by Keyword: liquid

Blanco-Fernandez, G, Blanco-Fernandez, B, Fernandez-Ferreiro, A, Otero-Espinar, FJ, (2023). Lipidic lyotropic liquid crystals: Insights on biomedical applications Advances In Colloid And Interface Science 313, 102867

Liquid crystals (LCs) possess unique physicochemical properties, translatable into a wide range of applications. To date, lipidic lyotropic LCs (LLCs) have been extensively explored in drug delivery and imaging owing to the capability to encapsulate and release payloads with different characteristics. The current landscape of lipidic LLCs in biomedical applications is provided in this review. Initially, the main properties, types, methods of fabrication and applications of LCs are showcased. Then, a comprehensive discussion of the main biomedical applications of lipidic LLCs accordingly to the application (drug and biomacromolecule delivery, tissue engi-neering and molecular imaging) and route of administration is examined. Further discussion of the main limi-tations and perspectives of lipidic LLCs in biomedical applications are also provided.Statement of significance: Liquid crystals (LCs) are those systems between a solid and liquid state that possess unique morphological and physicochemical properties, translatable into a wide range of biomedical applications. A short description of the properties of LCs, their types and manufacturing procedures is given to serve as a background to the topic. Then, the latest and most innovative research in the field of biomedicine is examined, specifically the areas of drug and biomacromolecule delivery, tissue engineering and molecular imaging. Finally, prospects of LCs in biomedicine are discussed to show future trends and perspectives that might be utilized. This article is an ampliation, improvement and actualization of our previous short forum article "Bringing lipidic lyotropic liquid crystal technology into biomedicine" published in TIPS.

JTD Keywords: Cancer, Drug delivery, Drug-delivery-systems, Glycerol monooleate, Imaging, In-situ, Liquid crystals, Nano-carriers, Nanoparticles, Phase-behavior, Stratum-corneum, Sustained-release, Tissue engineering, Vegetable-oil, Water

Munoz-Galan, H, Aleman, C, Perez-Madrigal, MM, (2023). Beyond biology: alternative uses of cantilever-based technologies Lab On A Chip 23, 1128-1150

Microcantilever-based platforms are presented as versatile lab-on-chip devices for advanced applications spanning from material characterization and environmental monitoring to energy.

JTD Keywords: mechanical-properties, micromechanical cantilever, photothermal spectroscopy, sensitive detection, silicon cantilevers, solid-liquid interface, surface-stress, thin-films, vapor detection, Nanomechanical thermal-analysis

Fontana-Escartín, Adrián, El Hauadi, Karima, Lanzalaco, Sonia, Pérez-Madrigal, Maria M., Armelin, Elaine, Turon, Pau, Alemán, Carlos, (2023). Preparation and Characterization of Functionalized Surgical Meshes for Early Detection of Bacterial Infections Acs Biomaterials Science & Engineering 9, 1104-1115

Venugopal A, Ruiz-Perez L, Swamynathan K, Kulkarni C, Calò A, Kumar M, (2023). Caught in Action: Visualizing Dynamic Nanostructures Within Supramolecular Systems Chemistry Angewandte Chemie 62, e202208681

Supramolecular systems chemistry has been an area of active research to develop nanomaterials with life-like functions. Progress in systems chemistry relies on our ability to probe the nanostructure formation in solution. Often visualizing the dynamics of nanostructures which transform over time is a formidable challenge. This necessitates a paradigm shift from dry sample imaging towards solution-based techniques. We review the application of state-of-the-art techniques for real-time, in situ visualization of dynamic self-assembly processes. We present how solution-based techniques namely optical super-resolution microscopy, solution-state atomic force microscopy, liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations and other emerging techniques are revolutionizing our understanding of active and adaptive nanomaterials with life-like functions. This Review provides the visualization toolbox and futuristic vision to tap the potential of dynamic nanomaterials.© 2022 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: electron-microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, in-situ, mechanical-properties, molecular simulations, nanostructures, polymerization, polymers, stimulated-emission, super-resolution microscopy, supramolecular chemistry, systems chemistry, water, Atomic-force microscopy, Liquid tem, Nanostructures, Super-resolution microscopy, Supramolecular chemistry, Systems chemistry

Picazo-Frutos R, Stern Q, Blanchard JW, Cala O, Ceillier M, Cousin SF, Eills J, Elliott SJ, Jannin S, Budker D, (2023). Zero- to Ultralow-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Enhanced with Dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Analytical Chemistry 95, 720-729

