by Keyword: electron microscopy
Campo-Perez, V, Guallar-Garrido, S, Luquin, M, Sanchez-Chardi, A, Julian, E, (2022). The High Plasticity of Nonpathogenic Mycobacterium brumae Induces Rapid Changes in Its Lipid Profile during Pellicle Maturation: The Potential of This Bacterium as a Versatile Cell Factory for Lipid Compounds of Therapeutic Interest International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 13609
The immunomodulatory potential of mycobacteria to be used for therapeutic purposes varies by species and culture conditions and is closely related to mycobacterial lipid composition. Although the lipids present in the mycobacterial cell wall are relevant, lipids are mainly stored in intracellular lipid inclusions (ILIs), which have emerged as a crucial structure in understanding mycobacteria-host interaction. Little is known about ILI ultrastructure, production, and composition in nonpathogenic species. In this study, we compared the lipid profiles of the nonpathogenic immunomodulatory agent Mycobacterium brumae during pellicle maturation under different culture conditions with qualitative and quantitative approaches by using high-resolution imaging and biochemical and composition analyses to understand ILI dynamics. The results showed wax esters, mainly in early stages of development, and acylglycerols in mature ILI composition, revealing changes in dynamics, amount, and morphometry, depending on pellicle maturation and the culture media used. Low-glycerol cultures induced ILIs with lower molecular weights which were smaller in size in comparison with the ILIs produced in glycerol-enriched media. The data also indicate the simple metabolic plasticity of lipid synthesis in M. brumae, as well as its high versatility in generating different lipid profiles. These findings provide an interesting way to enhance the production of key lipid structures via the simple modulation of cell culture conditions.
JTD Keywords: Bodies, Cell wall, Electron microscopy, Growth, In-vitro, Intrabacterial, Lipid inclusions, Mycobacterium, Prokaryotes, Triacylglycerol, Tuberculosis, Ultrastructural imaging, Virulence, Wax esters
Sans J, Arnau M, Sanz V, Turon P, Alemán C, (2022). Hydroxyapatite-based biphasic catalysts with plasticity properties and its potential in carbon dioxide fixation Chemical Engineering Journal 433, 133512
The design of catalysts with controlled selectivity at will, also known as catalytic plasticity, is a very attractive approach for the recycling of carbon dioxide (CO2). In this work, we study how catalytically active hydroxyapatite (HAp) and brushite (Bru) interact synergistically, allowing the production of formic acid or acetic acid depending on the HAp/Bru ratio in the catalyst. Raman, wide angle X-ray scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies, combined with an exhaustive revision of the crystalline structure of the catalyst at the atomic level, allowed to discern how the Bru phase can be generated and stabilized at high temperatures. Results clearly indicate that the presence of OH– groups to maintain the crystalline structural integrity in conjunction with Ca2+ ions less bonded to the lattice fixate carbon into C1, C2 and C3 molecules from CO2 and allow the evolution from formic to acetic acid and acetone. In this way, the plasticity of the HAp-Bru system is demonstrated, representing a promising green alternative to the conventional metal-based electrocatalysts used for CO2 fixation. Thus, the fact that no electric voltage is necessary for the CO2 reduction has a very favorable impact in the final energetic net balance of the carbon fixation reaction. © 2021 ethanol production & nbsp
ethanol production & nbsp, brushite, co2 reduction, conversion, electrocatalytic reduction, electrode, formate, heterogeneous catalysis & nbsp, hydrogen evolution, insights, monetite, polarized hydroxyapatite,
Yazıcı N, Opar E, Kodal M, Tanören B, Sezen M, Özkoç G, (2022). A novel practical approach for monitoring the crosslink density of an ethylene propylene diene monomer compound: Complementary scanning acoustic microscopy and FIB-SEM-EDS analyses Polymers & Polymer Composites 30,
Tuning of the crosslink density (CLD) in the rubber compounds is very crucial for optimizing the physical and mechanical properties of the ultimate rubber products. Conventionally, CLD can be measured via rheological methods such as moving die rheometer (MDR), via mechanical tests such as temperature scanning stress relaxation analysis (TSSR), or via direct swelling experiments using Flory–Rehner approach. In the current study, two novel techniques, focused ion beam - scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) processing, with simultaneous energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) mapping analysis and scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) were combined and correlated to conventional methods on a model recipe of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) compound having different sulphur contents. Depending on the applied technique, the increase in the crosslink density with sulphur content was found to be 1.7 fold for the Flory–Rehner approach and 1.2 fold for both TSSR and MDR. It is directly monitored from the FIB-SEM-EDS analysis that the sulphur distribution and agglomeration behavior increased in line with ZnO content, which is an indirect indication of the rise in crosslink density. The impedance maps of the crosslinked samples obtained through SAM analysis revealed that the impedance of the samples increased with the increasing sulphur content, which can be attributed to higher level of crosslink density. A quantified correlation was obtained between SAM images and the crosslink density of the samples. It was shown that SAM is a promising tool for practical and non-destructive analysis for determining the formation of crosslink density of the rubbers. © The Author(s) 2022.
