by Keyword: pressure
Rodriguez J, Schulz S, Voss A, Herrera S, Benito S, Giraldo BF, (2023). Baroreflex activity through the analysis of the cardio-respiratory variability influence over blood pressure in cardiomyopathy patients Frontiers In Physiology 14, 1184293
A large portion of the elderly population are affected by cardiovascular diseases. Early prognosis of cardiomyopathies remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to classify cardiomyopathy patients by their etiology based on significant indexes extracted from the characterization of the baroreflex mechanism in function of the influence of the cardio-respiratory activity over the blood pressure. Forty-one cardiomyopathy patients (CMP) classified as ischemic (ICM-24 patients) and dilated (DCM-17 patients) were considered. In addition, thirty-nine control (CON) subjects were used as reference. The beat-to-beat (BBI) time series, from the electrocardiographic (ECG) signal, the systolic (SBP), and diastolic (DBP) time series, from the blood pressure signal (BP), and the respiratory time (TT), from the respiratory flow (RF) signal, were extracted. The three-dimensional representation of the cardiorespiratory and vascular activities was characterized geometrically, by fitting a polygon that contains 95% of data, and by statistical descriptive indices. DCM patients presented specific patterns in the respiratory response to decreasing blood pressure activity. ICM patients presented more stable cardiorespiratory activity in comparison with DCM patients. In general, CMP shown limited ability to regulate changes in blood pressure. In addition, patients also shown a limited ability of their cardiac and respiratory systems response to regulate incremental changes of the vascular variability and a lower heart rate variability. The best classifiers were used to build support vector machine models. The optimal model to classify ICM versus DCM patients achieved 92.7% accuracy, 94.1% sensitivity, and 91.7% specificity. When comparing CMP patients and CON subjects, the best model achieved 86.2% accuracy, 82.9% sensitivity, and 89.7% specificity. When comparing ICM patients and CON subjects, the best model achieved 88.9% accuracy, 87.5% sensitivity, and 89.7% specificity. When comparing DCM patients and CON subjects, the best model achieved 87.5% accuracy, 76.5% sensitivity, and 92.3% specificity. In conclusion, this study introduced a new method for the classification of patients by their etiology based on new indices from the analysis of the baroreflex mechanism.Copyright © 2023 Rodriguez, Schulz, Voss, Herrera, Benito and Giraldo.
JTD Keywords: abnormalities, blood pressure variability, cardio-respiratory variability, dilated cardiomyopathy, disease, heart-failure secondary, ischemic cardiomyopathy, ischemic-dilated cardiomyopathy, morphology-relative change, Baroreflex activity, Blood pressure variability, Cardio-respiratory variability, Cheyne-stokes respiration, Ischemic-dilated cardiomyopathy, Morphology-relative change
Farré R, Navajas D, (2023). Ventilation Mechanics Seminars In Respiratory And Critical Care Medicine 2023, 511-525
A fundamental task of the respiratory system is to operate as a mechanical gas pump ensuring that fresh air gets in close contact with the blood circulating through the lung capillaries to achieve O2 and CO2 exchange. To ventilate the lungs, the respiratory muscles provide the pressure required to overcome the viscoelastic mechanical load of the respiratory system. From a mechanical viewpoint, the most relevant respiratory system properties are the resistance of the airways (R aw), and the compliance of the lung tissue (C L) and chest wall (C CW). Both airflow and lung volume changes in spontaneous breathing and mechanical ventilation are determined by applying the fundamental mechanical laws to the relationships between the pressures inside the respiratory system (at the airway opening, alveolar, pleural, and muscular) and R aw, C L, and C CW. These relationships also are the basis of the different methods available to measure respiratory mechanics during spontaneous and artificial ventilation. Whereas a simple mechanical model (R aw, C L, and C CW) describes the basic understanding of ventilation mechanics, more complex concepts (nonlinearity, inhomogeneous ventilation, or viscoelasticity) should be employed to better describe and measure ventilation mechanics in patients.Thieme. All rights reserved.
JTD Keywords: airway-resistance, alveolar, compliance, dilution, elastance, flow, inhomogeneous ventilation, input impedance, lung-volume, mechanical ventilation, monitoring, pendelluft, pleural pressure, respiratory-distress-syndrome, viscoelasticity, Chest-wall mechanics, Resistance
Fischer NG, Aparicio C, (2022). Junctional epithelium and hemidesmosomes: Tape and rivets for solving the “percutaneous device dilemma” in dental and other permanent implants Bioactive Materials 18, 178-198
The percutaneous device dilemma describes etiological factors, centered around the disrupted epithelial tissue surrounding non-remodelable devices, that contribute to rampant percutaneous device infection. Natural percutaneous organs, in particular their extracellular matrix mediating the “device”/epithelium interface, serve as exquisite examples to inspire longer lasting long-term percutaneous device design. For example, the tooth's imperviousness to infection is mediated by the epithelium directly surrounding it, the junctional epithelium (JE). The hallmark feature of JE is formation of hemidesmosomes, cell/matrix adhesive structures that attach surrounding oral gingiva to the tooth's enamel through a basement membrane. Here, the authors survey the multifaceted functions of the JE, emphasizing the role of the matrix, with a particular focus on hemidesmosomes and their five main components. The authors highlight the known (and unknown) effects dental implant – as a model percutaneous device – placement has on JE regeneration and synthesize this information for application to other percutaneous devices. The authors conclude with a summary of bioengineering strategies aimed at solving the percutaneous device dilemma and invigorating greater collaboration between clinicians, bioengineers, and matrix biologists. © 2022 The Authors
JTD Keywords: amino-acid-sequence, bioinspired surfaces, cell-secreted protein, growth-factor receptor, hemidesmosome, integrin beta-4 subunit, junctional epithelium, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, laminin-binding integrins, marginal bone loss, percutaneous device, percutaneous implant, pressure wound therapy, soft-tissue integration, Bioinspired surfaces, Bullous-pemphigoid antigen, Hemidesmosome, Junctional epithelium, Percutaneous device, Percutaneous implant
Blanco-Almazan, Dolores, Groenendaal, Willemijn, Lijnen, Lien, Onder, Rana, Smeets, Christophe, Ruttens, David, Catthoor, Francky, Jane, Raimon, (2022). Breathing Pattern Estimation Using Wearable Bioimpedance for Assessing COPD Severity Ieee Journal Of Biomedical And Health Informatics 26, 5983-5991
Breathing pattern has been shown to be different in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients compared to healthy controls during rest and walking. In this study we evaluated respiratory parameters and the breathing variability of COPD patients as a function of their severity. Thoracic bioimpedance was acquired on 66 COPD patients during the performance of the six-minute walk test (6MWT), as well as 5 minutes before and after the test while the patients were seated, i.e. resting and recovery phases. The patients were classified by their level of airflow limitation into moderate and severe groups. We characterized the breathing patterns by evaluating common respiratory parameters using only wearable bioimpedance. Specifically, we computed the median and the coefficient of variation of the parameters during the three phases of the protocol, and evaluated the statistical differences between the two COPD severity groups. We observed significant differences between the COPD severity groups only during the sitting phases, whereas the behavior during the 6MWT was similar. Particularly, we observed an inverse relationship between breathing pattern variability and COPD severity, which may indicate that the most severely diseased patients had a more restricted breathing compared to the moderate patients.