Zero- to ultralow-field nuclear magnetic resonance is a modality of magnetic resonance experiment which does not require strong superconducting magnets. Contrary to conventional high-field nuclear magnetic resonance, it has the advantage of allowing high-resolution detection of nuclear magnetism through metal as well as within heterogeneous media. To achieve high sensitivity, it is common to couple zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance with hyperpolarization techniques. To date, the most common technique is parahydrogen-induced polarization, which is only compatible with a small number of compounds. In this article, we establish dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization as a versatile method to enhance signals in zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance experiments on sample mixtures of [13C]sodium formate, [1-13C]glycine, and [2-13C]sodium acetate, and our technique is immediately extendable to a broad range of molecules with >1 s relaxation times. We find signal enhancements of up to 11,000 compared with thermal prepolarization in a 2 T permanent magnet. To increase the signal in future experiments, we investigate the relaxation effects of the TEMPOL radicals used for the hyperpolarization process at zero- and ultralow-fields.

JTD Keywords: injection, liquids, relaxation, times, Spectroscopy

Blanco-Fernandez G, Blanco-Fernandez B, Fernández-Ferreiro A, Otero-Espinar F, (2023). Bringing lipidic lyotropic liquid crystal technology into biomedicine Trends In Pharmacological Sciences 44, 7-10

Liquid crystals (LCs), discovered more than 130 years ago, are now emerging in the field of biomedicine. This article highlights the recent uses of lipid lyotropic LCs in therapeutics delivery, imaging, and tissue engineering and invites the scientific community to continue exploring the design of more complex LCs. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd

JTD Keywords: Biomedicine, Drug delivery, Glycerol monooleate, Imaging, tissue engineering, Lyotropic liquid crystals

Sierra-Agudelo J, Rodriguez-Trujillo R, Samitier J, (2022). Microfluidics for the Isolation and Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells Microfluidics And Biosensors In Cancer Research 1379, 389-412

Nowadays, liquid biopsy represents one of the most promising techniques for early diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy screening of cancer. This novel methodology includes, among other techniques, the isolation, capture, and analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Nonetheless, the identification of CTC from whole blood is challenging due to their extremely low concentration (1-100 per ml of whole blood), and traditional methods result insufficient in terms of purity, recovery, throughput and/or viability of the processed sample. In this context, the development of microfluidic devices for detecting and isolating CTCs offers a wide range of new opportunities due to their excellent properties for cell manipulation and the advantages to integrate and bring different laboratory processes into the microscale improving the sensitivity, portability, reducing cost and time. This chapter explores current and recent microfluidic approaches that have been developed for the analysis and detection of CTCs, which involve cell capture methods based on affinity binding and label-free methods and detection based on electrical, chemical, and optical sensors. All the exposed technologies seek to overcome the limitations of commercial systems for the analysis and isolation of CTCs, as well as to provide extended analysis that will allow the development of novel and more efficient diagnostic tools.© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

JTD Keywords: Cancer detection, Cancer diagnosis, Circulating tumor cells, Liquid biopsy, Microfluidics

Valenti, Sofia, del Valle, Luis Javier, Romanini, Michela, Mitjana, Meritxell, Puiggalí, Jordi, Tamarit, Josep Lluís, Macovez, Roberto, (2022). Drug-Biopolymer Dispersions: Morphology- and Temperature- Dependent (Anti)Plasticizer Effect of the Drug and Component-Specific Johari–Goldstein Relaxations International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 2456

Amorphous molecule-macromolecule mixtures are ubiquitous in polymer technology and are one of the most studied routes for the development of amorphous drug formulations. For these applications it is crucial to understand how the preparation method affects the properties of the mixtures. Here, we employ differential scanning calorimetry and broadband dielectric spectroscopy to investigate dispersions of a small-molecule drug (the Nordazepam anxiolytic) in biodegradable polylactide, both in the form of solvent-cast films and electrospun microfibres. We show that the dispersion of the same small-molecule compound can have opposite (plasticizing or antiplasticizing) effects on the segmental mobility of a biopolymer depending on preparation method, temperature, and polymer enantiomerism. We compare two different chiral forms of the polymer, namely, the enantiomeric pure, semicrystalline L-polymer (PLLA), and a random, fully amorphous copolymer containing both L and D monomers (PDLLA), both of which have lower glass transition temperature (Tg) than the drug. While the drug has a weak antiplasticizing effect on the films, consistent with its higher Tg, we find that it actually acts as a plasticizer for the PLLA microfibres, reducing their Tg by as much as 14 K at 30%-weight drug loading, namely, to a value that is lower than the Tg of fully amorphous films. The structural relaxation time of the samples similarly depends on chemical composition and morphology. Most mixtures displayed a single structural relaxation, as expected for homogeneous samples. In the PLLA microfibres, the presence of crystalline domains increases the structural relaxation time of the amorphous fraction, while the presence of the drug lowers the structural relaxation time of the (partially stretched) chains in the microfibres, increasing chain mobility well above that of the fully amorphous polymer matrix. Even fully amorphous homogeneous mixtures exhibit two distinct Johari–Goldstein relaxation processes, one for each chemical component. Our findings have important implications for the interpretation of the Johari–Goldstein process as well as for the physical stability and mechanical properties of microfibres with small-molecule additives.