JTD Keywords: blends, compressibility, crosslink density, cure characteristics, ethylene propylene diene monomer, focused ion beam, mechanical-properties, morphology, natural-rubber, particles, scanning acoustic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, vulcanization, Composite soft materials, Cross-link densities, Crosslink density, Crosslinking, Density (specific gravity), Ethylene, Ethylene propylene diene monomer, Flory-rehner, Focused ion beam - scanning electron microscopy, Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopies, Ii-vi semiconductors, Monomers, Moving die rheometers, Physical and mechanical properties, Propylene, Relaxation analysis, Rubber, Scanning acoustic microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Stress relaxation, Sulfur contents, Temperature scanning stress relaxations, Zinc oxide
Andrian T, Delcanale P, Pujals S, Albertazzi L, (2021). Correlating Super-Resolution Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy Reveals Multiparametric Heterogeneity in Nanoparticles Nano Letters 21, 5360-5368
The functionalization of nanoparticles with functional moieties is a key strategy to achieve cell targeting in nanomedicine. The interplay between size and ligand number is crucial for the formulation performance and needs to be properly characterized to understand nanoparticle structure-activity relations. However, there is a lack of methods able to measure both size and ligand number at the same time and at the single particle level. Here, we address this issue by introducing a correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) method combining super-resolution microscopy (SRM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. We apply our super-resCLEM method to characterize the relationship between size and ligand number and density in PLGA-PEG nanoparticles. We highlight how heterogeneity found in size can impact ligand distribution and how a significant part of the nanoparticle population goes completely undetected in the single-technique analysis. Super-resCLEM holds great promise for the multiparametric analysis of other parameters and nanomaterials.
JTD Keywords: cellular uptake, correlative light and electron microscopy (clem), density, electron microscopy (em), functionalization, heterogeneity, nanomedicine, nanoparticles, pegylation, plga, progress, quantification, size, Correlative light and electron microscopy (clem), Electron microscopy (em), Heterogeneity, Nanomedicine, Nanoparticles, Physicochemical characterization, Super-resolution microscopy (srm)
Wang Y, Friedrich H, Voets IK, Zijlstra P, Albertazzi L, (2021). Correlative imaging for polymer science Journal Of Polymer Science 59, 1232-1240
The characterization of polymeric materials is key towards the understanding of structure–activity relations and therefore for the rational design of novel and improved materials for a myriad of applications. Many microscopy techniques are currently used, with electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy being the most relevant. In this perspective paper, we discuss the use of correlative imaging, that is, the combination of multiple imaging methodologies on the same sample, in the field of polymeric materials. This innovative approach is emerging as a powerful tool to unveil the structure and functional properties of biological and synthetic structures. Here we discuss the possibilities of correlative imaging and highlight their potential to answer open questions in polymer science.