JTD Keywords: 6mwt, activation, breathing pattern, burden, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exercise, muscles, pressure, pulmonary, signals, variability, volumes, wearables, Bioimpedance, Impedance pneumography
Lozano-Garcia M, Estrada-Petrocelli L, Blanco-Almazan D, Tas B, Cho PS, Moxham J, Rafferty GF, Torres A, Jane R, Jolley CJ, (2022). Noninvasive Assessment of Neuromechanical and Neuroventilatory Coupling in COPD Ieee Journal Of Biomedical And Health Informatics 26, 3385-3396
This study explored the use of parasternal second intercostal space and lower intercostal space surface electromyogram (sEMG) and surface mechanomyogram (sMMG) recordings (sEMGpara and sMMGpara, and sEMGlic and sMMGlic, respectively) to assess neural respiratory drive (NRD), neuromechanical (NMC) and neuroventilatory (NVC) coupling, and mechanical efficiency (MEff) noninvasively in healthy subjects and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. sEMGpara, sMMGpara, sEMGlic, sMMGlic, mouth pressure (Pmo), and volume (Vi) were measured at rest, and during an inspiratory loading protocol, in 16 COPD patients (8 moderate and 8 severe) and 9 healthy subjects. Myographic signals were analyzed using fixed sample entropy and normalized to their largest values (fSEsEMGpara%max, fSEsMMGpara%max, fSEsEMGlic%max, and fSEsMMGlic%max). fSEsMMGpara%max, fSEsEMGpara%max, and fSEsEMGlic%max were significantly higher in COPD than in healthy participants at rest. Parasternal intercostal muscle NMC was significantly higher in healthy than in COPD participants at rest, but not during threshold loading. Pmo-derived NMC and MEff ratios were lower in severe patients than in mild patients or healthy subjects during threshold loading, but differences were not consistently significant. During resting breathing and threshold loading, Vi-derived NVC and MEff ratios were significantly lower in severe patients than in mild patients or healthy subjects. sMMG is a potential noninvasive alternative to sEMG for assessing NRD in COPD. The ratios of Pmo and Vi to sMMG and sEMG measurements provide wholly noninvasive NMC, NVC, and MEff indices that are sensitive to impaired respiratory mechanics in COPD and are therefore of potential value to assess disease severity in clinical practice. Author
JTD Keywords: biomedical measurement, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, couplings, diaphragm, disease severity, efficiency, electromyography, exacerbations, healthy volunteers, inspiratory muscles, loading, mechanomyography, obstructive pulmonary-disease, pressure measurement, protocols, respiratory mechanics, respiratory muscles, responsiveness, spirometry, stimulation, volume measurement, At rests, Biomedical measurement, Biomedical measurements, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Couplings, Disease severity, Efficiency ratio, Electromyography, Healthy subjects, Healthy volunteers, Loading, Mechanical efficiency, Mechanomyogram, Muscle, Muscles, Neural respiratory drive, Noninvasive medical procedures, Pressure measurement, Protocols, Pulmonary diseases, Surface electromyogram, Volume measurement
Li, Jiahui, Castaño, Oscar, Tomasello, Alejandro, de Dios Lascuevas, Marta, Canals, Pere, Engel, Elisabeth, Ribo, Marc, (2022). Catheter tip distensibility substantially influences the aspiration force of thrombectomy devices Journal Of Neurointerventional Surgery 14, 63-67
BackgroundA direct aspiration first pass thrombectomy (ADAPT) is a fast-growing technique for which a broad catalog of catheters that provide a wide range of aspiration forces can be used. We aimed to characterize different catheters' aspiration performance on stiff clots in an in vitro vascular model. We hypothesized that labeled catheter inner diameter (labeled-ID) is not the only parameter that affects the aspiration force (asp-F) and that thrombus–catheter tip interaction and distensibility also play a major role.MethodsWe designed an experimental setup consisting of a 3D-printed carotid artery immersed in a water deposit. We measured asp-F and distensibility of catheter tips when performing ADAPT on a stiff clot analog larger than catheter labeled-ID. Correlations between asp-F, catheter ID, and tip distensibility were statistically assessed.ResultsExperimental asp-F and catheter labeled-ID were correlated (r=0.9601; P<0.01). The relative difference between experimental and theoretical asp-F (obtained by the product of the tip’s section area by the vacuum pressure) correlated with tip’s distensibility (r=0.9050; P<0.01), evidencing that ADAPT performance is highly influenced by catheter tip shape-adaptability to the clot and that the effective ID (eff-ID) may differ from the labeled-ID specified by manufacturers. Eff-ID showed the highest correlation with experimental asp-F (r=0.9944; P<0.01), confirming that eff-ID rather than labeled-ID should be considered to better estimate the device efficiency.ConclusionsCatheter tip distensibility can induce a significant impact on ADAPT performance when retrieving a stiff clot larger than the device ID. Our findings might contribute to optimizing thrombectomy strategies and the design of novel aspiration catheters.
JTD Keywords: catheter, endovascular thrombectomy, intervention, pressure, stroke, technique, thrombectomy, Acute ischemic-stroke, Catheter, Thrombectomy
Farre, R, Rodriguez-Lazaro, MA, Gozal, D, Trias, G, Solana, G, Navajas, D, Otero, J, (2022). Simple low-cost construction and calibration of accurate pneumotachographs for monitoring mechanical ventilation in low-resource settings Frontiers Of Medicine 9, 938949
Assessing tidal volume during mechanical ventilation is critical to improving gas exchange while avoiding ventilator-induced lung injury. Conventional flow and volume measurements are usually carried out by built-in pneumotachographs in the ventilator or by stand-alone flowmeters. Such flow/volume measurement devices are expensive and thus usually unaffordable in low-resource settings. Here, we aimed to design and test low-cost and technically-simple calibration and assembly pneumotachographs. The proposed pneumotachographs are made by manual perforation of a plate with a domestic drill. Their pressure-volume relationship is characterized by a quadratic equation with parameters that can be tailored by the number and diameter of the perforations. We show that the calibration parameters of the pneumotachographs can be measured through two maneuvers with a conventional resuscitation bag and by assessing the maneuver volumes with a cheap and straightforward water displacement setting. We assessed the performance of the simplified low-cost pneumotachographs to measure flow/volume during mechanical ventilation as carried out under typical conditions in low-resource settings, i.e., lacking gold standard expensive devices. Under realistic mechanical ventilation settings (pressure- and volume-control; 200-600 mL), inspiratory tidal volume was accurately measured (errors of 2.1% on average and <4% in the worst case). In conclusion, a simple, low-cost procedure facilitates the construction of affordable and accurate pneumotachographs for monitoring mechanical ventilation in low- and middle-income countries.
JTD Keywords: calibration, flow measurement, low- and middle-income countries, mechanical ventilation, pneumotachograph, Calibration, Flow, Flow measurement, Low- and middle-income countries, Lung injury, Mechanical ventilation, Pneumotachograph, Pressure-drop, Resistance, Tidal volume
Rodriguez J, Schulz S, Voss A, Giraldo BF, (2021). Classification of ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy patients based on the analysis of the pulse transit time Conference Proceedings : ... Annual International Conference Of The Ieee Engineering In Medicine And Biology Society. Ieee Engineering In Medicine And Biology Society. Conference 2021, 5527-5530
Cardiomyopathies diseases affects a great number of the elderly population. An adequate identification of the etiology of a cardiomyopathy patient is still a challenge. The aim of this study was to classify patients by their etiology in function of indexes extracted from the characterization of the pulse transit time (PTT). This time series represents the time taken by the pulse pressure to propagate through the length of the arterial tree and corresponding to the time between R peak of ECG and the mid-point of the diastolic to systolic slope in the blood pressure signal. For each patient, the PTT time series was extracted. Thirty cardiomyopathy patients (CMP) classified as ischemic (ICM - 15 patients) and dilated (DCM - 15 patients) were analyzed. Forty-three healthy subjects (CON) were used as a reference. The PTT time series was characterized through statistical descriptive indices and the joint symbolic dynamics method. The best indices were used to build support vector machine models. The optimal model to classify ICM versus DCM patients achieved 89.6% accuracy, 78.5% sensitivity, and 100% specificity. When comparing CMP patients and CON subjects, the best model achieved 91.3% accuracy, 91.3% sensitivity, and 88.3% specificity. Our results suggests a significantly lower pulse transit time in ischemic patients.Clinical relevance - This study analyzed the suitability of the pulse transit time for the classification of ICM and DCM patients. © 2021 IEEE.
