by Keyword: alter

Pietroforte S, Barragan Monasterio M, Ferrer-Vaquer A, Irimia M, Ibáñez E, Popovic M, Vassena R, Zambelli F, (2023). Specific processing of meiosis-related transcript is linked to final maturation in human oocytes Molecular Human Reproduction 29, gaad021

Human meiosis in oocytes entails an intricate regulation of the transcriptome to support late oocyte growth and early embryo development, both crucial to reproductive success. Currently, little is known about the co- and post-transcriptional mRNA processing mechanisms regulating the last meiotic phases, which contribute to transcriptome complexity and influence translation rates. We analyzed gene expression changes, splicing and pre-mRNA processing in an RNA sequencing set of 40 human oocytes at different meiotic maturation stages, matured both in vivo and in vitro. We found abundant untranslated region (UTR) processing, mostly at the 3' end, of meiosis-related genes between the germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II (MII) stages, supported by the differential expression of spliceosome and pre-mRNA processing related genes. Importantly, we found very few differences among GV oocytes across several durations of IVM, as long as they did not reach MII, suggesting an association of RNA processing and successful meiosis transit. Changes in protein isoforms are minor, although specific and consistent for genes involved in chromosome organization and spindle assembly. In conclusion, we reveal a dynamic transcript remodeling during human female meiosis, and show how pre-mRNA processing, specifically 3'UTR shortening, drives a selective translational regulation of transcripts necessary to reach final meiotic maturation.© The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

JTD Keywords: 3 & prime, alternative splicing, gene expression, meiosis, oocyte competence, program, rna, splicing, untranslated region processing, untranslated regions, 3′ untranslated region processing, 3′ untranslated regions, Alternative splicing, Expression, Gene expression, Human oocytes, Meiosis, Oocyte competence, Splicing

Pizarek, John A., Fischer, Nicholas G., Aparicio, Conrado, (2023). Immunomodulatory IL-23 receptor antagonist peptide nanocoatings for implant soft tissue healing Dental Materials 39, 204-216

Peri-implantitis, caused by an inflammatory response to pathogens, is the leading cause of dental implant failure. Poor soft tissue healing surrounding implants - caused by inadequate surface properties - leads to infection, inflammation, and dysregulated keratinocyte and macrophage function. One activated inflammatory response, active around peri-implantitis compared to healthy sites, is the IL-23/IL-17A cytokine axis. Implant surfaces can be synthesized with peptide nanocoatings to present immunomodulatory motifs to target peri-implant keratinocytes to control macrophage polarization and regulate inflammatory axises toward enhancing soft tissue healing.We synthesized an IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) noncompetitive antagonist peptide nanocoating using silanization and evaluated keratinocyte secretome changes and macrophage polarization (M1-like "pro-inflammatory" vs. M2-like "pro-regenerative").IL-23R antagonist peptide nanocoatings were successfully synthesized on titanium, to model dental implant surfaces, and compared to nonfunctional nanocoatings and non-coated titanium. IL-23R antagonist nanocoatings significantly decreased keratinocyte IL-23, and downstream IL-17A, expression compared to controls. This peptide noncompetitive antagonistic function was demonstrated under lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Large scale changes in keratinocyte secretome content, toward a pro-regenerative milieu, were observed from keratinocytes cultured on the IL-23R antagonist nanocoatings compared to controls. Conditioned medium collected from keratinocytes cultured on the IL-23R antagonist nanocoatings polarized macrophages toward a M2-like phenotype, based on increased CD163 and CD206 expression and reduced iNOS expression, compared to controls.Our results support development of IL-23R noncompetitive antagonist nanocoatings to reduce the pro-inflammatory IL-23/17A pathway and augment macrophage polarization toward a pro-regenerative phenotype. Immunomodulatory implant surface engineering may promote soft tissue healing and thereby reduce rates of peri-implantitis.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: agents, alter, bioactivity, cells, dental implant, growth, keratinocyte, macrophage, peptide, peri -implant infection, peri-implant infection, Surface chemistry, Titanium

Zeinali, Reza, del Valle, Luis J., Franco, Lourdes, Yousef, Ibraheem, Rintjema, Jeroen, Alemán, Carlos, Bravo, Fernando, Kleij, Arjan W., Puiggalí, Jordi, (2022). Biobased Terpene Derivatives: Stiff and Biocompatible Compounds to Tune Biodegradability and Properties of Poly(butylene succinate) Polymers 14, 161