JTD Keywords: correlative imaging, electron microscopy, material characterization, resolution microscopy, super‐, Atomic force microscopy, Correlative imaging, Electron microscopy, Material characterization, Super-resolution microscopy
Andrian T, Bakkum T, van Elsland DM, Bos E, Koster AJ, Albertazzi L, van Kasteren SI, Pujals S, (2021). Super-resolution correlative light-electron microscopy using a click-chemistry approach for studying intracellular trafficking Methods In Cell Biology 162, 303-331
© 2020 Elsevier Inc. Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) entails a group of multimodal imaging techniques that are combined to pinpoint to the location of fluorescently labeled molecules in the context of their ultrastructural cellular environment. Here we describe a detailed workflow for STORM-CLEM, in which STochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM), an optical super-resolution technique, is correlated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This protocol has the advantage that both imaging modalities have resolution at the nanoscale, bringing higher synergies on the information obtained. The sample is prepared according to the Tokuyasu method followed by click-chemistry labeling and STORM imaging. Then, after heavy metal staining, electron microscopy imaging is performed followed by correlation of the two images. The case study presented here is on intracellular pathogens, but the protocol is versatile and could potentially be applied to many types of samples.
JTD Keywords: cells, click-chemistry, complex, correlative light and electron microscopy, cycloaddition, ligation, localization, proteins, resolution limit, single molecule localization microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (storm), storm, super-resolution microscopy, tokuyasu cryo-sectioning, tool, Click-chemistry, Correlative light and electron microscopy, Fluorescent-probes, Single molecule localization microscopy, Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (storm), Super-resolution microscopy, Tokuyasu cryo-sectioning, Transmission electron microscopy
Tian, X., De Pace, C., Ruiz-Perez, L., Chen, B., Su, R., Zhang, M., Zhang, R., Zhang, Q., Wang, Q., Zhou, H., Wu, J., Zhang, Z., Tian, Y., Battaglia, G., (2020). A Cyclometalated iridium (III) complex as a microtubule probe for correlative super-resolution fluorescence and electron microscopy Advanced Materials 32, (39), 2003901
The visualization of microtubules by combining optical and electron microscopy techniques provides valuable information to understand correlated intracellular activities. However, the lack of appropriate probes to bridge both microscopic resolutions restricts the areas and structures that can be comprehended within such highly assembled structures. Here, a versatile cyclometalated iridium (III) complex is designed that achieves synchronous fluorescence–electron microscopy correlation. The selective insertion of the probe into a microtubule triggers remarkable fluorescence enhancement and promising electron contrast. The long-life, highly photostable probe allows live-cell super-resolution imaging of tubulin localization and motion with a resolution of ≈30 nm. Furthermore, correlative light–electron microscopy and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy reveal the well-associated optical and electron signal at a high specificity, with an interspace of ≈41 Å of microtubule monomer in cells.
JTD Keywords: Correlation lightâ€“electron microscopy, Microtubules, Organometallic probes, Super-resolution microscopy
de Goede, M., Dijkstra, M., Obregón, R., Ramón-Azcón, J., Martínez, Elena, Padilla, L., Mitjans, F., Garcia-Blanco, S. M., (2019). Al2O3 microring resonators for the detection of a cancer biomarker in undiluted urine Optics Express 27, (13), 18508-18521
Concentrations down to 3 nM of the rhS100A4 protein, associated with human tumor development, have been detected in undiluted urine using an integrated sensor based on microring resonators in the emerging Al2O3 photonic platform. The fabricated microrings were designed for operation in the C-band (λ = 1565 nm) and exhibited a high-quality factor in air of 3.2 × 105. The bulk refractive index sensitivity of the devices was ~100 nm/RIU (for TM polarization) with a limit of detection of ~10−6 RIU. A surface functionalization protocol was developed to allow for the selective binding of the monoclonal antibodies designed to capture the target biomarker to the surface of the Al2O3 microrings. The detection of rhS100A4 proteins at clinically relevant concentrations in urine is a big milestone towards the use of biosensors for the screening and early diagnosis of different cancers. Biosensors based on this microring technology can lead to portable, multiplexed and easy-to-use point of care devices.
