by Keyword: Dopamine

Fontana‐Escartín, Adrián, Lanzalaco, Sonia, Pérez‐Madrigal, Maria M., Bertran, Oscar, Alemán, Carlos, (2022). Electrochemical activation for sensing of three‐dimensional‐printed poly(lactic acid) using low‐pressure plasma Plasma Processes And Polymers 19, 2200101

Matera, Carlo, Calvé, Pablo, Casadó-Anguera, Verònica, Sortino, Rosalba, Gomila, Alexandre MJ., Moreno, Estefanía, Gener, Thomas, Delgado-Sallent, Cristina, Nebot, Pau, Costazza, Davide, Conde-Berriozabal, Sara, Masana, Mercè, Hernando, Jordi, Casadó, Vicent, Puig, MVictoria, Gorostiza, Pau, (2022). Reversible Photocontrol of Dopaminergic Transmission in Wild-Type Animals International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 10114

Understanding the dopaminergic system is a priority in neurobiology and neuropharmacology. Dopamine receptors are involved in the modulation of fundamental physiological functions, and dysregulation of dopaminergic transmission is associated with major neurological disorders. However, the available tools to dissect the endogenous dopaminergic circuits have limited specificity, reversibility, resolution, or require genetic manipulation. Here, we introduce azodopa, a novel photoswitchable ligand that enables reversible spatiotemporal control of dopaminergic transmission. We demonstrate that azodopa activates D1-like receptors in vitro in a light-dependent manner. Moreover, it enables reversibly photocontrolling zebrafish motility on a timescale of seconds and allows separating the retinal component of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Azodopa increases the overall neural activity in the cortex of anesthetized mice and displays illumination-dependent activity in individual cells. Azodopa is the first photoswitchable dopamine agonist with demonstrated efficacy in wild-type animals and opens the way to remotely controlling dopaminergic neurotransmission for fundamental and therapeutic purposes.

JTD Keywords: azobenzene, behavior, brainwave, d-1, dopamine, gpcr, in vivo electrophysiology, inhibitors, optogenetics, optopharmacology, photochromism, photopharmacology, photoswitch, stimulation, zebrafish, Azobenzene, Receptors, Zebrafish

Fontana-Escartin, A, Lanzalaco, S, Bertran, O, Aleman, C, (2022). Electrochemical multi-sensors obtained by applying an electric discharge treatment to 3D-printed poly(lactic acid) Applied Surface Science 597

Electrochemical sensors for real-time detection of several bioanalytes have been prepared by additive manufacturing, shaping non-conductive poly(lactic acid) (PLA) filaments, and applying a physical treatment to create excited species. The latter process, which consists of the application of power discharge of 100 W during 2 min in a chamber at a low pressure of O-2, converts electrochemically inert PLA into an electrochemically responsive material. The electric discharge caused the oxidation of the PLA surface as evidenced by the increment in the quantity of oxygenated species detected by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Indeed, changes in the surface chemical composition became more pronounced with increasing O-2 pressure. After demonstrating the performance of the chemically modified material as individual dopamine and glucose sensors, multiplexed detection has been achieved by measuring simultaneously the two voltammetric signals. This has been performed by collecting the signals in two different regions, a naked chemically modified PLA for dopamine detection and a chemically modified PLA region functionalized with Glucose Oxidase. These outcomes led to define a new paradigm for manufacturing electrodes for electrochemical sensors based on 3D printing without using conducting materials at any stage of the process.

JTD Keywords: Additive manu f a c turing, Carbon, Conductivity, Degradation, Dopamine, Dopamine detection, Glucose detection, Glucose sensors, Immobilization, Multiplexed detect i o n, Oxidase, Plasma treatment

Borras, N, Sanchez-Jimenez, M, Casanovas, J, Aleman, C, Perez-Madrigal, MM, (2022). Porous Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-Based Electrodes for Detecting Stress Biomarkers in Artificial Urine and Sweat Macromolecular Materials And Engineering 307,

When danger is perceived, the human body responds to overcome obstacles and survive a stressful situation; however, sustained levels of stress are associated with health disorders and diminished life quality. Hence, stress biomarkers are monitored to control stress quantitatively. Herein, a porous sensor (4l-COP/p) composed of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-co-N-methylpyrrole) (COP), which is prepared in a four-layered fashion to detect dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), is presented. Specifically, the detection is conducted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), as well as artificial urine and sweat, by applying cyclic voltammetry. The limit of detection values obtained are as low as 5.7 x 10(-6) and 1.4 x 10(-6) m for DA and 5-HT, respectively, when assessed individually in artificial urine. When mixed in PBS, 4l-COP/p detects both biomarkers with a resolution of 0.18 V and a sensitivity of 40 and 30 mu A mm(-1) for DA and 5-HT, respectively. Additionally, by theoretical calculations, the interaction pattern that each stress biomarker establishes with the PEDOT outer layer is elucidated. Whereas DA interacts with the pi-system of PEDOT, 5-HT forms specific hydrogen bonds with the conducting polymer chains. The resolution value obtained depends upon such interactions. Overall, 4l-COP/p electrodes display potential as stress sensing devices for healthcare technologies.

JTD Keywords: Artificial body fluids, Boron-doped diamond, Cortisol, Cyclic voltammetry, Dopamine, Multilayered films, Paper, Saliva, Selective detection, Sensor, Sensors, Serotonin, Serum

Stanton, M. M., Park, B. W., Miguel-López, A., Ma, X., Sitti, M., Sánchez, S., (2017). Biohybrid microtube swimmers driven by single captured bacteria Small 13, (19), 1603679

Bacteria biohybrids employ the motility and power of swimming bacteria to carry and maneuver microscale particles. They have the potential to perform microdrug and cargo delivery in vivo, but have been limited by poor design, reduced swimming capabilities, and impeded functionality. To address these challenge, motile Escherichia coli are captured inside electropolymerized microtubes, exhibiting the first report of a bacteria microswimmer that does not utilize a spherical particle chassis. Single bacterium becomes partially trapped within the tube and becomes a bioengine to push the microtube though biological media. Microtubes are modified with "smart" material properties for motion control, including a bacteria-attractant polydopamine inner layer, addition of magnetic components for external guidance, and a biochemical kill trigger to cease bacterium swimming on demand. Swimming dynamics of the bacteria biohybrid are quantified by comparing "length of protrusion" of bacteria from the microtubes with respect to changes in angular autocorrelation and swimmer mean squared displacement. The multifunctional microtubular swimmers present a new generation of biocompatible micromotors toward future microbiorobots and minimally invasive medical applications.

JTD Keywords: Biohybrids, E. coli, Micromotors, Microswimmers, Polydopamine