by Keyword: mechanobiology

Nauryzgaliyeva, Z, Corredera, IG, Garreta, E, Montserrat, N, (2023). Harnessing mechanobiology for kidney organoid research Frontiers In Cell And Developmental Biology 11, 1273923

Recently, organoids have emerged as revolutionizing tools with the unprecedented potential to recreate organ-specific microanatomy in vitro. Upon their derivation from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), organoids reveal the blueprints of human organogenesis, further allowing the faithful recapitulation of their physiology. Nevertheless, along with the evolution of this field, advanced research exposed the organoids' shortcomings, particularly regarding poor reproducibility rates and overall immatureness. To resolve these challenges, many studies have started to underscore the relevance of mechanical cues as a relevant source to induce and externally control hPSCs differentiation. Indeed, established organoid generation protocols from hPSCs have mainly relyed on the biochemical induction of fundamental signalling pathways present during kidney formation in mammals, whereas mechanical cues have largely been unexplored. This review aims to discuss the pertinence of (bio) physical cues within hPSCs-derived organoid cultures, while deciphering their effect on morphogenesis. Moreover, we will explore state-of-the-art mechanobiology techniques as revolutionizing means for understanding the underlying role of mechanical forces in biological processes in organoid model systems.

JTD Keywords: development, hpscs, mechanobiology, nephrogenesis, Activated ion-channel, Development, Extracellular-matrix viscoelasticity, Forces, Hpscs, Ips cells, Mechanical regulation, Mechanobiology, Nephrogenesis, Nephron progenitors, Organoids, Pluripotent stem-cells, Self-renewal, Substrate mechanics, Tissue

Cassani M, Fernandes S, Oliver-De La Cruz J, Durikova H, Vrbsky J, Patočka M, Hegrova V, Klimovic S, Pribyl J, Debellis D, Skladal P, Cavalieri F, Caruso F, Forte G, (2023). YAP Signaling Regulates the Cellular Uptake and Therapeutic Effect of Nanoparticles Advanced Science , e2302965

Interactions between living cells and nanoparticles are extensively studied to enhance the delivery of therapeutics. Nanoparticles size, shape, stiffness, and surface charge are regarded as the main features able to control the fate of cell-nanoparticle interactions. However, the clinical translation of nanotherapies has so far been limited, and there is a need to better understand the biology of cell-nanoparticle interactions. This study investigates the role of cellular mechanosensitive components in cell-nanoparticle interactions. It is demonstrated that the genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of yes-associated protein (YAP), a key component of cancer cell mechanosensing apparatus and Hippo pathway effector, improves nanoparticle internalization in triple-negative breast cancer cells regardless of nanoparticle properties or substrate characteristics. This process occurs through YAP-dependent regulation of endocytic pathways, cell mechanics, and membrane organization. Hence, the study proposes targeting YAP may sensitize triple-negative breast cancer cells to chemotherapy and increase the selectivity of nanotherapy.© 2023 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: cancer treatment, cells, differentiation, hippo pathway, mechanics, mechanobiology, mechanotransduction, nanoparticles, progression, protein, resistance, yap-signaling, yap/taz, Bio-nano interactions, Cancer treatment, Extracellular-matrix, Mechanobiology, Nanoparticles, Yap-signaling

Quiroga, X, Walani, N, Disanza, A, Chavero, A, Mittens, A, Tebar, F, Trepat, X, Parton, RG, Geli, MI, Scita, G, Arroyo, M, Le Roux, AL, Roca-Cusachs, P, (2023). A mechanosensing mechanism controls plasma membrane shape homeostasis at the nanoscale Elife 12, e72316

As cells migrate and experience forces from their surroundings, they constantly undergo mechanical deformations which reshape their plasma membrane (PM). To maintain homeostasis, cells need to detect and restore such changes, not only in terms of overall PM area and tension as previously described, but also in terms of local, nanoscale topography. Here, we describe a novel phenomenon, by which cells sense and restore mechanically induced PM nanoscale deformations. We show that cell stretch and subsequent compression reshape the PM in a way that generates local membrane evaginations in the 100 nm scale. These evaginations are recognized by I-BAR proteins, which triggers a burst of actin polymerization mediated by Rac1 and Arp2/3. The actin polymerization burst subsequently re-flattens the evagination, completing the mechanochemical feedback loop. Our results demonstrate a new mechanosensing mechanism for PM shape homeostasis, with potential applicability in different physiological scenarios.© 2023, Quiroga et al.