JTD Keywords: Distributed feedback lasers, Effective refractive index, Laser coupling, Polarization maintaining fibers, Refractive index, Scanning electron microscopy
Diez-Escudero, A., Espanol, M., Montufar, E. B., Di Pompo, G., Ciapetti, G., Baldini, N., Ginebra, M. P., (2017). Focus ion beam/scanning electron microscopy characterization of osteoclastic resorption of calcium phosphate substrates Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods , 23, (2), 118-124
This article presents the application of dual focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) imaging for preclinical testing of calcium phosphates with osteoclast precursor cells and how this high-resolution imaging technique is able to reveal microstructural changes at a level of detail previously not possible. Calcium phosphate substrates, having similar compositions but different microstructures, were produced using low-and high-Temperature processes (biomimetic calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite [CDHA] and stoichiometric sintered hydroxyapatite, respectively). Human osteoclast precursor cells were cultured for 21 days before evaluating their resorptive potential on varying microstructural features. Alternative to classical morphological evaluation of osteoclasts (OC), FIB-SEM was used to observe the subjacent microstructure by transversally sectioning cells and observing both the cells and the substrates. Resorption pits, indicating OC activity, were visible on the smoother surface of high-Temperature sintered hydroxyapatite. FIB-SEM analysis revealed signs of acidic degradation on the grain surface under the cells, as well as intergranular dissolution. No resorption pits were evident on the surface of the rough CDHA substrates. However, whereas no degradation was detected by FIB sections in the material underlying some of the cells, early stages of OC-mediated acidic degradation were observed under cells with more spread morphology. Collectively, these results highlight the potential of FIB to evaluate the resorptive activity of OC, even in rough, irregular, or coarse surfaces where degradation pits are otherwise difficult to visualize.
JTD Keywords: Bone Regeneration, Calcium Phosphate, Focus Ion Beam, Osteoclast, Resorption, Scanning Electron Microscopy
Bosch, M., Castro, J., Sur, M., Hayashi, Y., (2017). Photomarking relocalization technique for correlated two-photon and electron microcopy imaging of single stimulated synapses Synapse Development - Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology) (ed. Poulopoulos , A.), Humana Press (New York, USA) 1538, 185-214
Synapses learn and remember by persistent modifications of their internal structures and composition but, due to their small size, it is difficult to observe these changes at the ultrastructural level in real time. Two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PM) allows time-course live imaging of individual synapses but lacks ultrastructural resolution. Electron microscopy (EM) allows the ultrastructural imaging of subcellular components but cannot detect fluorescence and lacks temporal resolution. Here, we describe a combination of procedures designed to achieve the correlated imaging of the same individual synapse under both 2PM and EM. This technique permits the selective stimulation and live imaging of a single dendritic spine and the subsequent localization of the same spine in EM ultrathin serial sections. Landmarks created through a photomarking method based on the 2-photon-induced precipitation of an electrodense compound are used to unequivocally localize the stimulated synapse. This technique was developed to image, for the first time, the ultrastructure of the postsynaptic density in which long-term potentiation was selectively induced just seconds or minutes before, but it can be applied for the study of any biological process that requires the precise relocalization of micron-wide structures for their correlated imaging with 2PM and EM.
JTD Keywords: Correlated imaging, DAB, Dendritic spine, Photobranding, Photoetching, Photomarking, Postsynaptic density, Serial-section transmission electron microscopy, Synapse, Time-lapse live two-photon fluorescence microscopy
Cuervo, A., Dans, P. D., Carrascosa, J. L., Orozco, M., Gomila, G., Fumagalli, L., (2014). Direct measurement of the dielectric polarization properties of DNA Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111, (35), E3624-E3630
The electric polarizability of DNA, represented by the dielectric constant, is a key intrinsic property that modulates DNA interaction with effector proteins. Surprisingly, it has so far remained unknown owing to the lack of experimental tools able to access it. Here, we experimentally resolved it by detecting the ultraweak polarization forces of DNA inside single T7 bacteriophages particles using electrostatic force microscopy. In contrast to the common assumption of low-polarizable behavior like proteins (εr ~ 2–4), we found that the DNA dielectric constant is ~ 8, considerably higher than the value of ~ 3 found for capsid proteins. State-of-the-art molecular dynamic simulations confirm the experimental findings, which result in sensibly decreased DNA interaction free energy than normally predicted by Poisson–Boltzmann methods. Our findings reveal a property at the basis of DNA structure and functions that is needed for realistic theoretical descriptions, and illustrate the synergetic power of scanning probe microscopy and theoretical computation techniques.