JTD Keywords: amorphous pharmaceuticals, beta-relaxation, constant loss, crystallization, dielectric spectroscopy, dynamics, formulation morphology, glass transition, molecular mobility, nanofibers, polylactide, polymer enantiomerism, secondary relaxations, valium metabolite, viscous-liquids, Amorphous pharmaceuticals, Glass-transition, Secondary relaxations

Jain, A, Calo, A, Barcelo, D, Kumar, M, (2022). Supramolecular systems chemistry through advanced analytical techniques Analytical And Bioanalytical Chemistry 414, 5105-5119

Supramolecular chemistry is the quintessential backbone of all biological processes. It encompasses a wide range from the metabolic network to the self-assembled cytoskeletal network. Combining the chemical diversity with the plethora of functional depth that biological systems possess is a daunting task for synthetic chemists to emulate. The only route for approaching such a challenge lies in understanding the complex and dynamic systems through advanced analytical techniques. The supramolecular complexity that can be successfully generated and analyzed is directly dependent on the analytical treatment of the system parameters. In this review, we illustrate advanced analytical techniques that have been used to investigate various supramolecular systems including complex mixtures, dynamic self-assembly, and functional nanomaterials. The underlying theme of such an overview is not only the exceeding detail with which traditional experiments can be probed but also the fact that complex experiments can now be attempted owing to the analytical techniques that can resolve an ensemble in astounding detail. Furthermore, the review critically analyzes the current state of the art analytical techniques and suggests the direction of future development. Finally, we envision that integrating multiple analytical methods into a common platform will open completely new possibilities for developing functional chemical systems.

JTD Keywords: analytical techniques, dynamic self-assembly, high-speed afm, liquid cell tem, Analytical technique, Analytical techniques, Biological process, Chemical analysis, Chemical diversity, Complex networks, Cytoskeletal network, Dynamic self-assembly, High-speed afm, Hydrogels, In-situ, Liquid cell tem, Metabolic network, Microscopy, Nanoscale, Proteins, Self assembly, Supramolecular chemistry, Supramolecular systems, System chemistry, Systems chemistry

Xu D, Hu J, Pan X, Sánchez S, Yan X, Ma X, (2021). Enzyme-Powered Liquid Metal Nanobots Endowed with Multiple Biomedical Functions Acs Nano 15, 11543-11554

Catalytically powered micro/nanobots (MNBs) can perform active movement by harnessing energy from in situ chemical reactions and show tremendous potential in biomedical applications. However, the development of imageable MNBs that are driven by bioavailable fuels and possess multiple therapeutic functions remains challenging. To resolve such issues, we herein propose enzyme (urease) powered liquid metal (LM) nanobots that are naturally of multiple therapeutic functions and imaging signals. The main body of the nanobot is composed of a biocompatible LM nanoparticle encapsulated by polydopamine (PDA). Urease enzyme needed for the powering and desired drug molecules, e.g., cefixime trihydrate antibiotic, are grafted on external surfaces of the PDA shell. Such a chemical composition endows the nanobots with dual-mode ultrasonic (US) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging signals and favorable photothermal effect. These LM nanobots exhibit positive chemotaxis and therefore can be collectively guided along a concentration gradient of urea for targeted transportation. When exposed to NIR light, the LM nanobots would deform and complete the function change from active drug carriers to photothermal reagents, to achieve synergetic antibacterial treatment by both photothermal and chemotherapeutic effects. The US and PA properties of the LM nanoparticle can be used to not only track and monitor the active movement of the nanobots in a microfluidic vessel model but also visualize their dynamics in the bladder of a living mouse in vivo. To conclude, the LM nanobots demonstrated herein represent a proof-of-concept therapeutic nanosystem with multiple biomedical functionalities, providing a feasible tool for preclinical studies and clinical trials of MNB-based imaging-guided therapy.

