by Keyword: platform

Gómez SG, Guillem-Marti J, Martín-Gómez H, Mas-Moruno C, Ginebra MP, Gil FJ, Barraquer RI, Manero JM, (2023). Titanium Boston keratoprosthesis with corneal cell adhesive and bactericidal dual coating Biomaterials Advances 154, 213654-213654

The Boston keratoprosthesis (BKPro) is a medical device used to restore vision in complicated cases of corneal blindness. This device is composed by a front plate of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and a backplate usually made of titanium (Ti). Ti is an excellent biomaterial with numerous applications, although there are not many studies that address its interaction with ocular cells. In this regard, despite the good retention rates of the BKPro, two main complications compromise patients' vision and the viability of the prosthesis: imperfect adhesion of the corneal tissue to the upside of the backplate and infections. Thus, in this work, two topographies (smooth and rough) were generated on Ti samples and tested with or without functionalization with a dual peptide platform. This molecule consists of a branched structure that links two peptide moieties to address the main complications associated with BKPro: the well-known RGD peptide in its cyclic version (cRGD) as cell pro-adherent motif and the first 11 residues of lactoferrin (LF1-11) as antibacterial motif. Samples were physicochemically characterized, and their biological response was evaluated in vitro with human corneal keratocytes (HCKs) and against the gram-negative bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The physicochemical characterization allowed to verify the functionalization in a qualitative and quantitative manner. A higher amount of peptide was anchored to the rough surfaces. The studies performed using HCKs showed increased long-term proliferation on the functionalized samples. Gene expression was affected by topography and peptide functionalization. Roughness promoted α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) overexpression, and the coating notably increased the expression of extracellular matrix components (ECM). Such changes may favour the development of unwanted fibrosis, and thus, corneal haze. In contrast, the combination of the coating with a rough topography decreased the expression of α-SMA and ECM components, which would be desirable for the long-term success of the prosthesis. Regarding the antibacterial activity, the functionalized smooth and rough surfaces promoted the death of bacteria, as well as a perturbation in their wall definition and cellular morphology. Bacterial killing values were 58 % for smooth functionalised and 68 % for rough functionalised samples. In summary, this study suggests that the use of the dual peptide platform with cRGD and LF1-11 could be a good strategy to improve the in vitro and in vivo performance of the rough topography used in the commercial BKPro.Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: Boston keratoprostheses, Corneal blindness, Dual coating, Peptide platform, Titanium implant

Fontana-Escartín, A, Lanzalaco, S, Bertran, O, Aradilla, D, Alemán, C, (2023). Aqueous alginate/MXene inks for 3D printable biomedical devices Colloids And Surfaces A-Physicochemical And Engineering Aspects 671, 131632

Electrochemically responsive hydrogel networks have been obtained usin g printable inks made of a biopolymer, alginate (Alg), and an inorganic 2D material , MXene (titaniu m carbide, Ti3C2Tx) nanosheets. While MXene offers an electrically conductive pathway for electron transfer and Alg provides an interconnected framework for ion diffusion, the printed nanocomposite results, after gelation, in an extended active interface for redox reactions, being an ideal framework to design and construct flexible devices for biomedical applications. In this work, after characterization, we demonstrate that hydrogels obtained by cross-linking printed Alg /MXene inks exhibit great potential for bioelectronics. More specifically, we prove that flexible Alg/MXene hydrogels act as self-supported electroactive electrodes for the electrochemical detection of bioanalytes, such as dopamine, with a performance similar to that achieved using more sophisticated electrodes, as for example those containing conducting poly-mers and electrocatalytic gold nanoparticles. In addition, Alg/MXene hydrogels have been successfully used to regulate the release of a previously loaded broad spectrum antibiotic (chloramphenicol) by electrical stimulation.

