by Keyword: Chemical detection

Mohammed-Sadhakathullah, AHM, Paulo-Mirasol, S, Molina, BG, Torras, J, Armelin, E, (2024). PLA-PEG-Cholesterol biomimetic membrane for electrochemical sensing of antioxidants Electrochimica Acta 476, 143716

Polymeric membranes exhibit unique and modulate transport properties when they are properly functionalised, which make them ideal for ions transport, molecules separation and molecules interactions. The present work proposes the design and fabrication of nanostructured membranes, composed by biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), incorporating a lipophilic molecule (cholesterol) covalently bonded, were especially designed to provide even more application opportunities in sensors field. Electrochemical studies, by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV), revealed important differences regarding the functionalised and non-functionalised PLA systems. PEGcholesterol building block units showed a clear affinity with ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and Trolox (R) (a watersoluble analogue of vitamin E), both hydrophilic in nature, with a limit of detection capacity of 8.12 mu M for AA and 3.53 mu M for AA and Trolox, respectively, in aqueous salt solution. The bioinspired polymer may be used to incorporate antioxidant property that allow the design of anti-stress biosensors, electrodes for the detection of vitamin C or vitamin E in biomedical nutrition programs, among other applications.

JTD Keywords: Antioxidant molecules, Antioxidants, Application programs, Ascorbic acid, Biomimetics, C (programming language), Capacity, Chemical detection, Cholesterol, Cyclic voltammetry, Electrochemical detection, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Functional polymers, Functionalized, Lactic acid, Molecules, Nanomembranes, Poly ethylene glycols, Poly lactic acid, Poly(ethylene glycol), Poly(ethyleneglycol), Poly(lactic acid), Polyethylene glycols, Vitamin-e

Resina, L, Alemán, C, Ferreira, FC, Esteves, T, (2023). Protein-imprinted polymers: How far have "plastic antibodies" come? Biotechnology Advances 68, 108220

Antibodies are highly selective and sensitive, making them the gold standard for recognition affinity tools. However, their production cost is high and their downstream processing is time-consuming. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are tailor-made by incorporating specific molecular recognition sites in their structure, thus translating into receptor-like activity mode of action. The interest in molecular imprinting technology, applied to biomacromolecules, has increased in the past decade. MIPs, produced using biomolecules as templates, commonly referred to as "plastic antibodies" or "artificial receptors", have been considered as suitable cheaper and easy to produce alternatives to antibodies. Research on MIPs, designed to recognize proteins or peptides is particularly important, with potential contributions towards biomedical applications, namely biosensors and targeted drug delivery systems. This mini review will cover recent advances on (bio)molecular imprinting technology, where proteins or peptides are targeted or mimicked for sensing and therapeutic applications. Polymerization methods are reviewed elsewhere, being out of the scope of this review. Template selection and immobilization approaches, monomers and applications will be discussed, highlighting possible drawbacks and gaps in research.Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: artificial antibodies, assay, biomimetics, biomolecules, biosensors, delivery, diagnostics, drug delivery, electrochemical detection, nanoparticles, receptors, science-and-technology, selective recognition, selective targeting, separation, templates, Artificial antibodies, Biomimetics, Biomolecules, Biosensors, Diagnostics, Drug delivery, Molecularly imprinted polymers, Nanoparticles, Selective targeting, Solid-phase synthesis

Marti, D, Martin-Martinez, E, Torras, J, Betran, O, Turon, P, Aleman, C, (2022). In silico study of substrate chemistry effect on the tethering of engineered antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 detection: Amorphous silica vs gold Colloids And Surfaces B-Biointerfaces 213, 112400

The influence of the properties of different solid substrates on the tethering of two antibodies, IgG1-CR3022 and IgG1-S309, which were specifically engineered for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, has been examined at the molecular level using conventional and accelerated Molecular Dynamics (cMD and aMD, respectively). Two surfaces with very different properties and widely used in immunosensors for diagnosis, amorphous silica and the most stable facet of the face-centered cubic gold structure, have been considered. The effects of such surfaces on the structure and orientation of the immobilized antibodies have been determined by quantifying the tilt and hinge angles that describe the orientation and shape of the antibody, respectively, and the dihedrals that measure the relative position of the antibody arms with respect to the surface. Results show that the interactions with amorphous silica, which are mainly electrostatic due to the charged nature of the surface, help to preserve the orientation and structure of the antibodies, especially of the IgG1-CR3022, indicating that the primary sequence of those antibodies also plays some role. Instead, short-range van der Waals interactions with the inert gold surface cause a higher degree tilting and fraying of the antibodies with respect to amorphous silica. The interactions between the antibodies and the surface also affect the correlation among the different angles and dihedrals, which increases with their strength. Overall, results explain why amorphous silica substrates are frequently used to immobilize antibodies in immunosensors. © 2022 The Authors

JTD Keywords: amorphous silica, antibody immobilization, enzyme, gol d, gold, immobilization, immunosensor, molecu l a r dynamics, molecular dynamics, protein adsorption, sars-cov-2 immunosensor, simulations, spike protein, surface interactions, target, vaccine, Amorphous silica, Antibodies, Antibody engineering, Antibody immobilization, Antibody structure, Article, Chemical detection, Computer model, Controlled study, Dihedral angle, Gold, In-silico, Molecular dynamics, Molecular levels, Molecular-dynamics, Nonhuman, Property, Sars, Sars-cov-2 immunosensor, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, Silica, Silico studies, Silicon dioxide, Solid substrates, Structure analysis, Substrate chemistry, Substrates, Van der waals forces, Virus detection