JTD Keywords: cell, chemo-photothermal therapy, chemotaxis, image tracking, liquid metal nanobots, nanomotors, tracking, Chemo-photothermal therapy, Chemotaxis, Image tracking, Liquid metal nanobots, Nanomotors

Guix M, Mestre R, Patiño T, de Corato M, Fuentes J, Zarpellon G, Sánchez S, (2021). Biohybrid soft robots with self-stimulating skeletons Science Robotics 6,

Bioinspired hybrid soft robots that combine living and synthetic components are an emerging field in the development of advanced actuators and other robotic platforms (i.e., swimmers, crawlers, and walkers). The integration of biological components offers unique characteristics that artificial materials cannot precisely replicate, such as adaptability and response to external stimuli. Here, we present a skeletal muscle–based swimming biobot with a three-dimensional (3D)–printed serpentine spring skeleton that provides mechanical integrity and self-stimulation during the cell maturation process. The restoring force inherent to the spring system allows a dynamic skeleton compliance upon spontaneous muscle contraction, leading to a cyclic mechanical stimulation process that improves the muscle force output without external stimuli. Optimization of the 3D-printed skeletons is carried out by studying the geometrical stiffnesses of different designs via finite element analysis. Upon electrical actuation of the muscle tissue, two types of motion mechanisms are experimentally observed: directional swimming when the biobot is at the liquid-air interface and coasting motion when it is near the bottom surface. The integrated compliant skeleton provides both the mechanical self-stimulation and the required asymmetry for directional motion, displaying its maximum velocity at 5 hertz (800 micrometers per second, 3 body lengths per second). This skeletal muscle–based biohybrid swimmer attains speeds comparable with those of cardiac-based biohybrid robots and outperforms other muscle-based swimmers. The integration of serpentine-like structures in hybrid robotic systems allows self-stimulation processes that could lead to higher force outputs in current and future biomimetic robotic platforms. Copyright © 2021 The Authors, some rights reserved;

JTD Keywords: actuators, design, fabrication, mechanics, mems, myotubes, platform, tissue, 3d printers, Agricultural robots, Biological components, Biomimetic processes, Electrical actuation, Geometrical stiffness, Intelligent robots, Liquefied gases, Liquid-air interface, Mechanical integrity, Mechanical stimulation, Muscle, Muscle contractions, Phase interfaces, Robotics, Serpentine, Springs (components), Threedimensional (3-d)

Ebrahimi N, Bi C, Cappelleri DJ, Ciuti G, Conn AT, Faivre D, Habibi N, Hošovský A, Iacovacci V, Khalil ISM, Magdanz V, Misra S, Pawashe C, Rashidifar R, Soto-Rodriguez PED, Fekete Z, Jafari A, (2021). Magnetic Actuation Methods in Bio/Soft Robotics Advanced Functional Materials 31,

© 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH In recent years, magnetism has gained an enormous amount of interest among researchers for actuating different sizes and types of bio/soft robots, which can be via an electromagnetic-coil system, or a system of moving permanent magnets. Different actuation strategies are used in robots with magnetic actuation having a number of advantages in possible realization of microscale robots such as bioinspired microrobots, tetherless microrobots, cellular microrobots, or even normal size soft robots such as electromagnetic soft robots and medical robots. This review provides a summary of recent research in magnetically actuated bio/soft robots, discussing fabrication processes and actuation methods together with relevant applications in biomedical area and discusses future prospects of this way of actuation for possible improvements in performance of different types of bio/soft robots.

JTD Keywords: capsule endoscope, controlled propulsion, conventional gastroscopy, digital microfluidics, guided capsule, liquid-metal, magnetic drug delivery, magnetic microrobots, magnetically guided capsule endoscopy, magnetotactic bacteria, nanoscribe ip-dip, navigation system, Gallium-indium egain, Magnetic bioinspired micromanipulation, Magnetic drug delivery, Magnetic microrobots, Magnetically guided capsule endoscopy, Magnetotactic bacteria

Tornín J, Villasante A, Solé-Martí X, Ginebra MP, Canal C, (2021). Osteosarcoma tissue-engineered model challenges oxidative stress therapy revealing promoted cancer stem cell properties Free Radical Biology And Medicine 164, 107-118

© 2020 The Author(s) The use of oxidative stress generated by Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) in oncology is being recently studied as a novel potential anti-cancer therapy. However, the beneficial effects of CAP for treating osteosarcoma have mostly been demonstrated in 2-dimensional cultures of cells, which do not mimic the complexity of the 3-dimensional (3D) bone microenvironment. In order to evaluate the effects of CAP in a relevant context of the human disease, we developed a 3D tissue-engineered model of osteosarcoma using a bone-like scaffold made of collagen type I and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Human osteosarcoma cells cultured within the scaffold showed a high capacity to infiltrate and proliferate and to exhibit osteomimicry in vitro. As expected, we observed significantly different functional behaviors between monolayer and 3D cultures when treated with Cold Plasma-Activated Ringer's Solution (PAR). Our data reveal that the 3D environment not only protects cells from PAR-induced lethality by scavenging and diminishing the amount of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated by CAP, but also favours the stemness phenotype of osteosarcoma cells. This is the first study that demonstrates the negative effect of PAR on cancer stem-like cell subpopulations in a 3D biomimetic model of cancer. These findings will allow to suitably re-focus research on plasma-based therapies in future.