JTD Keywords: Aged, Blood pressure, Cardiomyopathies, Cardiomyopathy, Cardiomyopathy, dilated, Congestive cardiomyopathy, Human, Humans, Pulse wave, Pulse wave analysis, Support vector machine
Trebicka J, Bork P, Krag A, Arumugam M, (2021). Utilizing the gut microbiome in decompensated cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 18, 167-180
© 2020, Springer Nature Limited. The human gut microbiome has emerged as a major player in human health and disease. The liver, as the first organ to encounter microbial products that cross the gut epithelial barrier, is affected by the gut microbiome in many ways. Thus, the gut microbiome might play a major part in the development of liver diseases. The common end stage of liver disease is decompensated cirrhosis and the further development towards acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). These conditions have high short-term mortality. There is evidence that translocation of components of the gut microbiota, facilitated by different pathogenic mechanisms such as increased gut epithelial permeability and portal hypertension, is an important driver of decompensation by induction of systemic inflammation, and thereby also ACLF. Elucidating the role of the gut microbiome in the aetiology of decompensated cirrhosis and ACLF deserves further investigation and improvement; and might be the basis for development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. In this Review, we focus on the possible pathogenic, diagnostic and therapeutic role of the gut microbiome in decompensation of cirrhosis and progression to ACLF.
JTD Keywords: albumin, decreases intestinal permeability, hepatic-encephalopathy, portal-vein thrombosis, rifaximin improves, secondary bile-acids, systemic inflammation, translocation, venous-pressure gradient, Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
Lozano-García M, Estrada-Petrocelli L, Torres A, Rafferty GF, Moxham J, Jolley CJ, Jané R, (2021). Noninvasive assessment of neuromechanical coupling and mechanical efficiency of parasternal intercostal muscle during inspiratory threshold loading Sensors 21,
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This study aims to investigate noninvasive indices of neuromechanical coupling (NMC) and mechanical efficiency (MEff) of parasternal intercostal muscles. Gold standard assessment of diaphragm NMC requires using invasive techniques, limiting the utility of this procedure. Nonin-vasive NMC indices of parasternal intercostal muscles can be calculated using surface mechano-myography (sMMGpara) and electromyography (sEMGpara). However, the use of sMMGpara as an in-spiratory muscle mechanical output measure, and the relationships between sMMGpara, sEMGpara, and simultaneous invasive and noninvasive pressure measurements have not previously been eval-uated. sEMGpara, sMMGpara, and both invasive and noninvasive measurements of pressures were recorded in twelve healthy subjects during an inspiratory loading protocol. The ratios of sMMGpara to sEMGpara, which provided muscle-specific noninvasive NMC indices of parasternal intercostal muscles, showed nonsignificant changes with increasing load, since the relationships between sMMGpara and sEMGpara were linear (R2 = 0.85 (0.75–0.9)). The ratios of mouth pressure (Pmo) to sEMGpara and sMMGpara were also proposed as noninvasive indices of parasternal intercostal muscle NMC and MEff, respectively. These indices, similar to the analogous indices calculated using invasive transdiaphragmatic and esophageal pressures, showed nonsignificant changes during threshold loading, since the relationships between Pmo and both sEMGpara (R2 = 0.84 (0.77–0.93)) and sMMGpara (R2 = 0.89 (0.85–0.91)) were linear. The proposed noninvasive NMC and MEff indices of parasternal intercostal muscles may be of potential clinical value, particularly for the regular assessment of patients with disordered respiratory mechanics using noninvasive wearable and wireless devices.
JTD Keywords: inspiratory threshold loading, neuromechanical coupling, parasternal intercostal muscles, respiratory pressure, surface electromyography, surface mechanomyography, Inspiratory threshold loading, Neuromechanical coupling, Parasternal intercostal mus-cles, Respiratory pressure, Surface electromyography, Surface mechanomyography
Hamouda, I., Labay, C., Ginebra, M. P., Nicol, E., Canal, C., (2020). Investigating the atmospheric pressure plasma jet modification of a photo-crosslinkable hydrogel Polymer 192, 122308
Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) have great potential in wound healing, bacterial disinfection and in cancer therapy. Recent studies pointed out that hydrogels can be used as screens during APPJ treatment, or even be used as reservoirs for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated by APPJ in liquids. Thus, novel applications are emerging for hydrogels which deserve fundamental exploration of the possible modifications undergone by the polymers in solution due to the reactivity with plasmas. Here we investigate the possible modifications occurred by APPJ treatment of an amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-based triblock copolymer (tPEO) photo-crosslinkable hydrogel. While APPJ treatments lead to a certain degradation of the self-assembly of the polymeric chains at low concentrations (<2 g/L), at the higher concentrations required to form a hydrogel (>2 g/L), the polymeric chains are unaffected by APPJ and the hydrogel forming ability is kept. APPJ treatments induced a pre-crosslinking of the network with an increase of the mechanical properties of the hydrogel. Overall, the small modifications induced allow thinking of polymer solutions with hydrogel forming ability a new platform for several applications related to plasma medicine, and thus, with potential in different therapies.
JTD Keywords: Atmospheric pressure plasma jet, Hydrogel, Photo-crosslinking, Polymer solution, Self-assembly
Rodriguez, J., Schulz, S., Voss, A., Giraldo, B. F., (2020). Cardiorespiratory and vascular variability analysis to classify patients with ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy* Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC) 42nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Montreal, Canada) , 2764-2767
Heart diseases are the leading cause of death in developed countries. Ascertaining the etiology of cardiomyopathies is still a challenge. The objective of this study was to classify cardiomyopathy patients through cardio, respiratory and vascular variability analysis, considering the vascular activity as the input and output of the baroreflex response. Forty-one cardiomyopathy patients (CMP) classified as ischemic (ICM, 24 patients) and dilated (DCM, 17 patients) were analyzed. Thirty-nine elderly control subjects (CON) were used as reference. From the electrocardiographic, respiratory flow, and blood pressure signals, following temporal series were extracted: beat-to-beat intervals (BBI), total respiratory cycle time series (TT), and end– systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure amplitudes, respectively. Three-dimensional representation of the cardiorespiratory and vascular activities was characterized geometrically, by fitting a polygon that contains 95% of data, and by statistical descriptive indices. The best classifiers were used to build support vector machine models. The optimal model to classify ICM versus DCM patients achieved 92.7% accuracy, 94.1% sensitivity, and 91.7% specificity. When comparing CMP patients and CON subjects, the best model achieved 86.2% accuracy, 82.9% sensitivity, and 89.7% specificity. These results suggest a limited ability of cardiac and respiratory systems response to regulate the vascular variability in these patients.