JTD Keywords: 3d-printing, Biomedical application s, Composites, Conducting polymers, Drug release, Electroresponsive hydrogels, Fabrication, Hydrogels, Platform, Sensors, Strategy, Surface, Thin-film, Titanium carbide

Abenza JF, Rossetti L, Mouelhi M, Burgués J, Andreu I, Kennedy K, Roca-Cusachs P, Marco S, García-Ojalvo J, Trepat X, (2023). Mechanical control of the mammalian circadian clock via YAP/TAZ and TEAD Journal Of Cell Biology 222, e202209120

Autonomous circadian clocks exist in nearly every mammalian cell type. These cellular clocks are subjected to a multilayered regulation sensitive to the mechanochemical cell microenvironment. Whereas the biochemical signaling that controls the cellular circadian clock is increasingly well understood, mechanisms underlying regulation by mechanical cues are largely unknown. Here we show that the fibroblast circadian clock is mechanically regulated through YAP/TAZ nuclear levels. We use high-throughput analysis of single-cell circadian rhythms and apply controlled mechanical, biochemical, and genetic perturbations to study the expression of the clock gene Rev-erbα. We observe that Rev-erbα circadian oscillations are disrupted with YAP/TAZ nuclear translocation. By targeted mutations and overexpression of YAP/TAZ, we show that this mechanobiological regulation, which also impacts core components of the clock such as Bmal1 and Cry1, depends on the binding of YAP/TAZ to the transcriptional effector TEAD. This mechanism could explain the impairment of circadian rhythms observed when YAP/TAZ activity is upregulated, as in cancer and aging.© 2023 Abenza et al.

JTD Keywords: activation, dynamics, forces, growth, hippo pathway, liver, platform, time, transcription, Gene-expression

Rodríguez‐Comas, Júlia, Castaño, Carlos, Ortega, María Alejandra, Tejedera, Ainoa, Fernandez‐González, Míriam, Novials, Anna, Párrizas, Marcelina, Ramón‐Azcón, Javier, (2023). Immunoaffinity‐Based Microfluidic Platform for Exosomal MicroRNA Isolation from Obese and Lean Mouse Plasma Advanced Materials Technologies 8, 2300054

Andrés-Benito, Pol, Flores, África, Busquet-Areny, Sara, Carmona, Margarita, Ausín, Karina, Cartas-Cejudo, Paz, Lachén-Montes, Mercedes, Del Rio, José Antonio, Fernández-Irigoyen, Joaquín, Santamaría, Enrique, Ferrer, Isidro, (2023). Deregulated Transcription and Proteostasis in Adult mapt Knockout Mouse International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 24, 6559

Transcriptomics and phosphoproteomics were carried out in the cerebral cortex of B6.Cg-Mapttm1(EGFP)Klt (tau knockout: tau-KO) and wild-type (WT) 12 month-old mice to learn about the effects of tau ablation. Compared with WT mice, tau-KO mice displayed reduced anxiety-like behavior and lower fear expression induced by aversive conditioning, whereas recognition memory remained unaltered. Cortical transcriptomic analysis revealed 69 downregulated and 105 upregulated genes in tau-KO mice, corresponding to synaptic structures, neuron cytoskeleton and transport, and extracellular matrix components. RT-qPCR validated increased mRNA levels of col6a4, gabrq, gad1, grm5, grip2, map2, rab8a, tubb3, wnt16, and an absence of map1a in tau-KO mice compared with WT mice. A few proteins were assessed with Western blotting to compare mRNA expression with corresponding protein levels. Map1a mRNA and protein levels decreased. However, β-tubulin III and GAD1 protein levels were reduced in tau-KO mice. Cortical phosphoproteomics revealed 121 hypophosphorylated and 98 hyperphosphorylated proteins in tau-KO mice. Deregulated phosphoproteins were categorized into cytoskeletal (n = 45) and membrane proteins, including proteins of the synapses and vesicles, myelin proteins, and proteins linked to membrane transport and ion channels (n = 84), proteins related to DNA and RNA metabolism (n = 36), proteins connected to the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) (n = 7), proteins with kinase or phosphatase activity (n = 21), and 22 other proteins related to variegated pathways such as metabolic pathways, growth factors, or mitochondrial function or structure. The present observations reveal a complex altered brain transcriptome and phosphoproteome in tau-KO mice with only mild behavioral alterations.