Lopez-Muñoz, GA, Fernández-Costa, JM, Ortega, MA, Balaguer-Trias, J, Martin-Lasierra, E, Ramón-Azcón, J, (2021). Plasmonic nanocrystals on polycarbonate substrates for direct and label-free biodetection of Interleukin-6 in bioengineered 3D skeletal muscles Nanophotonics 10, 4477-4488

Abstract The development of nanostructured plasmonic biosensors has been widely widespread in the last years, motivated by the potential benefits they can offer in integration, miniaturization, multiplexing opportunities, and enhanced performance label-free biodetection in a wide field of applications. Between them, engineering tissues represent a novel, challenging, and prolific application field for nanostructured plasmonic biosensors considering the previously described benefits and the low levels of secreted biomarkers (?pM–nM) to detect. Here, we present an integrated plasmonic nanocrystals-based biosensor using high throughput nanostructured polycarbonate substrates. Metallic film thickness and incident angle of light for reflectance measurements were optimized to enhance the detection of antibody–antigen biorecognition events using numerical simulations. We achieved an enhancement in biodetection up to 3× as the incident angle of light decreases, which can be related to shorter evanescent decay lengths. We achieved a high reproducibility between channels with a coefficient of variation below 2% in bulk refractive index measurements, demonstrating a high potential for multiplexed sensing. Finally, biosensing potential was demonstrated by the direct and label-free detection of interleukin-6 biomarker in undiluted cell culture media supernatants from bioengineered 3D skeletal muscle tissues stimulated with different concentrations of endotoxins achieving a limit of detection (LOD) of ? 0.03 ng/mL (1.4 pM).

JTD Keywords: assay, crystals, drug, label-free biosensing, molecules, plasmonic nanostructures, sensors, skeletal muscle, tissue engineering, Biodetection, Biomarkers, Biosensors, Cell culture, Cells, Chemical detection, Histology, Interleukin-6, Interleukin6 (il6), Label free, Label-free biosensing, Muscle, Nano-structured, Nanocrystals, Plasmonic nanocrystals, Plasmonic nanostructures, Plasmonics, Polycarbonate substrates, Polycarbonates, Refractive index, Sensitivity, Skeletal muscle, Tissue engineering, Tissues engineerings

Marti, D, Martin-Martinez, E, Torras, J, Bertran, O, Turon, P, Aleman, C, (2021). In silico antibody engineering for SARS-CoV-2 detection Computational And Structural Biotechnology Journal 19, 5525-5534

Engineered immunoglobulin-G molecules (IgGs) are of wide interest for the development of detection elements in protein-based biosensors with clinical applications. The strategy usually employed for the de novo design of such engineered IgGs consists on merging fragments of the three-dimensional structure of a native IgG, which is immobilized on the biosensor surface, and of an antibody with an exquisite target specificity and affinity. In this work conventional and accelerated classical molecular dynamics (cMD and aMD, respectively) simulations have been used to propose two IgG-like antibodies for COVID-19 detection. More specifically, the crystal structure of the IgG1 B12 antibody, which inactivates the human immunodeficiency virus-1, has been merged with the structure of the antibody CR3022 Fab tightly bounded to SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the structure of the 5309 antibody Fab fragment complexed with SARS-CoV-2 RBD. The two constructed antibodies, named IgG1-CR3022 and IgG1-S309, respectively, have been immobilized on a stable gold surface through a linker. Analyses of the influence of both the merging strategy and the substrate on the stability of the two constructs indicate that the IgG1-S309 antibody better preserves the neutralizing structure than the IgG1-CR3022 one. Overall, results indicate that the IgG1-S309 is appropriated for the generation of antibody based sensors for COVID-19 diagnosis. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Research Network of Computational and Structural Biotechnology.

JTD Keywords: cr3022, igg1, molecular engineering, s309, Antibodies, Antibody engineering, Biosensors, Chemical detection, Clinical application, Cov, Cr3022, Crystal structure, Design, Diseases, Gold nanoparticles, Igg1, Igg1 antibody, Immobilization, Immunoglobulin g, Immunosensor, In-silico, Merging, Molecular dynamics, Molecular engineering, Orientation, Protein-based biosensors, Receptor-binding domains, S309, Sars, Sensor, Spike protein, Target, Vaccine, Viruses

Prieto-Simón, B., Campà s, M., Marty, J. L., (2010). Electrochemical aptamer-based sensors Bioanalytical Reviews , 1, (2), 141-157

The valuable properties of aptamers, such as specificity, sensitivity, stability, cost-effectiveness and design flexibility, have favoured their use as biorecognition elements in biosensor development. These synthetic affinity probes can be developed for almost any target molecule, covering a wide range of applications in fields such as clinical diagnosis and therapy, environmental monitoring and food control. The combination of aptamers with high-performance electrochemical transducers, with their inherent high sensitivities, fast response times and simple equipment, has already provided several electrochemical aptamer-based sensors. Moreover, the small size and versatility of aptamers allow efficient immobilisations in high-density monolayers, an important feature towards miniaturisation and integration of compact electrochemical devices. This review describes the state-of-the-art of electrochemical aptamer-based sensors, entering into the details of the different strategies and types of electrochemical transduction and also considering their advantages when applied to the analysis of complex matrices.

JTD Keywords: Aptabeacon, Aptamer, Biosensor, Electrochemical detection, Redox label