JTD Keywords: Time series analysis, Support vector machines, Blood pressure, Sensitivity, Indexes, Electrocardiography, Kernel
Lozano-García, M., Estrada-Petrocelli, L., Moxham, J., Rafferty, G. F., Torres, A., Jolley, C. J., Jané, R. , (2019). Noninvasive assessment of inspiratory muscle neuromechanical coupling during inspiratory threshold loading IEEE Access 7, 183634-183646
Diaphragm neuromechanical coupling (NMC), which reflects the efficiency of conversion of neural activation to transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi), is increasingly recognized to be a useful clinical index of diaphragm function and respiratory mechanics in neuromuscular weakness and cardiorespiratory disease. However, the current gold standard assessment of diaphragm NMC requires invasive measurements of Pdi and crural diaphragm electromyography (oesEMGdi), which complicates the measurement of diaphragm NMC in clinical practice. This is the first study to compare invasive measurements of diaphragm NMC (iNMC) using the relationship between Pdi and oesEMGdi, with noninvasive assessment of NMC (nNMC) using surface mechanomyography (sMMGlic) and electromyography (sEMGlic) of lower chest wall inspiratory muscles. Both invasive and noninvasive measurements were recorded in twelve healthy adult subjects during an inspiratory threshold loading protocol. A linear relationship between noninvasive sMMGlic and sEMGlic measurements was found, resulting in little change in nNMC with increasing inspiratory load. By contrast, a curvilinear relationship between invasive Pdi and oesEMGdi measurements was observed, such that there was a progressive increase in iNMC with increasing inspiratory threshold load. Progressive recruitment of lower ribcage muscles, serving to enhance the mechanical advantage of the diaphragm, may explain the more linear relationship between sMMGlic and sEMGlic (both representing lower intercostal plus costal diaphragm activity) than between Pdi and crural oesEMGdi. Noninvasive indices of NMC derived from sEMGlic and sMMGlic may prove to be useful indices of lower chest wall inspiratory muscle NMC, particularly in settings that do not have access to invasive measures of diaphragm function.
JTD Keywords: Cardiovascular system, Diaphragms, Diseases, Electromyography, Medical signal processing, Neurophysiology, Patient monitoring, Pneumodynamics, Inspiratory muscle neuromechanical coupling, Diaphragm neuromechanical coupling, Neural activation, Transdiaphragmatic pressure, Diaphragm function, Respiratory mechanics, Diaphragm NMC, Invasive measurements, Crural diaphragm electromyography, iNMC, Noninvasive assessment, nNMC, Lower chest wall inspiratory muscles, Inspiratory threshold loading protocol, Noninvasive sMMGlic measurements, sEMGlic measurements, oesEMGdi measurements, Inspiratory threshold load, Lower ribcage muscles, Lower intercostal plus costal diaphragm activity, Crural oesEMGdi, Noninvasive indices, sEMGlic sMMGlic, Lower chest wall inspiratory muscle NMC, Surface mechanomyography, Electromyography, Inspiratory threshold loading, Mechanomyography, Neuromechanical coupling, Respiratory muscles
Rodríguez, J., Schulz, S., Giraldo, B. F., Voss, A., (2019). Risk stratification in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy patients using cardiovascular coupling analysis Frontiers in Physiology 10, 841
Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most common causes of death; however, the early detection of patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains an issue. The aim of this study was to analyze the cardio-vascular couplings based on heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) analyses in order to introduce new indices for noninvasive risk stratification in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy patients (IDC). High-resolution electrocardiogram (ECG) and continuous noninvasive blood pressure (BP) signals were recorded in 91 IDC patients and 49 healthy subjects (CON). The patients were stratified by their SCD risk as high risk (IDCHR) when after two years the subject either died or suffered life-threatening complications, and as low risk (IDCLR) when the subject remained stable during this period. Values were extracted from ECG and BP signals, the beat-to-beat interval, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and analyzed using the segmented Poincaré plot analysis (SPPA), the high-resolution joint symbolic dynamics (HRJSD) and the normalized short time partial directed coherence methods. Support vector machine (SVM) models were built to classify these patients according to SCD risk. IDCHR patients presented lowered HRV and increased BPV compared to both IDCLR patients and the control subjects, suggesting a decrease in their vagal activity and a compensation of sympathetic activity. Both, the cardio -systolic and -diastolic coupling strength was stronger in high-risk patients when comparing with low-risk patients. The cardio-systolic coupling analysis revealed that the systolic influence on heart rate gets weaker as the risk increases. The SVM IDCLR vs. IDCHR model achieved 98.9% accuracy with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.96. The IDC and the CON groups obtained 93.6% and 0.94 accuracy and AUC, respectively. To simulate a circumstance in which the original status of the subject is unknown, a cascade model was built fusing the aforementioned models, and achieved 94.4% accuracy. In conclusion, this study introduced a novel method for SCD risk stratification for IDC patients based on new indices from coupling analysis and non-linear HRV and BPV. We have uncovered some of the complex interactions within the autonomic regulation in this type of patient.
JTD Keywords: Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, Heart rate variability, Blood pressure variability, Coupling analysis, Sudden cardiac death, Risk stratification
Canal, C., Fontelo, R., Hamouda, I., Guillem-Marti, J., Cvelbar, U., Ginebra, M. P., (2017). Plasma-induced selectivity in bone cancer cells death Free Radical Biology and Medicine , 110, 72-80
Background: Current therapies for bone cancers - either primary or metastatic – are difficult to implement and unfortunately not completely effective. An alternative therapy could be found in cold plasmas generated at atmospheric pressure which have already demonstrated selective anti-tumor action in a number of carcinomas and in more relatively rare brain tumors. However, its effects on bone cancer are still unknown. Methods: Herein, we employed an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) to validate its selectivity towards osteosarcoma cell line vs. osteoblasts & human mesenchymal stem cells. Results: Cytotoxicity following direct interaction of APPJ with cells is comparable to indirect interaction when only liquid medium is treated and subsequently added to the cells, especially on the long-term (72 h of cell culture). Moreover, following contact of the APPJ treated medium with cells, delayed effects are observed which lead to 100% bone cancer cell death through apoptosis (decreased cell viability with incubation time in contact with APPJ treated medium from 24 h to 72 h), while healthy cells remain fully viable and unaffected by the treatment. Conclusions: The high efficiency of the indirect treatment indicates that an important role is played by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the gaseous plasma stage and then transmitted to the liquid phase, which overall lead to lethal and selective action towards osteosarcoma cells. These findings open new pathways for treatment of metastatic bone disease with a minimally invasive approach.
JTD Keywords: Atmospheric pressure plasma jet, Bone cancer, hMSC, HOb, Liquids, Osteoblasts, Osteosarcoma, SaOS-2
Arcentales, A., Rivera, P., Caminal, P., Voss, A., Bayés-Genís, A., Giraldo, B. F., (2016). Analysis of blood pressure signal in patients with different ventricular ejection fraction using linear and non-linear methods Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Orlando, USA) , 2700-2703
Changes in the left ventricle function produce alternans in the hemodynamic and electric behavior of the cardiovascular system. A total of 49 cardiomyopathy patients have been studied based on the blood pressure signal (BP), and were classified according to the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in low risk (LR: LVEF>35%, 17 patients) and high risk (HR: LVEF≤35, 32 patients) groups. We propose to characterize these patients using a linear and a nonlinear methods, based on the spectral estimation and the recurrence plot, respectively. From BP signal, we extracted each systolic time interval (STI), upward systolic slope (BPsl), and the difference between systolic and diastolic BP, defined as pulse pressure (PP). After, the best subset of parameters were obtained through the sequential feature selection (SFS) method. According to the results, the best classification was obtained using a combination of linear and nonlinear features from STI and PP parameters. For STI, the best combination was obtained considering the frequency peak and the diagonal structures of RP, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 79%. The same results were obtained when comparing PP values. Consequently, the use of combined linear and nonlinear parameters could improve the risk stratification of cardiomyopathy patients.
JTD Keywords: Feature extraction, Blood pressure, Heart rate, Estimation, Data mining, Covariance matrices, Hospitals
Giraldo, B. F., Rodriguez, J., Caminal, P., Bayes-Genis, A., Voss, A., (2015). Cardiorespiratory and cardiovascular interactions in cardiomyopathy patients using joint symbolic dynamic analysis Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Milan, Italy) , 306-309
Cardiovascular diseases are the first cause of death in developed countries. Using electrocardiographic (ECG), blood pressure (BP) and respiratory flow signals, we obtained parameters for classifying cardiomyophaty patients. 42 patients with ischemic (ICM) and dilated (DCM) cardiomyophaties were studied. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was used to stratify patients with low risk (LR: LVEF>35%, 14 patients) and high risk (HR: LVEF≤ 35%, 28 patients) of heart attack. RR, SBP and TTot time series were extracted from the ECG, BP and respiratory flow signals, respectively. The time series were transformed to a binary space and then analyzed using Joint Symbolic Dynamic with a word length of three, characterizing them by the probability of occurrence of the words. Extracted parameters were then reduced using correlation and statistical analysis. Principal component analysis and support vector machines methods were applied to characterize the cardiorespiratory and cardiovascular interactions in ICM and DCM cardiomyopaties, obtaining an accuracy of 85.7%.
