by Keyword: Kinetics

Kaurin, D, Bal, PK, Arroyo, M, (2022). Peeling dynamics of fluid membranes bridged by molecular bonds: moving or breaking Journal Of The Royal Society Interface 19, 20220183

Biological adhesion is a critical mechanical function of complex organisms. At the scale of cell-cell contacts, adhesion is remarkably tunable to enable both cohesion and malleability during development, homeostasis and disease. It is physically supported by transient and laterally mobile molecular bonds embedded in fluid membranes. Thus, unlike specific adhesion at solid-solid or solid-fluid interfaces, peeling at fluid-fluid interfaces can proceed by breaking bonds, by moving bonds or by a combination of both. How the additional degree of freedom provided by bond mobility changes the mechanics of peeling is not understood. To address this, we develop a theoretical model coupling diffusion, reactions and mechanics. Mobility and reaction rates determine distinct peeling regimes. In a diffusion-dominated Stefan-like regime, bond motion establishes self-stabilizing dynamics that increase the effective fracture energy. In a reaction-dominated regime, peeling proceeds by travelling fronts where marginal diffusion and unbinding control peeling speed. In a mixed reaction-diffusion regime, strengthening by bond motion competes with weakening by bond breaking in a force-dependent manner, defining the strength of the adhesion patch. In turn, patch strength depends on molecular properties such as bond stiffness, force sensitivity or crowding. We thus establish the physical rules enabling tunable cohesion in cellular tissues and in engineered biomimetic systems.

JTD Keywords: Adhesive contact, Cadherins, Cell-cell adhesion, Detachment, Detailed mechanics, Diffusion, Growth, Kinetics, Peeling, Red-blood-cells, Repulsion, Separation, Vesicle adhesion

Riera, Roger, Hogervorst, Tim P., Doelman, Ward, Ni, Yan, Pujals, Silvia, Bolli, Evangelia, Codée, Jeroen DC., van Kasteren, Sander I., Albertazzi, Lorenzo, (2021). Single-molecule imaging of glycan–lectin interactions on cells with Glyco-PAINT Nature Chemical Biology 17, 1281-+

Most lectins bind carbohydrate ligands with relatively low affinity, making the identification of optimal ligands challenging. Here we introduce a point accumulation in nanoscale topography (PAINT) super-resolution microscopy method to capture weak glycan-lectin interactions at the single-molecule level in living cells (Glyco-PAINT). Glyco-PAINT exploits weak and reversible sugar binding to directly achieve single-molecule detection and quantification in cells and is used to establish the relative kon and koff rates of a synthesized library of carbohydrate-based probes, as well as the diffusion coefficient of the receptor-sugar complex. Uptake of ligands correlates with their binding affinity and residence time to establish structure-function relations for various synthetic glycans. We reveal how sugar multivalency and presentation geometry can be optimized for binding and internalization. Overall, Glyco-PAINT represents a powerful approach to study weak glycan-lectin interactions on the surface of living cells, one that can be potentially extended to a variety of lectin-sugar interactions.© 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.

JTD Keywords: dc-sign, density, dimerization, endocytosis, lateral mobility, ligand-binding, mannose receptor, proteins, recognition, Animal, Animals, Cell membrane, Cell membrane permeability, Chemistry, Cho cell line, Cho cells, Cricetulus, Cysteine-rich domain, Kinetics, Lectin, Lectins, Ligand, Ligands, Molecular library, Multivariate analysis, Polysaccharide, Polysaccharides, Procedures, Protein binding, Single molecule imaging, Small molecule libraries, Structure activity relation, Structure-activity relationship

Mares AG, Pacassoni G, Samitier J, Pujals S, Albertazzi L, (2021). Formulation of tunable size PLGA-PEG nanoparticles for drug delivery using microfluidic technology Plos One 16, e0251821