Different copolymers incorporating terpene oxide units (e.g., limonene oxide) have been evaluated considering thermal properties, degradability, and biocompatibility. Thus, polycarbonates and polyesters derived from aromatic, monocyclic and bicyclic anhydrides have been considered. Furthermore, ring substitution with myrcene terpene has been evaluated. All polymers were amorphous when evaluated directly from synthesis. However, spherulites could be observed after the slow evaporation of diluted chloroform solutions of polylimonene carbonate, with all isopropene units possessing an R configuration. This feature was surprising considering the reported information that suggested only the racemic polymer was able to crystallize. All polymers were thermally stable and showed a dependence of the maximum degradation rate temperature (from 242 °C to 342 °C) with the type of terpene oxide. The graduation of glass transition temperatures (from 44 °C to 172 °C) was also observed, being higher than those corresponding to the unsubstituted polymers. The chain stiffness of the studied polymers hindered both hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation while a higher rate was detected when an oxidative medium was assayed (e.g., weight losses around 12% after 21 days of exposure). All samples were biocompatible according to the adhesion and proliferation tests performed with fibroblast cells. Hydrophobic and mechanically consistent films (i.e., contact angles between 90° and 110°) were obtained after the evaporation of chloroform from the solutions, having different ratios of the studied biobased polyterpenes and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS). The blend films were comparable in tensile modulus and tensile strength with the pure PBS (e.g., values of 330 MPa and 7 MPa were determined for samples incorporating 30 wt.% of poly(PA-LO), the copolyester derived from limonene oxide and phthalic anhydride. Blends were degradable, biocompatible and appropriate to produce oriented-pore and random-pore scaffolds via a thermally-induced phase separation (TIPS) method and using 1,4-dioxane as solvent. The best results were attained with the blend composed of 70 wt.% PBS and 30 wt.% poly(PA-LO). In summary, the studied biobased terpene derivatives showed promising properties to be used in a blended form for biomedical applications such as scaffolds for tissue engineering.

JTD Keywords: alternating copolymerization, biobased materials, biodegradability, composites, crystallization, cyclohexene oxide, induced phase-separation, limonene oxide, mechanical-properties, polyesters, scaffolds, spherulites, terpene derivatives, thermal properties, thermally-induced phase separation, Acetone, Bio-based, Bio-based materials, Biobased materials, Biocompatibility, Biodegradability, Butenes, Cell culture, Chlorine compounds, Degradation, Evaporation, Glass transition, Limonene oxide, Monoterpenes, Phase separation, Poly (butylenes succinate), Polybutylene succinate, Property, Ring-opening copolymerization, Scaffolds, Spheru-lites, Tensile strength, Terpene derivatives, Thermal properties, Thermally induced phase separation, Thermally-induced phase separation, Thermally?induced phase separation, Thermodynamic properties, Thermogravimetric analysis

Barbero-Castillo A, Riefolo F, Matera C, Caldas-Martínez S, Mateos-Aparicio P, Weinert JF, Garrido-Charles A, Claro E, Sanchez-Vives MV, Gorostiza P, (2021). Control of Brain State Transitions with a Photoswitchable Muscarinic Agonist Advanced Science 8, e2005027

The ability to control neural activity is essential for research not only in basic neuroscience, as spatiotemporal control of activity is a fundamental experimental tool, but also in clinical neurology for therapeutic brain interventions. Transcranial-magnetic, ultrasound, and alternating/direct current (AC/DC) stimulation are some available means of spatiotemporal controlled neuromodulation. There is also light-mediated control, such as optogenetics, which has revolutionized neuroscience research, yet its clinical translation is hampered by the need for gene manipulation. As a drug-based light-mediated control, the effect of a photoswitchable muscarinic agonist (Phthalimide-Azo-Iper (PAI)) on a brain network is evaluated in this study. First, the conditions to manipulate M2 muscarinic receptors with light in the experimental setup are determined. Next, physiological synchronous emergent cortical activity consisting of slow oscillations-as in slow wave sleep-is transformed into a higher frequency pattern in the cerebral cortex, both in vitro and in vivo, as a consequence of PAI activation with light. These results open the way to study cholinergic neuromodulation and to control spatiotemporal patterns of activity in different brain states, their transitions, and their links to cognition and behavior. The approach can be applied to different organisms and does not require genetic manipulation, which would make it translational to humans.