JTD Keywords: arp2/3 complex, bar, bar proteins, cdc42, cells, domain, human, irsp53, membrane biophysics, mouse, proteins, rac, tension, Actin polymerization, Bar proteins, Cell biology, Human, Mechanobiology, Membrane biophysics, Mouse, Physics of living systems

Almici, E, Arshakyan, M, Carrasco, JL, Martinez, A, Ramirez, J, Enguita, AB, Monso, E, Montero, J, Samitier, J, Alcaraz, J, (2023). Quantitative Image Analysis of Fibrillar Collagens Reveals Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers and Histotype-Dependent Aberrant Mechanobiology in Lung Cancer Modern Pathology 36, 100155

Fibrillar collagens are the most abundant extracellular matrix components in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the potential of collagen fiber descriptors as a source of clinically relevant biomarkers in NSCLC is largely unknown. Similarly, our understanding of the aberrant collagen organization and associated tumor-promoting effects is very scarce. To address these limitations, we identified a digital pathology approach that can be easily implemented in pa-thology units based on CT-FIRE software (version 2; analysis of Picrosirius red (PSR) stains of fibrillar collagens imaged with polarized light (PL). CT-FIRE set-tings were pre-optimized to assess a panel of collagen fiber descriptors in PSR-PL images of tissue microarrays from surgical NSCLC patients (106 adenocarcinomas [ADC] and 89 squamous cell carcinomas [SCC]). Using this approach, we identified straightness as the single high-accuracy diagnostic collagen fiber descriptor (average area under the curve 1/4 0.92) and fiber density as the single descriptor consistently associated with a poor prognosis in both ADC and SCC inde-pendently of the gold standard based on the TNM staging (hazard ratio, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.55-4.66; P < .001). Moreover, we found that collagen fibers were markedly straighter, longer, and more aligned in tumor samples compared to paired samples from uninvolved pulmonary tissue, particularly in ADC, which is indicative of increased tumor stiffening. Consistently, we observed an increase in a panel of stiffness-associated processes in the high collagen fiber density patient group selectively in ADC, including venous/lymphatic invasion, fibroblast activation (a-smooth muscle actin), and immune evasion (programmed death-ligand 1). Similarly, a transcriptional correlation analysis supported the potential involvement of the major YAP/TAZ pathway in ADC. Our results provide a proof-of-principle to use CT-FIRE analysis of PSR-PL images to assess new collagen fiber-based diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in pathology units, which may improve the clinical management of patients with surgical NSCLC. Our findings also unveil an aberrant stiff micro -environment in lung ADC that may foster immune evasion and dissemination, encouraging future work to identify therapeutic opportunities. (c) 2023 THE AUTHORS. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the United States & Canadian Academy of Pathology. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommo

JTD Keywords: biomarkers, collagen, ct-fire, lung cancer, mechanobiology, Adenocarcinoma, Association, Biomarkers, Collagen, Ct-fire, Differentiation, Expression, Extracellular-matrix, I collagen, Invasion, Lung cancer, Mechanobiology, Microenvironment, Signature, Survival, Tumor microenvironment

Narciso M, Ulldemolins A, Júnior C, Otero J, Navajas D, Farré R, Gavara N, Almendros I, (2022). A Fast and Efficient Decellularization Method for Tissue Slices Bio Protoc 12, e4550

The study and use of decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and pathophysiology have become more prevalent in recent years. To obtain dECM, numerous decellularization procedures have been developed for the entire organ or tissue blocks, employing either perfusion of decellularizing agents through the tissue's vessels or submersion of large sections in decellularizing solutions. However, none of these protocols are suitable for thin tissue slices (less than 100 µm) or allow side-by-side analysis of native and dECM consecutive tissue slices. Here, we present a detailed protocol to decellularize tissue sections while maintaining the sample attached to a glass slide. This protocol consists of consecutive washes and incubations of simple decellularizing agents: ultrapure water, sodium deoxycholate (SD) 2%, and deoxyribonuclease I solution 0.3 mg/mL (DNase I). This novel method has been optimized for a faster decellularization time (2-3 h) and a better correlation between dECM properties and native tissue-specific biomarkers, and has been tested in different types of tissues and species, obtaining similar results. Furthermore, this method can be used for scarce and valuable samples such as clinical biopsies. This protocol was validated in: Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2022), DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2022.832178.Copyright © 2022 The Authors; exclusive licensee Bio-protocol LLC.