JTD Keywords: 3d tumor model, cancer stem-like cells, cold atmospheric plasma, osteosarcoma, oxidative stress, plasma activated liquids, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, 3d tumor model, Cancer stem-like cells, Cold atmospheric plasma, Osteosarcoma, Oxidative stress, Plasma activated liquids, Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species

Solé-Martí X, Espona-Noguera A, Ginebra MP, Canal C, (2021). Plasma-conditioned liquids as anticancer therapies In Vivo: Current state and future directions Cancers 13,

© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. During the last decade, cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) have been broadly investigated for their therapeutic effect against cancer. CAP sources can be used to treat liquid media, thereby generating plasma-conditioned liquids (PCL). PCL represent a very interesting alternative to direct CAP treatment, because they may allow treatment of malignant tumors located in inner organs of the body by means of an injection, thus avoiding multiple surgeries. Although research on this therapy is still in its early stage, PCL have already demonstrated their potential anticancer effect in different types of cancer in vivo. This review gathers the existing literature involving PCL treatments in vivo, highlighting the differences between the approaches undertaken and the need for establishing standardized protocols in order to better understand the effects of PCL-based therapies in vivo. Plasma-conditioned liquids (PCL) are gaining increasing attention in the medical field, especially in oncology, and translation to the clinics is advancing on a good path. This emerging technology involving cold plasmas has great potential as a therapeutic approach in cancer diseases, as PCL have been shown to selectively kill cancer cells by triggering apoptotic mechanisms without damaging healthy cells. In this context, PCL can be injected near the tumor or intratumorally, thereby allowing the treatment of malignant tumors located in internal organs that are not accessible for direct cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment. Therefore, PCL constitutes a very interesting and minimally invasive alternative to direct CAP treatment in cancer therapy, avoiding surgeries and allowing multiple local administrations. As the field advances, it is progressively moving to the evaluation of the therapeutic effects of PCL in in vivo scenarios. Exciting developments are pushing forward the clinical translation of this novel therapy. However, there is still room for research, as the quantification and identification of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in in vivo conditions is not yet clarified, dosage regimens are highly variable among studies, and other more relevant in vivo models could be used. In this context, this work aims to present a critical review of the state of the field of PCL as anticancer agents applied in in vivo studies.

JTD Keywords: cancer, cold atmospheric plasma, in vivo, Cancer, Cold atmospheric plasma, In vivo, Plasma-conditioned liquids

Mateu-Sanz, M, Tornin, J, Ginebra, MP, Canal, C, (2021). Cold Atmospheric Plasma: A New Strategy Based Primarily on Oxidative Stress for Osteosarcoma Therapy Journal Of Clinical Medicine 10,

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor, and its first line of treatment presents a high failure rate. The 5-year survival for children and teenagers with osteosarcoma is 70% (if diagnosed before it has metastasized) or 20% (if spread at the time of diagnosis), stressing the need for novel therapies. Recently, cold atmospheric plasmas (ionized gases consisting of UV-Vis radiation, electromagnetic fields and a great variety of reactive species) and plasma-treated liquids have been shown to have the potential to selectively eliminate cancer cells in different tumors through an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. In this work, we review the current state of the art in cold plasma therapy for osteosarcoma. Specifically, we emphasize the mechanisms unveiled thus far regarding the action of plasmas on osteosarcoma. Finally, we review current and potential future approaches, emphasizing the most critical challenges for the development of osteosarcoma therapies based on this emerging technique.

JTD Keywords: cancer stem cells, cold atmospheric plasma, osteosarcoma, oxidative stress, plasma treated liquids, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, Antineoplastic activity, Antineoplastic agent, Cancer chemotherapy, Cancer stem cell, Cancer stem cells, Cancer surgery, Cancer survival, Cell therapy, Cold atmospheric plasma, Cold atmospheric plasma therapy, Electromagnetism, Human, In vitro study, Intracellular signaling, Oncogene, Osteosarcoma, Oxidative stress, Plasma treated liquids, Reactive nitrogen species, Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, Reactive oxygen metabolite, Review, Tumor microenvironment