JTD Keywords: computational platform, conformational-changes, cytoskeleton, disease, expression, isoforms, mechanisms, mice, phosphoproteomics, phosphorylation, synapse, tau-ko, tauopathies, transcriptomics, Tau-ko, Tau-protein, Transcriptomics

Palma-Florez S, López-Canosa A, Moralez-Zavala F, Castaño O, Kogan MJ, Samitier J, Lagunas A, Mir M, (2023). BBB-on-a-chip with integrated micro-TEER for permeability evaluation of multi-functionalized gold nanorods against Alzheimer's disease Journal Of Nanobiotechnology 21, 115

The lack of predictive models that mimic the blood-brain barrier (BBB) hinders the development of effective drugs for neurodegenerative diseases. Animal models behave differently from humans, are expensive and have ethical constraints. Organ-on-a-chip (OoC) platforms offer several advantages to resembling physiological and pathological conditions in a versatile, reproducible, and animal-free manner. In addition, OoC give us the possibility to incorporate sensors to determine cell culture features such as trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER). Here, we developed a BBB-on-a-chip (BBB-oC) platform with a TEER measurement system in close distance to the barrier used for the first time for the evaluation of the permeability performance of targeted gold nanorods for theranostics of Alzheimer's disease. GNR-PEG-Ang2/D1 is a therapeutic nanosystem previously developed by us consisting of gold nanorods (GNR) functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG), angiopep-2 peptide (Ang2) to overcome the BBB and the D1 peptide as beta amyloid fibrillation inhibitor, finally obtaining GNR-PEG-Ang2/D1 which showed to be useful for disaggregation of the amyloid in in vitro and in vivo models. In this work, we evaluated its cytotoxicity, permeability, and some indications of its impact on the brain endothelium by employing an animal-free device based on neurovascular human cells.In this work, we fabricated a BBB-oC with human astrocytes, pericytes and endothelial cells and a TEER measuring system (TEER-BBB-oC) integrated at a micrometric distance of the endothelial barrier. The characterization displayed a neurovascular network and the expression of tight junctions in the endothelium. We produced GNR-PEG-Ang2/D1 and determined its non-cytotoxic range (0.05-0.4 nM) for plated cells included in the BBB-oC and confirmed its harmless effect at the highest concentration (0.4 nM) in the microfluidic device. The permeability assays revealed that GNR-PEG-Ang2/D1 cross the BBB and this entry is facilitated by Ang2 peptide. Parallel to the permeability analysis of GNR-PEG-Ang2/D1, an interesting behavior of the TJs expression was observed after its administration probably related to the ligands on the nanoparticle surface.BBB-oC with a novel TEER integrated setup which allow a correct read-out and cell imaging monitoring was proven as a functional and throughput platform to evaluate the brain permeability performance of nanotherapeutics in a physiological environment with human cells, putting forward a viable alternative to animal experimentation.© 2023. The Author(s).

JTD Keywords: alzheimer disease (ad), cell-culture, cytotoxicity, endothelial-cells, gold nanoparticles, microfluidic platform, model, organ-on-a-chip (ooc), peptide, tight junction, trans-endothelial electrical resistance (teer), transport, Alzheimer disease (ad), Blood-brain barrier (bbb), Blood-brain-barrier, Blood–brain barrier (bbb), Gold nanoparticles, Organ-on-a-chip (ooc), Trans-endothelial electrical resistance (teer)

De Lama-Odría, María del Carmen, Valle, Luis Jdel, Puiggalí, Jordi, (2023). Lanthanides-Substituted Hydroxyapatite for Biomedical Applications International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 24, 3446

Lately, there has been an increasing demand for materials that could improve tissue regenerative therapies and provide antimicrobial effects. Similarly, there is a growing need to develop or modify biomaterials for the diagnosis and treatment of different pathologies. In this scenario, hydroxyapatite (HAp) appears as a bioceramic with extended functionalities. Nevertheless, there are certain disadvantages related to the mechanical properties and lack of antimicrobial capacity. To circumvent them, the doping of HAp with a variety of cationic ions is emerging as a good alterative due to the different biological roles of each ion. Among many elements, lanthanides are understudied despite their great potential in the biomedical field. For this reason, the present review focuses on the biological benefits of lanthanides and how their incorporation into HAp can alter its morphology and physical properties. A comprehensive section of the applications of lanthanides-substituted HAp nanoparticles (HAp NPs) is presented to unveil the potential biomedical uses of these systems. Finally, the need to study the tolerable and non-toxic percentages of substitution with these elements is highlighted.