JTD Keywords: decellularization, extracellular matrix, glass slide, mechanobiology, sodium deoxycholate, tissue slices, Decellularization, Extracellular-matrix, Tissue slices

Barbacena P, Dominguez-Cejudo M, Fonseca CG, Gómez-González M, Faure LM, Zarkada G, Pena A, Pezzarossa A, Ramalho D, Giarratano Y, Ouarné M, Barata D, Fortunato IC, Misikova LH, Mauldin I, Carvalho Y, Trepat X, Roca-Cusachs P, Eichmann A, Bernabeu MO, Franco CA, (2022). Competition for endothelial cell polarity drives vascular morphogenesis in the mouse retina Developmental Cell 57, 2321-+

Blood-vessel formation generates unique vascular patterns in each individual. The principles governing the apparent stochasticity of this process remain to be elucidated. Using mathematical methods, we find that the transition between two fundamental vascular morphogenetic programs-sprouting angiogenesis and vascular remodeling-is established by a shift of collective front-to-rear polarity of endothelial cells in the mouse retina. We demonstrate that the competition between biochemical (VEGFA) and mechanical (blood-flow-induced shear stress) cues controls this collective polarity shift. Shear stress increases tension at focal adhesions overriding VEGFA-driven collective polarization, which relies on tension at adherens junctions. We propose that vascular morphogenetic cues compete to regulate individual cell polarity and migration through tension shifts that translates into tissue-level emergent behaviors, ultimately leading to uniquely organized vascular patterns.Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: activation, angiogenesis, dynamics, flow, forces, image, mechanisms, vinculin, Angiogenesis, Cell polarity, Fluid shear, Mechanobiology, Morphogenesis, Shear stress

Phuyal, S, Djaerff, E, Le Roux, AL, Baker, MJ, Fankhauser, D, Mahdizadeh, SJ, Reiterer, V, Parizadeh, A, Felder, E, Kahlhofer, JC, Teis, D, Kazanietz, MG, Geley, S, Eriksson, L, Roca-Cusachs, P, Farhan, H, (2022). Mechanical strain stimulates COPII-dependent secretory trafficking via Rac1 Embo Journal 41, e110596

Cells are constantly exposed to various chemical and physical stimuli. While much has been learned about the biochemical factors that regulate secretory trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), much less is known about whether and how this trafficking is subject to regulation by mechanical signals. Here, we show that subjecting cells to mechanical strain both induces the formation of ER exit sites (ERES) and accelerates ER-to-Golgi trafficking. We found that cells with impaired ERES function were less capable of expanding their surface area when placed under mechanical stress and were more prone to develop plasma membrane defects when subjected to stretching. Thus, coupling of ERES function to mechanotransduction appears to confer resistance of cells to mechanical stress. Furthermore, we show that the coupling of mechanotransduction to ERES formation was mediated via a previously unappreciated ER-localized pool of the small GTPase Rac1. Mechanistically, we show that Rac1 interacts with the small GTPase Sar1 to drive budding of COPII carriers and stimulates ER-to-Golgi transport. This interaction therefore represents an unprecedented link between mechanical strain and export from the ER.© 2022 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

JTD Keywords: cells, copii, docking, endoplasmic reticulum, endoplasmic-reticulum, er, gtpase, mechanobiology, proliferation, protein, reticulum exit sites, web server, Copii, Fast interaction refinement, Mechanobiology

Elosegui-Artola A, (2021). The extracellular matrix viscoelasticity as a regulator of cell and tissue dynamics Current Opinion In Cell Biology 72, 10-18

The extracellular matrix mechanical properties regulate processes in development, cancer, and fibrosis. Among the distinct mechanical properties, the vast majority of research has focused on the extracellular matrix's elasticity as the primary determinant of cell and tissue behavior. However, both cells and the extracellular matrix are not only elastic but also viscous. Despite viscoelasticity being a universal feature of living tissues, our knowledge of the influence of the extracellular matrix's viscoelasticity in cell behavior is limited. This mini-review describes some of the recent findings that have highlighted the role of the extracellular matrix's viscoelasticity in cell and tissue dynamics.

JTD Keywords: behavior, cell adhesion, cell mechanics, cell migration, deformability, extracellular matrix, extracellular matrix mechanics, fluidity, forces, hydrogels, mechanobiology, mechanotransduction, tissue mechanics, viscoelasticity, viscosity, Cell adhesion, Cell mechanics, Cell migration, Extracellular matrix, Extracellular matrix mechanics, Fluidity, Mechanobiology, Mechanotransduction, Migration, Tissue mechanics, Viscoelasticity, Viscosity

Ladoux, B., Mège, R. M., Trepat, X., (2016). Front-rear polarization by mechanical cues: From single cells to tissues Trends in Cell Biology 26, (6), 420-433

Directed cell migration is a complex process that involves front-rear polarization, characterized by cell adhesion and cytoskeleton-based protrusion, retraction, and contraction of either a single cell or a cell collective. Single cell polarization depends on a variety of mechanochemical signals including external adhesive cues, substrate stiffness, and confinement. In cell ensembles, coordinated polarization of migrating tissues results not only from the application of traction forces on the extracellular matrix but also from the transmission of mechanical stress through intercellular junctions. We focus here on the impact of mechanical cues on the establishment and maintenance of front-rear polarization from single cell to collective cell behaviors through local or large-scale mechanisms.