Kyndiah A, Checa M, Leonardi F, Millan-Solsona R, Di Muzio M, Tanwar S, Fumagalli L, Mas-Torrent M, Gomila G, (2021). Nanoscale Mapping of the Conductivity and Interfacial Capacitance of an Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistor under Operation Advanced Functional Materials 31,

© 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH Probing nanoscale electrical properties of organic semiconducting materials at the interface with an electrolyte solution under externally applied voltages is key in the field of organic bioelectronics. It is demonstrated that the conductivity and interfacial capacitance of the active channel of an electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor (EGOFET) under operation can be probed at the nanoscale using scanning dielectric microscopy in force detection mode in liquid environment. Local electrostatic force versus gate voltage transfer characteristics are obtained on the device and correlated with the global current–voltage transfer characteristics of the EGOFET. Nanoscale maps of the conductivity of the semiconducting channel show the dependence of the channel conductivity on the gate voltage and its variation along the channel due to the space charge limited conduction. The maps reveal very small electrical heterogeneities, which correspond to local interfacial capacitance variations due to an ultrathin non-uniform insulating layer resulting from a phase separation in the organic semiconducting blend. Present results offer insights into the transduction mechanism at the organic semiconductor/electrolyte interfaces at scales down to ≈100 nm, which can bring substantial optimization of organic electronic devices for bioelectronic applications such as electrical recording on excitable cells or label-free biosensing.

JTD Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, Bioelectronic devices, Electrolyte gated organic field effect transistors, In-liquid scanning dielectric microscopy, Organic semiconducting blend

Olate-Moya, F., Arens, L., Wilhelm, M., Mateos-Timoneda, M. A., Engel, E., Palza, H., (2020). Chondroinductive alginate-based hydrogels having graphene oxide for 3D printed scaffold fabrication ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 12, (4), 4343-4357

Scaffolds based on bioconjugated hydrogels are attractive for tissue engineering because they can partly mimic human tissue characteristics. For example, they can further increase their bioactivity with cells. However, most of the hydrogels present problems related to their processability, consequently limiting their use in 3D printing to produce tailor-made scaffolds. The goal of this work is to develop bioconjugated hydrogel nanocomposite inks for 3D printed scaffold fabrication through a micro-extrusion process having improved both biocompatibility and processability. The hydrogel is based on a photocrosslinkable alginate bioconjugated with both gelatin and chondroitin sulfate in order to mimic the cartilage extracellular matrix, while the nanofiller is based on graphene oxide to enhance the printability and cell proliferation. Our results show that the incorporation of graphene oxide into the hydrogel inks considerably improved the shape fidelity and resolution of 3D printed scaffolds because of a faster viscosity recovery post extrusion of the ink. Moreover, the nanocomposite inks produce anisotropic threads after the 3D printing process because of the templating of the graphene oxide liquid crystal. The in vitro proliferation assay of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) shows that bioconjugated scaffolds present higher cell proliferation than pure alginate, with the nanocomposites presenting the highest values at long times. Live/Dead assay otherwise displays full viability of hADMSCs adhered on the different scaffolds at day 7. Notably, the scaffolds produced with nanocomposite hydrogel inks were able to guide the cell proliferation following the direction of the 3D printed threads. In addition, the bioconjugated alginate hydrogel matrix induced chondrogenic differentiation without exogenous pro-chondrogenesis factors as concluded from immunostaining after 28 days of culture. This high cytocompatibility and chondroinductive effect toward hADMSCs, together with the improved printability and anisotropic structures, makes these nanocomposite hydrogel inks a promising candidate for cartilage tissue engineering based on 3D printing.

JTD Keywords: 3D printing, Chondrogenesis, Graphene oxide, Hydrogels, Liquid crystals

Mateu-Sanz, M., Tornín, J., Brulin, B., Khlyustova, A., Ginebra, M. P., Layrolle, P., Canal, C., (2020). Cold plasma-treated ringer's saline: A weapon to target osteosarcoma Cancers 12, (1), 227

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the main primary bone cancer, presenting poor prognosis and difficult treatment. An innovative therapy may be found in cold plasmas, which show anti-cancer effects related to the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in liquids. In vitro models are based on the effects of plasma-treated culture media on cell cultures. However, effects of plasma-activated saline solutions with clinical application have not yet been explored in OS. The aim of this study is to obtain mechanistic insights on the action of plasma-activated Ringer’s saline (PAR) for OS therapy in cell and organotypic cultures. To that aim, cold atmospheric plasma jets were used to obtain PAR, which produced cytotoxic effects in human OS cells (SaOS-2, MG-63, and U2-OS), related to the increasing concentration of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated. Proof of selectivity was found in the sustained viability of hBM-MSCs with the same treatments. Organotypic cultures of murine OS confirmed the time-dependent cytotoxicity observed in 2D. Histological analysis showed a decrease in proliferating cells (lower Ki-67 expression). It is shown that the selectivity of PAR is highly dependent on the concentrations of reactive species, being the differential intracellular reactive oxygen species increase and DNA damage between OS cells and hBM-MSCs key mediators for cell apoptosis.