JTD Keywords: biolabeling, biomedicine, biosensors, bone regeneration, calcium, cancer treatment, cationic ions, cell imaging, cerium, doped hap, hydroxyapatite, implants, in-vitro bioactivity, lanthanides-substitutions, lanthanidessubstitutions, nanoparticles, radiation synovectomy, sm-153 particulate hydroxyapatite, structural-characterization, theragnostics, theranostic nanoplatforms, Europium-doped hydroxyapatite, Hydroxyapatite, Theragnostics

Manzano-Muñoz A, Yeste J, Ortega MA, Martín F, López A, Rosell J, Castro S, Serrano C, Samitier J, Ramón-Azcón J, Montero J, (2022). Microfluidic-based dynamic BH3 profiling predicts anticancer treatment efficacy Npj Precis Oncol 6, 90

Precision medicine is starting to incorporate functional assays to evaluate anticancer agents on patient-isolated tissues or cells to select for the most effective. Among these new technologies, dynamic BH3 profiling (DBP) has emerged and extensively been used to predict treatment efficacy in different types of cancer. DBP uses synthetic BH3 peptides to measure early apoptotic events ('priming') and anticipate therapy-induced cell death leading to tumor elimination. This predictive functional assay presents multiple advantages but a critical limitation: the cell number requirement, that limits drug screening on patient samples, especially in solid tumors. To solve this problem, we developed an innovative microfluidic-based DBP (µDBP) device that overcomes tissue limitations on primary samples. We used microfluidic chips to generate a gradient of BIM BH3 peptide, compared it with the standard flow cytometry based DBP, and tested different anticancer treatments. We first examined this new technology's predictive capacity using gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) cell lines, by comparing imatinib sensitive and resistant cells, and we could detect differences in apoptotic priming and anticipate cytotoxicity. We then validated µDBP on a refractory GIST patient sample and identified that the combination of dactolisib and venetoclax increased apoptotic priming. In summary, this new technology could represent an important advance for precision medicine by providing a fast, easy-to-use and scalable microfluidic device to perform DBP in situ as a routine assay to identify the best treatment for cancer patients.© 2022. The Author(s).

JTD Keywords: biomarkers, cancer drugs, chemotherapy, chip, models, platform, sensitivity, strategy, tumor-cells, Precision medicine

García-Torres J, Colombi S, Macor LP, Alemán C, (2022). Multitasking smart hydrogels based on the combination of alginate and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) properties: A review International Journal Of Biological Macromolecules 219, 312-332

Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), a very stable and biocompatible conducting polymer, and alginate (Alg), a natural water-soluble polysaccharide mainly found in the cell wall of various species of brown algae, exhibit very different but at the same complementary properties. In the last few years, the remarkable capacity of Alg to form hydrogels and the electro-responsive properties of PEDOT have been combined to form not only layered composites (PEDOT-Alg) but also interpenetrated multi-responsive PEDOT/Alg hydrogels. These materials have been found to display outstanding properties, such as electrical conductivity, piezoelectricity, biocompatibility, self-healing and re-usability properties, pH and thermoelectric responsiveness, among others. Consequently, a wide number of applications are being proposed for PEDOT-Alg composites and, especially, PEDOT/Alg hydrogels, which should be considered as a new kind of hybrid material because of the very different chemical nature of the two polymeric components. This review summarizes the applications of PEDOT-Alg and PEDOT/Alg in tissue interfaces and regeneration, drug delivery, sensors, microfluidics, energy storage and evaporators for desalination. Special attention has been given to the discussion of multi-tasking applications, while the new challenges to be tackled based on aspects not yet considered in either of the two polymers have also been highlighted.Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: aerogels, composite, conducting polymer, conducting polymers, electrodes, pedotpss, ph, platform, release, scaffold, semi-interpenetrated hydrogels, Alginic acid, Conducting polymer, Drug-delivery, Semi-interpenetrated hydrogels

Mughal, S, Lopez-Munoz, GA, Fernandez-Costa, JM, Cortes-Resendiz, A, De Chiara, F, Ramon-Azcon, J, (2022). Organs-on-Chips: Trends and Challenges in Advanced Systems Integration Advanced Materials Interfaces 9, 2201618