JTD Keywords: Blood pressure, Electrocardiography, Joints, Kernel, Principal component analysis, Support vector machines, Time series analysis
Dalmases, M., Torres, M., Márquez-Kisinousky, L., Almendros, I., Planas, A. M., Embid, C., Martínez-Garcia, M. A., Navajas, D., Farré, R., Montserrat, J. M., (2014). Brain tissue hypoxia and oxidative stress induced by obstructive apneas is different in young and aged rats Sleep , 37, (7), 1249-1256
Study Objectives: To test the hypotheses that brain oxygen partial pressure (PtO2) in response to obstructive apneas changes with age and that it might lead to different levels of cerebral tissue oxidative stress. Design: Prospective controlled animal study. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: Sixty-four male Wistar rats: 32 young (3 mo old) and 32 aged (18 mo). Interventions: Protocol 1: Twenty-four animals were subjected to obstructive apneas (50 apneas/h, lasting 15 sec each) or to sham procedure for 50 min. Protocol 2: Forty rats were subjected to obstructive apneas or sham procedure for 4 h. Measurements and Results: Protocol 1: Real-time PtO2 measurements were performed using a fast-response oxygen microelectrode. During successive apneas cerebral cortex PtO2 presented a different pattern in the two age groups; there was a fast increase in young rats, whereas it remained without significant changes between the beginning and the end of the protocol in the aged group. Protocol 2: Brain oxidative stress assessed by lipid peroxidation increased after apneas in young rats (1.34 Â± 0.17 nmol/mg of protein) compared to old ones (0.63 Â± 0.03 nmol/mg), where a higher expression of antioxidant enzymes was observed. Conclusions: The results suggest that brain oxidative stress in aged rats is lower than in young rats in response to recurrent apneas, mimicking obstructive sleep apnea. This could be due to the different PtO2 response observed between age groups and the increased antioxidant expression in aged rats.
JTD Keywords: Aging, Animal model, Obstructive apnea, Oxidative stress, Tissue oxygenation, antioxidant, glutathione disulfide, aged, animal experiment, animal model, animal tissue, apnea, arterial oxygen saturation, article, brain cortex, brain oxygen tension, brain tissue, controlled study, groups by age, hypoxia, lipid peroxidation, male, nonhuman, oxidative stress, pressure, priority journal, rat
Uriarte, J. J., Nonaka, P. N., Campillo, N., Palma, R. K., Melo, E., de Oliveira, L. V. F., Navajas, D., Farré, R., (2014). Mechanical properties of acellular mouse lungs after sterilization by gamma irradiation Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials , 40, 168-177
Lung bioengineering using decellularized organ scaffolds is a potential alternative for lung transplantation. Clinical application will require donor scaffold sterilization. As gamma-irradiation is a conventional method for sterilizing tissue preparations for clinical application, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lung scaffold sterilization by gamma irradiation on the mechanical properties of the acellular lung when subjected to the artificial ventilation maneuvers typical within bioreactors. Twenty-six mouse lungs were decellularized by a sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent protocol. Eight lungs were used as controls and 18 of them were submitted to a 31kGy gamma irradiation sterilization process (9 kept frozen in dry ice and 9 at room temperature). Mechanical properties of acellular lungs were measured before and after irradiation. Lung resistance (RL) and elastance (EL) were computed by linear regression fitting of recorded signals during mechanical ventilation (tracheal pressure, flow and volume). Static (Est) and dynamic (Edyn) elastances were obtained by the end-inspiratory occlusion method. After irradiation lungs presented higher values of resistance and elastance than before irradiation: RL increased by 41.1% (room temperature irradiation) and 32.8% (frozen irradiation) and EL increased by 41.8% (room temperature irradiation) and 31.8% (frozen irradiation). Similar increases were induced by irradiation in Est and Edyn. Scanning electron microscopy showed slight structural changes after irradiation, particularly those kept frozen. Sterilization by gamma irradiation at a conventional dose to ensure sterilization modifies acellular lung mechanics, with potential implications for lung bioengineering.
JTD Keywords: Gamma irradiation, Lung bioengineering, Lung decellularization, Organ scaffold, Pulmonary mechanics, Decellularization, Gamma irradiation, Mouse lung, Pulmonary mechanics, dodecyl sulfate sodium, animal tissue, Article, artificial ventilation, bioengineering, bioreactor, compliance (physical), controlled study, freezing, gamma irradiation, lung, lung mechanics, lung resistance, male, mouse, nonhuman, room temperature, scanning electron microscopy, tissue scaffold, trachea pressure
Nonaka, P. N., Uriarte, J. J., Campillo, N., Melo, E., Navajas, D., Farré, R., Oliveira, L. V. F., (2014). Mechanical properties of mouse lungs along organ decellularization by sodium dodecyl sulfate Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology , 200, 1-5
Lung decellularization is based on the use of physical, chemical, or enzymatic methods to break down the integrity of the cells followed by a treatment to extract the cellular material from the lung scaffold. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanical changes throughout the different steps of lung decellularization process. Four lungs from mice (C57BL/6) were decellularized by using a conventional protocol based on sodium dodecyl sulfate. Lungs resistance (RL) and elastance (EL) were measured along decellularization steps and were computed by linear regression fitting of tracheal pressure, flow, and volume during mechanical ventilation. Transients differences found were more distinct in an intermediate step after the lungs were rinsed with deionized water and treated with 1% SDS, whereupon the percentage of variation reached approximately 80% for resistance values and 30% for elastance values. In conclusion, although a variation in extracellular matrix stiffness was observed during the decellularization process, this variation can be considered negligible overall because the resistance and elastance returned to basal values at the final decellularization step.
JTD Keywords: Lung bioengineering, Lung decellularization, Organ scaffold, dodecyl sulfate sodium, animal tissue, article, artificial ventilation, compliance (physical), controlled study, enzyme chemistry, extracellular matrix, female, flow, lung, lung decellularization, lung pressure, lung resistance, mouse, nonhuman, positive end expiratory pressure, priority journal, rigidity, tissue engineering, trachea pressure
Giraldo, B. F., Calvo, A., Martínez, B., Arcentales, A., Jané, R., Benito, S., (2014). Blood pressure variability analysis in supine and sitting position of healthy subjects IFMBE Proceedings XIII Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 2013 (ed. Roa Romero, Laura M.), Springer International Publishing (London, UK) 41, 1021-1024
Blood pressure carries a great deal of information about people’s physical attributes. We analyzed the blood pressure signal in healthy subjects considering two positions, supine and sitting. 44 healthy subjects were studied. Parameters extracted from the blood pressure signal, related to time and frequency domain were used to compare the effect of postural position between supine and sitting. In time domain analysis, the time systolic interval and the time of blood pressure interval were higher in supine than in sitting position (p = 0.001 in both case). Parameters related to frequency peak, interquartile range, in frequency domain presented statistically significant difference (p < 0.0005 in both case). The blood pressure variability parameters presented smaller values in supine than in sitting position (p < 0.0005). In general, the position change of supine to sitting produces an increment in the pressure gradient inside heart, reflected in the blood pressure variability.