JTD Keywords: Bone cancer, Cold atmospheric plasma, Organotypic model, Osteosarcoma, Plasma-activated liquid, Reactive species, Ringer's saline

Sierra, J., Marrugo-Ramírez, J., Rodriguez-Trujillo, R., Mir, M., Samitier, J., (2020). Sensor-integrated microfluidic approaches for liquid biopsies applications in early detection of cancer Sensors 20, (5), 1317

Cancer represents one of the conditions with the most causes of death worldwide. Common methods for its diagnosis are based on tissue biopsies—the extraction of tissue from the primary tumor, which is used for its histological analysis. However, this technique represents a risk for the patient, along with being expensive and time-consuming and so it cannot be frequently used to follow the progress of the disease. Liquid biopsy is a new cancer diagnostic alternative, which allows the analysis of the molecular information of the solid tumors via a body fluid draw. This fluid-based diagnostic method displays relevant advantages, including its minimal invasiveness, lower risk, use as often as required, it can be analyzed with the use of microfluidic-based platforms with low consumption of reagent, and it does not require specialized personnel and expensive equipment for the diagnosis. In recent years, the integration of sensors in microfluidics lab-on-a-chip devices was performed for liquid biopsies applications, granting significant advantages in the separation and detection of circulating tumor nucleic acids (ctNAs), circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and exosomes. The improvements in isolation and detection technologies offer increasingly sensitive and selective equipment’s, and the integration in microfluidic devices provides a better characterization and analysis of these biomarkers. These fully integrated systems will facilitate the generation of fully automatized platforms at low-cost for compact cancer diagnosis systems at an early stage and for the prediction and prognosis of cancer treatment through the biomarkers for personalized tumor analysis.

JTD Keywords: Cancer, Circulant tumor cells (CTC), Circulant tumor DNA (ctDNA), Exosomes, Liquid biopsy, Microfluidic, Sensors

Marrugo-Ramírez, José, Mir, M., Samitier, Josep, (2018). Blood-based cancer biomarkers in liquid biopsy: A promising non-invasive alternative to tissue biopsy International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, (10), 2877

Cancer is one of the greatest threats facing our society, being the second leading cause of death globally. Currents strategies for cancer diagnosis consist of the extraction of a solid tissue from the affected area. This sample enables the study of specific biomarkers and the genetic nature of the tumor. However, the tissue extraction is risky and painful for the patient and in some cases is unavailable in inaccessible tumors. Moreover, a solid biopsy is expensive and time consuming and cannot be applied repeatedly. New alternatives that overcome these drawbacks are rising up nowadays, such as liquid biopsy. A liquid biopsy is the analysis of biomarkers in a non-solid biological tissue, mainly blood, which has remarkable advantages over the traditional method; it has no risk, it is non-invasive and painless, it does not require surgery and reduces cost and diagnosis time. The most studied cancer non-invasive biomarkers are circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), and exosomes. These circulating biomarkers play a key role in the understanding of metastasis and tumorigenesis, which could provide a better insight into the evolution of the tumor dynamics during treatment and disease progression. Improvements in isolation technologies, based on a higher grade of purification of CTCs, exosomes, and ctDNA, will provide a better characterization of biomarkers and give rise to a wide range of clinical applications, such as early detection of diseases, and the prediction of treatment responses due to the discovery of personalized tumor-related biomarkers

JTD Keywords: Liquid biopsy, Cancer, Biomarkers, Non-invasive, Circulant tumor DNA (ctDNA), Circulant tumor cells (CTC)

Canal, C., Fontelo, R., Hamouda, I., Guillem-Marti, J., Cvelbar, U., Ginebra, M. P., (2017). Plasma-induced selectivity in bone cancer cells death Free Radical Biology and Medicine , 110, 72-80