Amphiphilic block co-polymer nanoparticles are interesting candidates for drug delivery as a result of their unique properties such as the size, modularity, biocompatibility and drug loading capacity. They can be rapidly formulated in a nanoprecipitation process based on self-assembly, resulting in kinetically locked nanostructures. The control over this step allows us to obtain nanoparticles with tailor-made properties without modification of the co-polymer building blocks. Furthermore, a reproducible and controlled formulation supports better predictability of a batch effectiveness in preclinical tests. Herein, we compared the formulation of PLGA-PEG nanoparticles using the typical manual bulk mixing and a microfluidic chip-assisted nanoprecipitation. The particle size tunability and controllability in a hydrodynamic flow focusing device was demonstrated to be greater than in the manual dropwise addition method. We also analyzed particle size and encapsulation of fluorescent compounds, using the common bulk analysis and advanced microscopy techniques: Transmission Electron Microscopy and Total Internal Reflection Microscopy, to reveal the heterogeneities occurred in the formulated nanoparticles. Finally, we performed in vitro evaluation of obtained NPs using MCF-7 cell line. Our results show how the microfluidic formulation improves the fine control over the resulting nanoparticles, without compromising any appealing property of PLGA nanoparticle. The combination of microfluidic formulation with advanced analysis methods, looking at the single particle level, can improve the understanding of the NP properties, heterogeneities and performance.

JTD Keywords: controlled-release, doxorubicin, encapsulation, functional nanoparticles, nanoprecipitation, pharmacokinetics, polymeric nanoparticles, shape, surface-chemistry, In-vitro

Woythe L, Tito NB, Albertazzi L, (2021). A quantitative view on multivalent nanomedicine targeting Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 169, 1-21

© 2020 The Authors Although the concept of selective delivery has been postulated over 100 years ago, no targeted nanomedicine has been clinically approved so far. Nanoparticles modified with targeting ligands to promote the selective delivery of therapeutics towards a specific cell population have been extensively reported. However, the rational design of selective particles is still challenging. One of the main reasons for this is the lack of quantitative theoretical and experimental understanding of the interactions involved in cell targeting. In this review, we discuss new theoretical models and experimental methods that provide a quantitative view of targeting. We show the new advancements in multivalency theory enabling the rational design of super-selective nanoparticles. Furthermore, we present the innovative approaches to obtain key targeting parameters at the single-cell and single molecule level and their role in the design of targeting nanoparticles. We believe that the combination of new theoretical multivalent design and experimental methods to quantify receptors and ligands aids in the rational design and clinical translation of targeted nanomedicines.

JTD Keywords: binding-kinetics, biological identity, biomolecular corona, blood-brain-barrier, drug-delivery, gold nanoparticles, multivalency, nanotechnology, protein corona, quantitative characterization, rational design, super-selectivity, superresolution microscopy, tumor heterogeneity, Ligand-receptor interactions, Multivalency, Nanotechnology, Quantitative characterization, Rational design, Super-selectivity

Seuma, M, Faure, AJ, Badia, M, Lehner, B, Bolognesi, B, (2021). The genetic landscape for amyloid beta fibril nucleation accurately discriminates familial Alzheimer's disease mutations Elife 10, e63364

Plaques of the amyloid beta (A beta) peptide are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia. Mutations in A beta also cause familial forms of AD (fAD). Here, we use deep mutational scanning to quantify the effects of >14,000 mutations on the aggregation of A beta. The resulting genetic landscape reveals mechanistic insights into fibril nucleation, including the importance of charge and gatekeeper residues in the disordered region outside of the amyloid core in preventing nucleation. Strikingly, unlike computational predictors and previous measurements, the empirical nucleation scores accurately identify all known dominant fAD mutations in A beta, genetically validating that the mechanism of nucleation in a cell-based assay is likely to be very similar to the mechanism that causes the human disease. These results provide the first comprehensive atlas of how mutations alter the formation of any amyloid fibril and a resource for the interpretation of genetic variation in A beta.