JTD Keywords: Blood pressure variability, Systolic time intervals, Diastolic time intervals
Morgenstern, C., Randerath, W. J., Schwaibold, M., Bolz, A., Jané, R., (2013). Feasibility of noninvasive single-channel automated differentiation of obstructive and central hypopneas with nasal airflow Respiration , 85, (4), 312-318
Background: The identification of obstructive and central hypopneas is considered challenging in clinical practice. Presently, obstructive and central hypopneas are usually not differentiated or scores lack reliability due to the technical limitations of standard polysomnography. Esophageal pressure measurement is the gold-standard for identifying these events but its invasiveness deters its usage in daily practice. Objectives: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of an automatic noninvasive analysis method for the differentiation of obstructive and central hypopneas based solely on a single-channel nasal airflow signal. The obtained results are compared with gold-standard esophageal pressure scores. Methods: A total of 41 patients underwent full night polysomnography with systematic esophageal pressure recording. Two experts in sleep medicine independently differentiated hypopneas with the gold-standard esophageal pressure signal. Features were automatically extracted from the nasal airflow signal of each annotated hypopnea to train and test the automatic analysis method. Interscorer agreement between automatic and visual scorers was measured with Cohen's kappa statistic (Îº). Results: A total of 1,237 hypopneas were visually differentiated. The automatic analysis achieved an interscorer agreement of Îº = 0.37 and an accuracy of 69% for scorer A, Îº = 0.40 and 70% for scorer B and Îº = 0.41 and 71% for the agreed scores of scorers A and B. Conclusions: The promising results obtained in this pilot study demonstrate the feasibility of noninvasive single-channel hypopnea differentiation. Further development of this method may help improving initial diagnosis with home screening devices and offering a means of therapy selection and/or control.
JTD Keywords: Central sleep hypopnea, Esophageal pressure, Home monitoring, Obstructive sleep hypopnea, Sleep disordered breathing
Arcentales, A., Voss, A., Caminal, P., Bayes-Genis, A., Domingo, M. T., Giraldo, B. F., (2013). Characterization of patients with different ventricular ejection fractions using blood pressure signal analysis CinC 2013 Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC) , IEEE (Zaragoza, Spain) , 795-798
Ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy are associated with disorders of myocardium. Using the blood pressure (BP) signal and the values of the ventricular ejection fraction, we obtained parameters for stratifying cardiomyopathy patients as low- and high-risk. We studied 48 cardiomyopathy patients characterized by NYHA ≥2: 19 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 29 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) percentage was used to classify patients in low risk (LR: LVEF > 35%, 17 patients) and high risk (HR: LVEF ≤ 35%, 31 patients) groups. From the BP signal, we extracted the upward systolic slope (BPsl), the difference between systolic and diastolic BP (BPA), and systolic time intervals (STI). When we compared the LR and HR groups in the time domain analysis, the best parameters were standard deviation (SD) of 1=STI, kurtosis (K) of BPsl, and K of BPA. In the frequency domain analysis, very low frequency (VLF) and high frequency (HF) bands showed statistically significant differences in comaprisons of LR and HR groups. The area under the curve of power spectral density was the best parameter in all classifications, and particularly in the very-low-and high- frequency bands (p <; 0.001). These parameters could help to improve the risk stratification of cardiomyopathy patients.
JTD Keywords: blood pressure measurement, cardiovascular system, diseases, medical disorders, medical signal processing, statistical analysis, time-domain analysis, BP signal, HR groups, LR groups, blood pressure signal analysis, cardiomyopathy patients, diastolic BP, dilated cardiomyopathy, frequency domain analysis, high-frequency bands, ischemic cardiomyopathy, left ventricular ejection fraction, low-frequency bands, myocardium disorders, patient characterization, power spectral density curve, standard deviation, statistical significant differences, systolic BP, systolic slope, systolic time intervals, time domain analysis, ventricular ejection fraction, Abstracts, Databases, Parameter extraction, Telecommunication standards, Time-frequency analysis
Giraldo, B. F., Chaparro, J. A., Caminal, P., Benito, S., (2013). Characterization of the respiratory pattern variability of patients with different pressure support levels Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Osaka, Japan) , 3849-3852
One of the most challenging problems in intensive care is still the process of discontinuing mechanical ventilation, called weaning process. Both an unnecessary delay in the discontinuation process and a weaning trial that is undertaken too early are undesirable. In this study, we analyzed respiratory pattern variability using the respiratory volume signal of patients submitted to two different levels of pressure support ventilation (PSV), prior to withdrawal of the mechanical ventilation. In order to characterize the respiratory pattern, we analyzed the following time series: inspiratory time, expiratory time, breath duration, tidal volume, fractional inspiratory time, mean inspiratory flow and rapid shallow breathing. Several autoregressive modeling techniques were considered: autoregressive models (AR), autoregressive moving average models (ARMA), and autoregressive models with exogenous input (ARX). The following classification methods were used: logistic regression (LR), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM). 20 patients on weaning trials from mechanical ventilation were analyzed. The patients, submitted to two different levels of PSV, were classified as low PSV and high PSV. The variability of the respiratory patterns of these patients were analyzed. The most relevant parameters were extracted using the classifiers methods. The best results were obtained with the interquartile range and the final prediction errors of AR, ARMA and ARX models. An accuracy of 95% (93% sensitivity and 90% specificity) was obtained when the interquartile range of the expiratory time and the breath duration time series were used a LDA model. All classifiers showed a good compromise between sensitivity and specificity.
JTD Keywords: autoregressive moving average processes, feature extraction, medical signal processing, patient care, pneumodynamics, signal classification, support vector machines, time series, ARX, autoregressive modeling techniques, autoregressive models with exogenous input, autoregressive moving average model, breath duration time series, classification method, classifier method, discontinuing mechanical ventilation, expiratory time, feature extraction, final prediction errors, fractional inspiratory time, intensive care, interquartile range, linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression analysis, mean inspiratory flow, patient respiratory volume signal, pressure support level, pressure support ventilation, rapid shallow breathing, respiratory pattern variability characterization, support vector machines, tidal volume, weaning trial, Analytical models, Autoregressive processes, Biological system modeling, Estimation, Support vector machines, Time series analysis, Ventilation
Jané, R., Lazaro, J., Ruiz, P., Gil, E., Navajas, D., Farre, R., Laguna, P., (2013). Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a rat model: Effects of anesthesia on autonomic evaluation from heart rate variability measures CinC 2013 Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC) , IEEE (Zaragoza, Spain) , 1011-1014
Rat model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a realistic approach for studying physiological mechanisms involved in sleep. Rats are usually anesthetized and autonomic nervous system (ANS) could be blocked. This study aimed to assess the effect of anesthesia on ANS activity during OSA episodes. Seven male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized intraperitoneally with urethane (1g/kg). The experiments were conducted applying airway obstructions, simulating 15s-apnea episodes for 15 minutes. Five signals were acquired: respiratory pressure and flow, SaO2, ECG and photoplethysmography (PPG). In total, 210 apnea episodes were studied. Normalized power spectrum of Pulse Rate Variability (PRV) was analyzed in the Low Frequency (LF) and High Frequency (HF) bands, for each episode in consecutive 15s intervals (before, during and after the apnea). All episodes showed changes in respiratory flow and SaO2 signal. Conversely, decreases in the amplitude fluctuations of PPG (DAP) were not observed. Normalized LF presented extremely low values during breathing (median=7,67%), suggesting inhibition of sympathetic system due to anesthetic effect. Subtle increases of LF were observed during apnea. HRV and PPG analysis during apnea could be an indirect tool to assess the effect and deep of anesthesia.