Background: Current therapies for bone cancers - either primary or metastatic – are difficult to implement and unfortunately not completely effective. An alternative therapy could be found in cold plasmas generated at atmospheric pressure which have already demonstrated selective anti-tumor action in a number of carcinomas and in more relatively rare brain tumors. However, its effects on bone cancer are still unknown. Methods: Herein, we employed an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) to validate its selectivity towards osteosarcoma cell line vs. osteoblasts & human mesenchymal stem cells. Results: Cytotoxicity following direct interaction of APPJ with cells is comparable to indirect interaction when only liquid medium is treated and subsequently added to the cells, especially on the long-term (72 h of cell culture). Moreover, following contact of the APPJ treated medium with cells, delayed effects are observed which lead to 100% bone cancer cell death through apoptosis (decreased cell viability with incubation time in contact with APPJ treated medium from 24 h to 72 h), while healthy cells remain fully viable and unaffected by the treatment. Conclusions: The high efficiency of the indirect treatment indicates that an important role is played by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the gaseous plasma stage and then transmitted to the liquid phase, which overall lead to lethal and selective action towards osteosarcoma cells. These findings open new pathways for treatment of metastatic bone disease with a minimally invasive approach.

JTD Keywords: Atmospheric pressure plasma jet, Bone cancer, hMSC, HOb, Liquids, Osteoblasts, Osteosarcoma, SaOS-2

Moles, E., Marcos, J., Imperial, S., Pozo, O. J., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., (2017). 2-picolylamine derivatization for high sensitivity detection of abscisic acid in apicomplexan blood-infecting parasites Talanta 168, 130-135

We have developed a new liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry methodology based on 2-picolylamine derivatization and positive ion mode detection for abscisic acid (ABA) identification. The selected reaction leads to the formation of an amide derivative which contains a highly active pyridyl group. The enhanced ionization allows for a 700-fold increase over commonly monitored unmodified ABA, which in turn leads to excellent limits of detection and quantification values of 0.03 and 0.15 ng mL-1, respectively. This method has been validated in the highly complex matrix of a red blood cell extract. In spite of the high sensitivity achieved, ABA could not be detected in Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells, suggesting that, if present, it will be found either in ultratrace amounts or as brief bursts at defined time points within the intraerythrocytic cycle and/or in the form of a biosynthetic analogue.

JTD Keywords: Abscisic acid, Apicomplexa, Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, Malaria, Picolylamine, Plasmodium falciparum

Castaño, Oscar, Planell, Josep A., (2014). Cements Bio-Ceramics with Clinical Applications (ed. Vallet-Regí, M.), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (Chichester, UK) , 193-247

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were meant to produce hydroxyapatite (HA), which is the calcium phosphate that usually results when the cements are mixed with or immersed in aqueous media. The golden age of CPCs was in the late 1990s and the beginning of the 21st century, when they were presented as promising bone substitutes and drug delivery systems. The different reactions that take part in the cement self-setting process depend on many experimental factors – the composition of the cement, the stability of the different components, pH, liquid-to-powder ratio (LPR), and temperature, among others. CPCs have demonstrated fair efficiency for bone regeneration. Cements have gradually been embraced in the wider field of composites by hybridizing their compositions in order that they may adapt to the new trends.

JTD Keywords: Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), Cements, Hydroxyapatite (HA), Liquid-to-powder ratio (LPR)

Redondo-Morata, Lorena, Oncins, Gerard, Sanz, Fausto, (2012). Force spectroscopy reveals the effect of different ions in the nanomechanical behavior of phospholipid model membranes: The case of potassium cation Biophysical Journal , 102, (1), 66-74

How do metal cations affect the stability and structure of phospholipid bilayers? What role does ion binding play in the insertion of proteins and the overall mechanical stability of biological membranes? Investigators have used different theoretical and microscopic approaches to study the mechanical properties of lipid bilayers. Although they are crucial for such studies, molecular-dynamics simulations cannot yet span the complexity of biological membranes. In addition, there are still some experimental difficulties when it comes to testing the ion binding to lipid bilayers in an accurate way. Hence, there is a need to establish a new approach from the perspective of the nanometric scale, where most of the specific molecular phenomena take place. Atomic force microscopy has become an essential tool for examining the structure and behavior of lipid bilayers. In this work, we used force spectroscopy to quantitatively characterize nanomechanical resistance as a function of the electrolyte composition by means of a reliable molecular fingerprint that reveals itself as a repetitive jump in the approaching force curve. By systematically probing a set of bilayers of different composition immersed in electrolytes composed of a variety of monovalent and divalent metal cations, we were able to obtain a wealth of information showing that each ion makes an independent and important contribution to the gross mechanical resistance and its plastic properties. This work addresses the need to assess the effects of different ions on the structure of phospholipid membranes, and opens new avenues for characterizing the (nano)mechanical stability of membranes.

JTD Keywords: Molecular-dynamics simulation, Liquid expanded monolayers, Lipid-bilayers, Hofmeister series, Monovalent salt, Phosphatidylcholine, Microscopy, Binding, Surfaces, NaCl