JTD Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, Atomistic simulations, DNA packaging, DNA-ligand binding, Poisson-Boltzmann equation, capsid protein, DNA, double stranded DNA, amino acid composition, article, atomic force microscopy, bacteriophage, bacteriophage T7, dielectric constant, dipole, DNA binding, DNA packaging, DNA structure, electron microscopy, ligand binding, nonhuman, polarization, priority journal, protein analysis, protein DNA interaction, scanning probe microscopy, static electricity, virion, virus capsid, virus particle, atomic force microscopy, atomistic simulations, DNA packaging, DNA-ligand binding, Poisson-Boltzmann equation, Bacteriophage T7, Capsid, Cations, Dielectric Spectroscopy, DNA, DNA, Viral, DNA-Binding Proteins, Electrochemical Techniques, Ligands, Microscopy, Atomic Force, Models, Chemical, Nuclear Proteins
Marques, J., Moles, E., Urbán, P., Prohens, R., Busquets, M. A., Sevrin, C., Grandfils, C., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., (2014). Application of heparin as a dual agent with antimalarial and liposome targeting activities toward Plasmodium-infected red blood cells Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 10, (8), 1719-1728
Heparin had been demonstrated to have antimalarial activity and specific binding affinity for Plasmodium-infected red blood cells (pRBCs) vs. non-infected erythrocytes. Here we have explored if both properties could be joined into a drug delivery strategy where heparin would have a dual role as antimalarial and as a targeting element of drug-loaded nanoparticles. Confocal fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy data show that after 30. min of being added to living pRBCs fluorescein-labeled heparin colocalizes with the intracellular parasites. Heparin electrostatically adsorbed onto positively charged liposomes containing the cationic lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane and loaded with the antimalarial drug primaquine was capable of increasing three-fold the activity of encapsulated drug in Plasmodium falciparum cultures. At concentrations below those inducing anticoagulation of mouse blood in vivo, parasiticidal activity was found to be the additive result of the separate activities of free heparin as antimalarial and of liposome-bound heparin as targeting element for encapsulated primaquine. From the Clinical Editor: Malaria remains an enormous global public health concern. In this study, a novel functionalized heparin formulation used as drug delivery agent for primaquine was demonstrated to result in threefold increased drug activity in cell cultures, and in a murine model it was able to provide these benefits in concentrations below what would be required for anticoagulation. Further studies are needed determine if this approach is applicable in the human disease as well.
JTD Keywords: Heparin, Liposomes, Malaria, Plasmodium, Targeted drug delivery, Heparin, Malaria, Plasmodium, Red blood cell, Targeted drug delivery, Liposomes, 1,2 dioleoyl 3 trimethylammoniopropane, fluorescein, heparin, liposome, nanoparticle, primaquine, adsorption, animal experiment, anticoagulation, antimalarial activity, Article, binding affinity, confocal microscopy, controlled study, drug targeting, encapsulation, erythrocyte, female, fluorescence microscopy, human, human cell, in vivo study, liposomal delivery, mouse, nonhuman, Plasmodium falciparum, transmission electron microscopy
Uriarte, J. J., Nonaka, P. N., Campillo, N., Palma, R. K., Melo, E., de Oliveira, L. V. F., Navajas, D., Farré, R., (2014). Mechanical properties of acellular mouse lungs after sterilization by gamma irradiation Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials , 40, 168-177
Lung bioengineering using decellularized organ scaffolds is a potential alternative for lung transplantation. Clinical application will require donor scaffold sterilization. As gamma-irradiation is a conventional method for sterilizing tissue preparations for clinical application, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lung scaffold sterilization by gamma irradiation on the mechanical properties of the acellular lung when subjected to the artificial ventilation maneuvers typical within bioreactors. Twenty-six mouse lungs were decellularized by a sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent protocol. Eight lungs were used as controls and 18 of them were submitted to a 31kGy gamma irradiation sterilization process (9 kept frozen in dry ice and 9 at room temperature). Mechanical properties of acellular lungs were measured before and after irradiation. Lung resistance (RL) and elastance (EL) were computed by linear regression fitting of recorded signals during mechanical ventilation (tracheal pressure, flow and volume). Static (Est) and dynamic (Edyn) elastances were obtained by the end-inspiratory occlusion method. After irradiation lungs presented higher values of resistance and elastance than before irradiation: RL increased by 41.1% (room temperature irradiation) and 32.8% (frozen irradiation) and EL increased by 41.8% (room temperature irradiation) and 31.8% (frozen irradiation). Similar increases were induced by irradiation in Est and Edyn. Scanning electron microscopy showed slight structural changes after irradiation, particularly those kept frozen. Sterilization by gamma irradiation at a conventional dose to ensure sterilization modifies acellular lung mechanics, with potential implications for lung bioengineering.