JTD Keywords: electrocardiography, fluctuations, medical disorders, medical signal detection, medical signal processing, neurophysiology, photoplethysmography, pneumodynamics, sleep, ECG, SaO2 flow, SaO2 signal, airway obstructions, amplitude fluctuations, anesthesia effects, anesthetized nervous system, autonomic evaluation, autonomic nervous system, breathing, heart rate variability, high-frequency bands, low-frequency bands, male Sprague-Dawley rats, normalized power spectrum, obstructive sleep apnea, photoplethysmography, physiological mechanisms, pulse rate variability, rat model, respiratory flow, respiratory pressure, signal acquisition, sympathetic system inhibition, time 15 min, time 15 s, Abstracts, Atmospheric modeling, Computational modeling, Electrocardiography, Rats, Resonant frequency
Tsapikouni, T., Garreta, E., Melo, E., Navajas, D., Farré, R., (2012). A bioreactor for subjecting cultured cells to fast-rate intermittent hypoxia Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology , 182, (1), 47-52
High frequency intermittent hypoxia is one of the most relevant injurious stimuli experienced by patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Given that the conventional setting for culturing cells under intermittent hypoxia conditions is limited by long equilibration times, we designed a simple bioreactor capable of effectively subjecting cultured cells to controlled high-frequency hypoxic/normoxic stimuli. The bioreactor's operation is based on exposing cells to a medium that is bubbled with the appropriate mixture of gases into two separate containers, and from there it is directed to the cell culture dish with the aid of two bidirectional peristaltic pumps. The device was tested on human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) and mouse melanoma cells (B16-F10), subjecting them to patterns of intermittent hypoxia (20s at 5% O 2 and 50s at 20% O 2), which realistically mimic OSA of up to severe intensity as defined by the apnea hypopnea index. The proposed bioreactor can be easily and inexpensively assembled and is of practical use for investigating the effects of high-rate changes in oxygen concentration in the cell culture medium.
JTD Keywords: Hypoxia-reoxygenation, Obstructive sleep apnea, Oxygen partial pressure
Galbusera, F., Schmidt, H., Noailly, J., Malandrino, A., Lacroix, D., Wilke, H.J, Shirazi-Adl, A., (2011). Comparison of four methods to simulate swelling in poroelastic finite element models of intervertebral discs Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials , 4, (7), 1234-1241
Osmotic phenomena influence the intervertebral disc biomechanics. Their simulation is challenging and can be undertaken at different levels of complexity. Four distinct approaches to simulate the osmotic behaviour of the intervertebral disc (a fixed boundary pore pressure model, a fixed osmotic pressure gradient model in the whole disc or only in the nucleus pulposus, and a swelling model with strain-dependent osmotic pressure) were analysed. Predictions were compared using a 3D poroelastic finite element model of a L4â€“L5 spinal unit under three different loading conditions: free swelling for 8 h and two daily loading cycles: (i) 200Â N compression for 8 h followed by 500Â N compression for 16 h; (ii) 500Â N for 8 h followed by 1000Â N for 16 h. Overall, all swelling models calculated comparable results, with differences decreasing under greater loads. Results predicted with the fixed boundary pore pressure and the fixed osmotic pressure in the whole disc models were nearly identical. The boundary pore pressure model, however, cannot simulate differential osmotic pressures in disc regions. The swelling model offered the best potential to provide more accurate results, conditional upon availability of reliable values for the required coefficients and material properties. Possible fields of application include mechanobiology investigations and crack opening and propagation. However, the other approaches are a good compromise between the ease of implementation and the reliability of results, especially when considering higher loads or when the focus is on global results such as spinal kinematics.
JTD Keywords: Intervertebral disc, Boundary pore pressure, Osmotic pressure, Swelling, Finite element, Poroelasticity
Lacroix, Damien, Ramirez Patino, Juan Fernando, (2011). Finite Element Analysis of Donning Procedure of a Prosthetic Transfemoral Socket Annals of Biomedical Engineering , 39, (12), 2972-2983
Lower limb amputation is a severe psychological and physical event in a patient. A prosthetic solution can be provided but should respond to a patient-specific need to accommodate for the geometrical and biomechanical specificities. A new approach to calculate the stress-strain state at the interaction between the socket and the stump of five transfemoral amputees is presented. In this study the socket donning procedure is modeled using an explicit finite element method based on the patient-specific geometry obtained from CT and laser scan data. Over stumps the mean maximum pressure is 4 kPa (SD 1.7) and the mean maximum shear stresses are 1.4 kPa (SD 0.6) and 0.6 kPa (SD 0.3) in longitudinal and circumferential directions, respectively. Locations of the maximum values are according to pressure zones at the sockets. The stress-strain states obtained in this study can be considered more reliable than others, since there are normal and tangential stresses associated to the socket donning procedure.
JTD Keywords: Trans-tibial prosthesis, Knee residual limb, Pressure distribution, Transtibial amputees, Stump/socket interface, Mechanical conditions, Load-transfer, Soft-tissues, Stresses, Contact
Cagido, Viviane Ramos, Zin, Walter Araujo, Ramirez, Jose, Navajas, Daniel, Farre, Ramon, (2011). Alternating ventilation in a rat model of increased abdominal pressure Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology , 175, (3), 310-315
During alternating ventilation (AV) one lung is inflating while the other is deflating. Considering the possible respiratory and hemodynamic advantages of AV, we investigated its effects during increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP = 10 mmHg). In Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6, 270–375 g) the main bronchi were independently cannulated, and respiratory mechanics determined while animals underwent different ventilatory patterns: synchronic ventilation without increased IAP (SV-0), elevated IAP during SV (SV-10), and AV with elevated IAP (AV-10). Thirty-three other animals (SV-0, n = 10; SV-10, n = 11 and AV-10, n = 12) were ventilated during 3 h. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), and lung histology were assessed. Increased IAP resulted in significantly higher elastances (p < 0.001), being AV-10 lower than SV-10 (p < 0.020). SV-10 showed higher central venous pressure (p < 0.003) than S-0; no change was observed in AV-10. Wet/dry lung weight ratio was lower in AV-10 than SV-10 (p = 0.009). Application of AV reduced hemodynamic and lung impairments induced by increased IAP during SV.
JTD Keywords: Alternating ventilation, Respiratory mechanics, Intra-abdominal pressure, Hemodynamic, Mechanical ventilation, Animal model
Morgenstern, C., Schwaibold, M., Randerath, W. J., Bolz, A., Jané, R., (2010). An invasive and a noninvasive approach for the automatic differentiation of obstructive and central hypopneas IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 57, (8), 1927-1936
The automatic differentiation of obstructive and central respiratory events is a major challenge in the diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing. Esophageal pressure (Pes) measurement is the gold-standard method to identify these events. This study presents a new classifier that automatically differentiates obstructive and central hypopneas with the Pes signal and a new approach for an automatic noninvasive classifier with nasal airflow. An overall of 28 patients underwent night polysomnography with Pes recording, and a total of 769 hypopneas were manually scored by human experts to create a gold-standard annotation set. Features were automatically extracted from the Pes signal to train and test the classifiers (discriminant analysis, support vector machines, and adaboost). After a significantly (p < 0.01) higher incidence of inspiratory flow limitation episodes in obstructive hypopneas was objectively, invasively assessed compared to central hypopneas, the feasibility of an automatic noninvasive classifier with features extracted from the airflow signal was demonstrated. The automatic invasive classifier achieved a mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 0.90 after a 100-fold cross validation. The automatic noninvasive feasibility study obtained similar hypopnea differentiation results as a manual noninvasive classification algorithm. Hence, both systems seem promising for the automatic differentiation of obstructive and central hypopneas.