JTD Keywords: aggregation, kinetics, oligomers, onset, rates, state, Aggregation, Alzheimer's, Amyloid, Computational biology, Deep mutagenesis, Genetics, Genomics, Kinetics, Nucleation, Oligomers, Onset, Precursor protein, Rates, S. cerevisiae, State, Systems biology

Vukomanovic, M., Torrents, E., (2019). High time resolution and high signal-to-noise monitoring of the bacterial growth kinetics in the presence of plasmonic nanoparticles Journal of Nanobiotechnology 17, (1), 21

Background: Emerging concepts for designing innovative drugs (i.e., novel generations of antimicrobials) frequently include nanostructures, new materials, and nanoparticles (NPs). Along with numerous advantages, NPs bring limitations, partly because they can limit the analytical techniques used for their biological and in vivo validation. From that standpoint, designing innovative drug delivery systems requires advancements in the methods used for their testing and investigations. Considering the well-known ability of resazurin-based methods for rapid detection of bacterial metabolisms with very high sensitivity, in this work we report a novel optimization for tracking bacterial growth kinetics in the presence of NPs with specific characteristics, such as specific optical properties. Results: Arginine-functionalized gold composite (HAp/Au/arginine) NPs, used as the NP model for validation of the method, possess plasmonic properties and are characterized by intensive absorption in the UV/vis region with a surface plasmon resonance maximum at 540 nm. Due to the specific optical properties, the NP absorption intensively interferes with the light absorption measured during the evaluation of bacterial growth (optical density; OD600). The results confirm substantial nonspecific interference by NPs in the signal detected during a regular turbidity study used for tracking bacterial growth. Instead, during application of a resazurin-based method (Presto Blue), when a combination of absorption and fluorescence detection is applied, a substantial increase in the signal-to-noise ratio is obtained that leads to the improvement of the accuracy of the measurements as verified in three bacterial strains tested with different growth rates (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus). Conclusions: Here, we described a novel procedure that enables the kinetics of bacterial growth in the presence of NPs to be followed with high time resolution, high sensitivity, and without sampling during the kinetic study. We showed the applicability of the Presto Blue method for the case of HAp/Au/arginine NPs, which can be extended to various types of metallic NPs with similar characteristics. The method is a very easy, economical, and reliable option for testing NPs designed as novel antimicrobials.

JTD Keywords: Antimicrobial nanoparticles, Arginine-functionalized gold, Bacterial growth kinetics, Plasmonic nanoparticles, Presto Blue

Rodriguez, Segui, Bucior, I., Burger, M. M., Samitier, J., Errachid, A., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., (2007). Application of a bio-QCM to study carbohydrates self-interaction in presence of calcium Transducers '07 & Eurosensors Xxi, Digest of Technical Papers 14th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems , IEEE (Lyon, France) 1-2, 1995-1998

In the past years, the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has been successfully applied to follow interfacial physical chemistry phenomena in a label free and real time manner. However, carbohydrate self adhesion has only been addressed partially using this technique. Carbohydrates play an important role in cell adhesion, providing a highly versatile form of attachment, suitable for biologically relevant recognition events in the initial steps of adhesion. Here, we provide a QCM study of carbohydrates' self-recognition in the presence of calcium, based on a species-specific cell recognition model provided by marine sponges. Our results show a difference in adhesion kinetics when varying either the calcium concentration (with a constant carbohydrate concentration) or the carbohydrate concentration (with constant calcium concentration).

JTD Keywords: Biomedical materials, Calcium, Cellular biophysics, Microbalances, Porous materials, Quartz, Surface chemistry/ bio-QCM, Carbohydrates self-interaction, Quartz crystal microbalance, Interfacial physical chemistry phenomena, Carbohydrate self adhesion, Biologically relevant recognition events, Marine sponges, Adhesion kinetics, Calcium concentration, Carbohydrate concentration, Biosensors, Biomedical materials, Surface chemistry, Cellular biophysics