrations. The intrinsic characteristics of the fabricated gradient platform (absence of physicochemical modifications other than those due to the biomolecules included) allow us to attribute cell behavior unequivocally to the biomolecule surface density changes.
JTD Keywords: Wettability gradient, Polyethylene surface, Combinatorial, Immobilization, Biomaterials, Fabrication, Deposition, Bradykinin, Monolayers, Discharge
Toromanov, Georgi, González-García, Cristina, Altankov, George, Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel, (2010). Vitronectin activity on polymer substrates with controlled -OH density Polymer 51, (11), 2329-2336
Vitronectin (VN) adsorption on a family of model substrates consisting of copolymers of ethyl acrylate and hydroxyl ethylacrylate in different ratios (to obtain a controlled surface density of -OH groups) was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). It is shown that the fraction of the substrate covered by the protein depends strongly on the amount of hydroxyl groups in the sample and it monotonically decreases as the -OH density increases. Isolated globular-like VN molecules are observed on the surfaces with the higher OH density. As the fraction of hydroxyl groups decreases, aggregates of 3-5 VN molecules are observed on the sample. Overall cell morphology, focal adhesion formation and actin cytoskeleton development are investigated to assess the biological activity of the adsorbed VN on the different surfaces. Dermal fibroblast cells show excellent material interaction on the more hydrophobic samples (OH contents lower than 0.5), which reveals enhanced VN activity on this family of substrates as compared with other extracellular matrix proteins (e.g., fibronectin and fibrinogen).
JTD Keywords: Copolymers, Vitronectin, AFM, Self-assembled monolayers, Cell-adhesion, Thermal transitions, Protein adsorption, Surfaces, Fibronectin, Biomaterials, Attachment, Fibrinogen
Salmeron-Sanchez, M., Altankov, G., (2010). Cell-Protein-Material interaction in tissue engineering Tissue Engineering (ed. Eberli, D.), Intech (Vukovar, Croatia) , 77-102
The initial cellular events that take place at the biomaterials interface mimic to a certain extent the natural adhesive interaction of cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM) (Spie, 2002; Griffin & Naughton, 2002; Grinnell, 1986). In fact, the living cells cannot interact directly with foreign materials, but they readily attach to the adsorbed layer of proteins (upon contact with physiological fluids in vivo or culture medium in vitro) such as fibronectin (FN), vitronectin (VN), fibrinogen (FG), representing the so-called soluble matrix proteins in the biological fluids (Grinnell 1986).
JTD Keywords: Tissue Engineering, Protein-material interaction, ECM, Biomaterials
Lacroix, D., Planell, J. A., Prendergast, P. J., (2009). Computer-aided design and finite-element modelling of biomaterial scaffolds for bone tissue engineering Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences , 367, (1895), 1993-2009
Scaffold biomaterials for tissue engineering can be produced in many different ways depending on the applications and the materials used. Most research into new biomaterials is based on an experimental trial-and-error approach that limits the possibility of making many variations to a single material and studying its interaction with its surroundings. Instead, computer simulation applied to tissue engineering can offer a more exhaustive approach to test and screen out biomaterials. In this paper, a review of the current approach in biomaterials designed through computer-aided design (CAD) and through finite-element modelling is given. First we review the approach used in tissue engineering in the development of scaffolds and the interactions existing between biomaterials, cells and mechanical stimuli. Then, scaffold fabrication through CAD is presented and characterization of existing scaffolds through computed images is reviewed. Several case studies of finite-element studies in tissue engineering show the usefulness of computer simulations in determining the mechanical environment of cells when seeded into a scaffold and the proper design of the geometry and stiffness of the scaffold. This creates a need for more advanced studies that include aspects of mechanobiology in tissue engineering in order to be able to predict over time the growth and differentiation of tissues within scaffolds. Finally, current perspectives indicate that more efforts need to be put into the development of such advanced studies, with the removal of technical limitations such as computer power and the inclusion of more accurate biological and genetic processes into the developed algorithms.
JTD Keywords: Biomechanics, Tissue engineering, Biomaterials, Finite-element modelling
Rodriguez-Segui, S. A., Pla, M., Engel, E., Planell, J. A., Martinez, E., Samitier, J., (2009). Influence of fabrication parameters in cellular microarrays for stem cell studies Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine , 20, (7), 1525-1533
Lately there has been an increasing interest in the development of tools that enable the high throughput analysis of combinations of surface-immobilized signaling factors and which examine their effect on stem cell biology and differentiation. These surface-immobilized factors function as artificial microenvironments that can be ordered in a microarray format. These microarrays could be useful for applications such as the study of stem cell biology to get a deeper understanding of their differentiation process. Here, the evaluation of several key process parameters affecting the cellular microarray fabrication is reported in terms of its effects on the mesenchymal stem cell culture time on these microarrays. Substrate and protein solution requirements, passivation strategies and cell culture conditions are investigated. The results described in this article serve as a basis for the future development of cellular microarrays aiming to provide a deeper understanding of the stem cell differentiation process.
JTD Keywords: Bone-marrow, Protein microarrays, Progenitor cells, Differentiation, Surfaces, Growth, Biomaterials, Commitment, Pathways, Culture media
Baccar, Z. M., Hidouri, S., El Bari, N., Jaffrezic-Renault, N., Errachid, A., Zine, N., (2009). Stable immobilization of anti-beta casein antibody onto layered double hydroxides materials for biosensor applications Sensor Letters 6th Maghreb-Europe Meeting on Materials and Their Applications for Devices and Physical, Chemical and Biological Sensors , AMER SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHERS (Rabat, Morocco) 7, (5), 647-655
This review presents the development of new kind of antibody/LDH (layered double hydroxides) hybrid nanomaterials for beta casein detection. The preparation method of the LDH is described. It is based on the co-precipitation of metallic salts in constant pH and temperature. The chosen LDH are hydrotalcites (Mg2AICO3, Mg3AICO3), Zaccagnaite: Zn2AICO3 and hydrocalumite: Ca 2AICI. Finally, the antibody is immobilized into the LDH materials using Layer-by-Layer method by autoassembly. In this work, we studied the surface properties of the prepared hybrid biomembranes using X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy in ATR mode and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). These techniques allow describing the antibody immobilization and its interactions with LDH. The antibody was adsorbed and its morphology was conserved in its new environment after more than 15 days continuously in PBS solution, promising a constant biosensor performance.
JTD Keywords: Anti Î²-casein antibody, Antibody immobilization, Ldh hybrid biomaterials, Urea biosensors
Navarro, M., Michiardi, A., Castano, O., Planell, J. A., (2008). Biomaterials in orthopaedics Journal of the Royal Society Interface , 5, (27), 1137-1158
At present, strong requirements in orthopaedics are still to be met, both in bone and joint substitution and in the repair and regeneration of bone defects. In this framework, tremendous advances in the biomaterials field have been made in the last 50 years where materials intended for biomedical purposes have evolved through three different generations, namely first generation (bioinert materials), second generation (bioactive and biodegradable materials) and third generation (materials designed to stimulate specific responses at the molecular level). In this review, the evolution of different metals, ceramics and polymers most commonly used in orthopaedic applications is discussed, as well as the different approaches used to fulfil the challenges faced by this medical field.
JTD Keywords: Biomaterials, Orthopaedics, Tissue engineering, Bioactive materials, Biodegradable materials, Bioinert materials