JTD Keywords: Automatic differentiation, Central hypopnea, Esophageal pressure (Pes), Inspiratory flow limitation (IFL), Noninvasive classification, Obstructive hypopnea
Morgenstern, C., Schwaibold, M., Randerath, W., Bolz, A., Jané, R., (2010). Automatic non-invasive differentiation of obstructive and central hypopneas with nasal airflow compared to esophageal pressure Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 32nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Buenos Aires, Argentina) , 6142-6145
The differentiation of obstructive and central respiratory events is a major challenge in the diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing. Esophageal pressure (Pes) measurement is the gold-standard method to identify these events but its invasiveness deters its usage in clinical routine. Flattening patterns appear in the airflow signal during episodes of inspiratory flow limitation (IFL) and have been shown with invasive techniques to be useful to differentiate between central and obstructive hypopneas. In this study we present a new method for the automatic non-invasive differentiation of obstructive and central hypopneas solely with nasal airflow. An overall of 36 patients underwent full night polysomnography with systematic Pes recording and a total of 1069 hypopneas were manually scored by human experts to create a gold-standard annotation set. Features were automatically extracted from the nasal airflow signal to train and test our automatic classifier (Discriminant Analysis). Flattening patterns were non-invasively assessed in the airflow signal using spectral and time analysis. The automatic non-invasive classifier obtained a sensitivity of 0.71 and an accuracy of 0.69, similar to the results obtained with a manual non-invasive classification algorithm. Hence, flattening airflow patterns seem promising for the non-invasive differentiation of obstructive and central hypopneas.
JTD Keywords: Practical, Experimental/ biomedical measurement, Feature extraction, Flow measurement, Medical disorders, Medical signal processing, Patient diagnosis, Pneumodynamics, Pressure measurement, Signal classification, Sleep, Spectral analysis/ automatic noninvasive differentiation, Obstructive hypopnea, Central hypopnea, Inspiratory flow limitation, Nasal airflow, Esophageal pressure, Polysomnography, Feature extraction, Discriminant analysis, Spectral analysis
Farre, R., Navajas, D., (2009). Quality control: A necessary, but sometimes overlooked, tool for improving respiratory medicine European Respiratory Journal 33, (4), 722-723
The importance of quality control in both general and respiratory medicine has increased in parallel with the complexity of healthcare provision. Only a few decades ago, the respiratory physician and/or scientist had a very limited number of diagnostic and therapeutic tools available and, moreover, medical practice was based almost exclusively on the personal interaction between doctor and patient. Consequently, at that time the quality of the respiratory healthcare depended entirely on the professional competence of the doctor. Although nowadays the relationship between physician and patient undoubtedly still lies at the heart of respiratory medical practice, the quality of the medical service received by the patient also depends on many other participants in a complex healthcare network: various medical specialists, lung function technicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, social workers and administrative staff. Accordingly, several quality control programmes are applied in order to avoid, or at least to reduce, errors in diagnosis, improper performance of procedures, errors in medication, and failure to supervise or monitor care or recognise complications associated with treatment
JTD Keywords: Airway pressure devices, Clinical-trial, Standardization, Spirometry, Lung, Home, Ventilators, Publication, Performance, Technology
Morgenstern, C., Schwaibold, M., Randerath, W. J., Bolz, A., Jané, R., (2009). Assessment of changes in upper airway obstruction by automatic identification of inspiratory flow limitation during sleep IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 56, (8), 2006-2015
New techniques for automatic invasive and noninvasive identification of inspiratory flow limitation (IFL) are presented. Data were collected from 11 patients with full nocturnal polysomnography and gold-standard esophageal pressure (Pes) measurement. A total of 38,782 breaths were extracted and automatically analyzed. An exponential model is proposed to reproduce the relationship between Pes and airflow of an inspiration and achieve an objective assessment of changes in upper airway obstruction. The characterization performance of the model is appraised with three evaluation parameters: mean-squared error when estimating resistance at peak pressure, coefficient of determination, and assessment of IFL episodes. The model's results are compared to the two best-performing models in the literature. The obtained gold-standard IFL annotations were then employed to train, test, and validate a new noninvasive automatic IFL classification system. Discriminant analysis, support vector machines, and Adaboost algorithms were employed to objectively classify breaths noninvasively with features extracted from the time and frequency domains of the breaths' flowpatterns. The results indicated that the exponential model characterizes IFL and subtle relative changes in upper airway obstruction with the highest accuracy and objectivity. The new noninvasive automatic classification system also succeeded in identifying IFL episodes, achieving a sensitivity of 0.87 and a specificity of 0.85.
JTD Keywords: Esophageal pressure, Exponential model, Inspiratory flow limitation, Noninvasive, Classification, Upper airway obstruction
Almendros, I., Carreras, A., Ramirez, J., Montserrat, J. M., Navajas, D., Farre, R., (2008). Upper airway collapse and reopening induce inflammation in a sleep apnoea model European Respiratory Journal 32, (2), 399-404
The upper airway of obstructive sleep apnoea patients is subjected to recurrent negative pressure swings promoting its collapse and reopening. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether this mechanical stress induces upper airway inflammation in a rat model. The upper airway of Sprague-Dawley rats was subjected to a periodic pattern of recurrent negative (-40 cmH2O, 1 s) and positive (4 cmH2O, 2 s) pressures inducing collapse and reopening for 5 h. Rats that were instrumented but not subjected to negative pressure swings were used as controls. The gene expression of the pro-inflammatory biomarkers macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and P-selectin in the soft palate and larynx tissues was assessed by real-time PCR. A marked overexpression of MIP-2, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and P-selectin (approximately 40-, 24-, 47- and 7-fold greater than controls, respectively) was observed in the larynx tissue; similar results were found in the soft palate tissue (approximately 14-, 7-, 35- and 11-fold greater than controls, respectively). Recurrent upper airway collapse and reopening mimicking those experienced by obstructive sleep apnoea patients triggered an early local inflammatory process. These results could explain the inflammation observed in the upper airway of obstructive sleep apnoea patients.
JTD Keywords: Airway collapse, Airway reopening, Inflammation, Negative pressure, Obstructive sleep apnoea, Upper airway
Farre, R., Montserrat, J. M., Navajas, D., (2008). Assessment of upper airway mechanics during sleep Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology , 163, (1-3), 74-81
Obstructive sleep apnea, which is the most prevalent sleep breathing disorder, is characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway collapse and reopening. However, the mechanical properties of the upper airway are not directly measured in routine polysomnography because only qualitative sensors (thermistors for flow and thoraco-abdominal bands for pressure) are used. This review focuses on two techniques that quantify upper airway obstruction during sleep. A Starling model of collapsible conduit allows us to interpret the mechanics of the upper airway by means of two parameters: the critical pressure (Pcrit) and the upstream resistance (Rup). A simple technique to measure Pcrit and Rup involves the application of different levels of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during sleep. The forced oscillation technique is another non-invasive procedure for quantifying upper airway impedance during the breathing cycle in sleep studies. The latest developments in these two methods allow them to be easily applied on a routine basis in order to more fully characterize upper airway mechanics in patients with sleep breathing disorders.
JTD Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea, Upper airway, Airway resistance, Critical pressure, Respiratory impedance
Torrent-Burgues, J., Oncins, G., Sanz, F., (2008). Study of mixed Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of dissimilar components by AFM and force spectroscopy Colloids and Surfaces a-Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 12th International Conference on Organized Molecular Films , Elsevier Science (Krakow, Poland) 321, (1-3), 70-75
In this study the structure of mixed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers has been investigated using atomic force microscopy, lateral force microscopy and force spectroscopy, as well as the characteristics of the Langmuir monolayers by surface pressure-area isotherms and Brewster angle microscopy. Mixed films were of dissimilar compounds, a fatty acid such as arachidic acid and a macrocyclic compound. The mixture forms separated phases, but some degree of partial miscibility occurs, with domains at the micro-scale that have different nanomechanical and nanotribological properties. LB films transferred at the same surface pressure show different characteristics depending on the composition. The higher domains correspond to arachidic acid and some of these domains show the presence of two phases, which have been identified as phases with discrete molecular tilting angles.
JTD Keywords: Mixed monolayers, Pressure-area isotherm, Langmuir-Blodgett, AFM, Force spectroscopy