JTD Keywords: Gamma irradiation, Lung bioengineering, Lung decellularization, Organ scaffold, Pulmonary mechanics, Decellularization, Gamma irradiation, Mouse lung, Pulmonary mechanics, dodecyl sulfate sodium, animal tissue, Article, artificial ventilation, bioengineering, bioreactor, compliance (physical), controlled study, freezing, gamma irradiation, lung, lung mechanics, lung resistance, male, mouse, nonhuman, room temperature, scanning electron microscopy, tissue scaffold, trachea pressure
Rajzer, I., Menaszek, E., Kwiatkowski, R., Planell, J. A., Castaño, O., (2014). Electrospun gelatin/poly(ε-caprolactone) fibrous scaffold modified with calcium phosphate for bone tissue engineering Materials Science and Engineering: C 44, 183-190
In this study gelatin (Gel) modified with calcium phosphate nanoparticles (SG5) and polycaprolactone (PCL) were used to prepare a 3D bi-layer scaffold by collecting electrospun PCL and gelatin/SG5 fibers separately in the same collector. The objective of this study was to combine the desired properties of PCL and Gel/SG5 in the same scaffold in order to enhance mineralization, thus improving the ability of the scaffold to bond to the bone tissue. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements confirmed that SG5 nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into the fibrous gelatin matrix. The composite Gel/SG5/PCL scaffold exhibited more enhanced mechanical properties than individual Gel and Gel/SG5 scaffolds. The presence of SG5 nanoparticles accelerated the nucleation and growth of apatite crystals on the surface of the composite Gel/SG5/PCL scaffold in simulated body fluid (SBF). The osteoblast response in vitro to developed electrospun scaffolds (PCL and Gel/SG5/PCL) was investigated by using normal human primary NHOst cell lines. NHOst cell culture studies showed that higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and better mineralization were obtained in the case of composite materials than in pure PCL scaffolds. The mechanically strong PCL scaffold served as a skeleton, while the Gel/SG5 fibers facilitated cell spreading and mineralization of the scaffold.
JTD Keywords: Bilayer fibrous scaffold, Ceramic nanoparticles, Electrospinning, Gelatin, Polycaprolactone, Biomechanics, Bone, Calcium phosphate, Cell culture, Electrospinning, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Mechanical properties, Mineralogy, Nanoparticles, Phosphatases, Polycaprolactone, Scanning electron microscopy, X ray diffraction, Polycaprolactone, Alkaline phosphatase activity, Bone tissue engineering, Calcium phosphate nanoparticles, Ceramic nanoparticles, Fibrous scaffolds, Gelatin, Simulated body fluids, Wide-angle x-ray diffraction, Electrospuns, Scaffolds (biology), Electrospinning
Tahirbegi, I. B., Alvira, M., Mir, M., Samitier, J., (2014). Simple and fast method for fabrication of endoscopic implantable sensor arrays Sensors 14, (7), 11416-11426
Here we have developed a simple method for the fabrication of disposable implantable all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes (ISE) in an array format without using complex fabrication equipment or clean room facilities. The electrodes were designed in a needle shape instead of planar electrodes for a full contact with the tissue. The needle-shape platform comprises 12 metallic pins which were functionalized with conductive inks and ISE membranes. The modified microelectrodes were characterized with cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and optical interferometry. The surface area and roughness factor of each microelectrode were determined and reproducible values were obtained for all the microelectrodes on the array. In this work, the microelectrodes were modified with membranes for the detection of pH and nitrate ions to prove the reliability of the fabricated sensor array platform adapted to an endoscope.