JTD Keywords: Cell forces, Cell polarity, Collective cell migration, Mechanobiology, Micropatterning, Substrate stiffness

Malandrino, Andrea, Lacroix, Damien, Hellmich, Christian, Ito, Keita, Ferguson, Stephen J., Noailly, J., (2014). The role of endplate poromechanical properties on the nutrient availability in the intervertebral disc Osteoarthritis and Cartilage , 22, (7), 1053-1060

Objective To investigate the relevance of the human vertebral endplate poromechanics on the fluid and metabolic transport from and to the intervertebral disc (IVD) based on educated estimations of the poromechanical parameter values of the bony endplate (BEP). Methods 50 micro-models of different BEP samples were generated from μCTs of lumbar vertebrae and allowed direct determination of porosity values. Permeability values were calculated by using the micro-models, through the simulation of permeation via computational fluid dynamics. These educated ranges of porosity and permeability values were used as inputs for mechano-transport simulations to assess their effect on both the distributions of metabolites within an IVD model and the poromechanical calculations within the cartilaginous part of the endplate i.e., the cartilage endplate (CEP). Results BEP effective permeability was highly correlated to local variations of porosity (R2 ≈ 0.88). Universal patterns between bone volume fraction and permeability arose from these results and from other experimental data in the literature. These variations in BEP permeability and porosity had negligible effects on the distributions of metabolites within the disc. In the CEP, the variability of the poromechanical properties of the BEP did not affect the predicted consolidation but induced higher fluid velocities. Conclusions The present paper provides the first sets of thoroughly identified BEP parameter values that can be further used in patient-specific poromechanical studies. Representing BEP structural changes through variations in poromechanical properties did not affect the diffusion of metabolites. However, attention might be paid to alterations in fluid velocities and cell mechano-sensing within the CEP.

JTD Keywords: Bony endplate, Spine mechanobiology, Intervertebral disc metabolites, Hydraulic Permeability, Bone Porosity, Poromechanics

Noailly, J., Malandrino, A., Galbusera, F., Jin, Zhongmin, (2014). Computational modelling of spinal implants Computational Modelling of Biomechanics and Biotribology in the Musculoskeletal System (ed. Jin, Z.), Woodhead Publishing (Cambridge, UK) Biomaterials and Tissues, 447-484

This chapter focuses on the use of the finite element method in the design and exploration of spinal implants. Following an introduction to biomechanical alterations of the spine in disease and to spine finite element modelling, focus is placed on different models developed for spine treatment simulations. Despite the hindrance of working thorough representations of in vivo situations, predictions of load transfer within both the implants and the tissues simulated allow improved interpretations of known clinical outcomes, and permit the educated design of new implants. The potential of probabilistic modelling is also discussed in relation to model validation and patient-specific analyses. Finally, the latest developments in the multiphysical modelling of intervertebral discs are presented, revealing a strong potential for the study of implant-based strategies that aim to restore the functional biophysics of the spine.

JTD Keywords: Spinal implant, Finite element modelling, Spine surgery, Spine biomechanics, Tissue mechanobiology

Prendergast, P. J., Checa, S., Lacroix, D., (2010). Computational models of tissue differentiation Computational Modeling in Biomechanics (ed. Suvranu De, Farshid Guilak, Mohammad R. K. Mofrad), Springer-Verlag Berlin (Berlin) 3, 353-372

Readers of this chapter will learn about our approach to computer simulation of tissue differentiation in response to mechanical forces. It involves defining algorithms for mechanoregulation of each of following cell activities: proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and differentiation using a stimulus based on a combination of strain and fluid flow (Prendergast et al., J. Biomech., 1997) - algorithms are based on a lattice-modelling which also facilitates building algorithms for complex processes such as angiogenesis. The algorithms are designed to be collaboratable individually. They can be combined to create a computational simulation method for tissue differentiation, using finite element analysis to compute the mechanical stimuli in even quite complex biomechanical environments. Examples are presented of the simulation method in use.

JTD Keywords: Mechanobiology, Lattice modeling, Differentiation, Tissue engineering, Finite element modeling, Scaffolds