JTD Keywords: brain states, light-mediated control, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, neuromodulation, Activation, Alternating/direct currents, Basal forebrain, Brain, Brain states, Clinical research, Clinical translation, Controlled drug delivery, Cortex, Forebrain cholinergic system, Genetic manipulations, Higher frequencies, Hz oscillation, Light‐, Light-mediated control, Mediated control, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, Muscarinic agonists, Muscarinic receptor, Neurology, Neuromodulation, Neurons, Noradrenergic modulation, Parvalbumin-positive interneurons, Photopharmacology, Receptor-binding, Slow, Spatiotemporal control, Spatiotemporal patterns

Lidón L, Llaó-Hierro L, Nuvolone M, Aguzzi A, Ávila J, Ferrer I, Del Río JA, Gavín R, (2021). Tau exon 10 inclusion by prpc through downregulating gsk3? activity International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 22,

Tau protein is largely responsible for tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), where it accumulates in the brain as insoluble aggregates. Tau mRNA is regulated by alternative splicing, and inclusion or exclusion of exon 10 gives rise to the 3R and 4R isoforms respectively, whose balance is physiologically regulated. In this sense, one of the several factors that regulate alternative splicing of tau is GSK3?, whose activity is inhibited by the cellular prion protein (PrPC), which has different physiological functions in neuroprotection and neuronal differentiation. Moreover, a relationship between PrPC and tau expression levels has been reported during AD evolution. For this reason, in this study we aimed to analyze the role of PrPC and the implication of GSK3? in the regulation of tau exon 10 alternative splicing. We used AD human samples and mouse models of PrPC ablation and tau overexpression. In addition, we used primary neuronal cultures to develop functional studies. Our results revealed a paralleled association between PrPC expression and tau 4R isoforms in all models analyzed. In this sense, reduction or ablation of PrPC levels induces an increase in tau 3R/4R balance. More relevantly, our data points to GSK3? activity downstream from PrPC in this phenomenon. Our results indicate that PrPC plays a role in tau exon 10 inclusion through the inhibitory capacity of GSK3?. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: alternative splicing, alzheimer's disease, alzheimers-disease, alzheimer’s disease, amyloid-beta, cellular prion protein, frontotemporal dementia, glycogen-synthase kinase-3, gsk3 beta, gsk3?, gsk3β, messenger-rna, microtubule-associated protein tau, neurofibrillary tangles, progressive supranuclear palsy, promotes neuronal differentiation, stem-cells, tauopathies, Alternative splicing, Alzheimer’s disease, Cellular prion protein, Gsk3?, Microtubule-associated protein tau, Tauopathies

Cagido, Viviane Ramos, Zin, Walter Araujo, Ramirez, Jose, Navajas, Daniel, Farre, Ramon, (2011). Alternating ventilation in a rat model of increased abdominal pressure Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology , 175, (3), 310-315

During alternating ventilation (AV) one lung is inflating while the other is deflating. Considering the possible respiratory and hemodynamic advantages of AV, we investigated its effects during increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP = 10 mmHg). In Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6, 270–375 g) the main bronchi were independently cannulated, and respiratory mechanics determined while animals underwent different ventilatory patterns: synchronic ventilation without increased IAP (SV-0), elevated IAP during SV (SV-10), and AV with elevated IAP (AV-10). Thirty-three other animals (SV-0, n = 10; SV-10, n = 11 and AV-10, n = 12) were ventilated during 3 h. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), and lung histology were assessed. Increased IAP resulted in significantly higher elastances (p < 0.001), being AV-10 lower than SV-10 (p < 0.020). SV-10 showed higher central venous pressure (p < 0.003) than S-0; no change was observed in AV-10. Wet/dry lung weight ratio was lower in AV-10 than SV-10 (p = 0.009). Application of AV reduced hemodynamic and lung impairments induced by increased IAP during SV.

JTD Keywords: Alternating ventilation, Respiratory mechanics, Intra-abdominal pressure, Hemodynamic, Mechanical ventilation, Animal model