JTD Keywords: Chemical sensors, Cyclic voltammetry, Electrochemistry, Endoscopy, Fabrication, Implants (surgical), Microelectrodes, Needles, Nitrates, Scanning electron microscopy, Biomedicine, Fabricated sensors, Fabrication equipment, Implantable devices, Implantable sensors, Optical interferometry, Planar electrode, Roughness factor, Ion selective electrodes
Esteban, O., Christ, D., Stock, D., (2013). Purification of molecular machines and nanomotors using phage-derived monoclonal antibody fragments Protein Nanotechnology - Methods in Molecular Biology (ed. Gerrard, J. A.), Humana Press (New York, USA) 996, 203-217
Molecular machines and nanomotors are sophisticated biological assemblies that convert potential energy stored either in transmembrane ion gradients or in ATP into kinetic energy. Studying these highly dynamic biological devices by X-ray crystallography is challenging, as they are difficult to produce, purify, and crystallize. Phage display technology allows us to put a handle on these molecules in the form of highly specific antibody fragments that can also stabilize conformations and allow versatile labelling for electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and biophysics experiments. Here, we describe a widely applicable protocol for selecting high-affinity monoclonal antibody fragments against a complex molecular machine, the A-type ATPase from T. thermophilus that allows fast and simple purification of this transmembrane rotary motor from its wild-type source. The approach can be readily extended to other integral membrane proteins and protein complexes as well as to soluble molecular machines and nanomotors.
JTD Keywords: ATP synthase, Crystallization, Domain antibodies, Electron microscopy, Labelling, Membrane proteins, Monoclonal antibody fragments, Phage display, Protein purification, X-ray crystallography
Serra, T., Navarro, M., Planell, J. A., (2012). Fabrication and characterization of biodegradable composite scaffolds for tissue engineering Innovative Developments in Virtual and Physical Prototyping 5th International Conference on Advanced Research and Rapid Prototyping (ed. Margarida, T., Ferreira, D.), Taylor & Francis (Leiria, Portugal) VR@P, 67-72
In this study, polylactic acid (PLA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were combined with soluble CaP glass particles and processed by rapid prototyping to obtain fully biodegradable structures for Tissue Engineering applications. The obtained 3D biodegradable structures were characterized in terms of their architecture and mechanical properties. The scaffold morphology, internal micro-architecture and mechanical properties were evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and mechanical testing, respectively. Well defined structures with pore size of 350-400Î¼m (in the axial view), struts width of approximately 70-80Î¼m, and a porosity ranging between 60-65% were obtained. The combination RP and PLA/PEG/CaP glass turned into promising fully degradable, mechanically stable, bioactive and biocompatible composite scaffolds for TE.
JTD Keywords: Axial view, Biodegradable composites, Composite scaffolds, Glass particles, Mechanically stable, Micro architectures, Micro computed tomography (micro-CT), Poly lactic acid, Scaffold morphology, Tissue engineering applications, Well-defined structures, Bioactive glass, Mechanical properties, Mechanical testing, Polyethylene glycols, Polymer blends, Rapid prototyping, Scaffolds (biology), Scanning electron microscopy, Computerized tomography
Martinez, E., Engel, E., Lopez-Iglesias, C., Mills, C. A., Planell, J. A., Samitier, J., (2008). Focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy characterization of cell behavior on polymer micro-/nanopatterned substrates: A study of cell-substrate interactions Micron , 39, (2), 111-116
Topographic micro and nanostructures can play an interesting role in cell behaviour when cells are cultured on these kinds of patterned substrates. It is especially relevant to investigate the influence of the nanometric dimensions topographic features on cell morphology, proliferation, migration and differentiation. To this end, some of the most recent fabrication technologies, developed for the microelectronics industry, can be used to produce well-defined micro and nanopatterns on biocompatible polymer substrates. In this work, osteoblast-like cells are grown on poly(methyl methacrylate) substrates patterned by nanoimprint lithography techniques. Examination of the cell-substrate interface can reveal important details about the cell morphology and the distribution of the focal contacts on the substrate surface. For this purpose, a combination of focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy techniques has been used to image the cell-substrate interface. This technique, if applied to samples prepared by freeze-drying methods, allows high-resolution imaging of cross-sections through the cell and the substrate, where the interactions between the nanopatterned substrate, the cell and the extracellular matrix, which are normally hidden by the bulk of the cell, can be studied.
JTD Keywords: Electron microscopy, Interface, Nanotopography, Osteoblast, Adhesion molecule, Cell morphology