Organ-on-chip platforms combined with high-throughput sensing technology allow bridging gaps in information presented by 2D cultures modeled on static microphysiological systems. While these platforms do not aim to replicate whole organ systems with all physiological nuances, they try to mimic relevant structural, physiological, and functional features of organoids and tissues to best model disease and/or healthy states. The advent of this platform has not only challenged animal testing but has also presented the opportunity to acquire real-time, high-throughput data about the pathophysiology of disease progression by employing biosensors. Biosensors allow monitoring of the release of relevant biomarkers and metabolites as a result of physicochemical stress. It, therefore, helps conduct quick lead validation to achieve personalized medicine objectives. The organ-on-chip industry is currently embarking on an exponential growth trajectory. Multiple pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are adopting this technology to enable quick patient-specific data acquisition at substantially low costs.

JTD Keywords: A-chip, Biosensor, Biosensors, Cancer, Cells, Culture, Disease models, Epithelial electrical-resistance, Hydrogel, Microfabrication, Microphysiological systems, Models, Niches, Organ-on-a-chips, Platform

Cillo U, Weissenbacher A, Pengel L, Jochmans I, Roppolo D, Amarelli C, Belli LS, Berenguer M, De Vries A, Ferrer J, Friedewald J, Furian L, Greenwood S, Monbaliu D, Nadalin S, Neyrinck A, Strazzabosco M, Toso C, Zaza G, Thuraisingham R, Berney T, Potena L, Montserrat N, Selzner N, (2022). ESOT Consensus Platform for Organ Transplantation: Setting the Stage for a Rigorous, Regularly Updated Development Process Transplant International 35, 10915

The European Society for Organ Transplantation (ESOT) has created a platform for the development of rigorous and regularly updated evidence based guidelines for clinical practice in the transplantation field. A dedicated Guideline Taskforce, including ESOT-council members, a representative from the Centre for Evidence in Transplantation, editors of the journal Transplant International has developed transparent procedures to guide the development of guidelines, recommendations, and consensus statements. During ESOT's first Consensus Conference in November 2022, leading experts will present in-depth evidence based reviews of nine themes and will propose recommendations aimed at reaching a consensus after public discussion and assessment by an independent jury. All recommendations and consensus statements produced for the nine selected topics will be published including the entire evidence-based consensus-finding process. An extensive literature review of each topic was conducted to provide final evidence and/or expert opinion.Copyright © 2022 Cillo, Weissenbacher, Pengel, Jochmans, Roppolo, Amarelli, Belli, Berenguer, De Vries, Ferrer, Friedewald, Furian, Greenwood, Monbaliu, Nadalin, Neyrinck, Strazzabosco, Toso, Zaza, Thuraisingham, Berney, Potena, Montserrat and Selzner.

JTD Keywords: consensus conference, guidelines, methodology, platform, Consensus conference, Guidelines, Methodology, Organ transplantation, Platform, Quality

Fernández-Garibay, Xiomara, Gomez-Florit, Manuel, Domingues, Rui M A, Gomes, Manuela, Fernandez-Costa, Juan M., Ramon, Javier, (2022). Xeno-free bioengineered human skeletal muscle tissue using human platelet lysate-based hydrogels Biofabrication 14, 045015

Abstract Bioengineered human skeletal muscle tissues have emerged in the last years as new in vitro systems for disease modeling. These bioartificial muscles are classically fabricated by encapsulating human myogenic precursor cells in a hydrogel scaffold that resembles the extracellular matrix. However, most of these hydrogels are derived from xenogenic sources, and the culture media is supplemented with animal serum, which could interfere in drug testing assays. On the contrary, xeno-free biomaterials and culture conditions in tissue engineering offer increased relevance for developing human disease models. In this work, we used human platelet lysate-based nanocomposite hydrogels (HUgel) as scaffolds for human skeletal muscle tissue engineering. These hydrogels consist of human platelet lysate reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (a-CNC) that allow tunable mechanical, structural, and biochemical properties for the 3D culture of stem cells. Here, we developed hydrogel casting platforms to encapsulate human muscle satellite stem cells in HUgel. The a-CNC content was modulated to enhance matrix remodeling, uniaxial tension, and self-organization of the cells, resulting in the formation of highly aligned, long myotubes expressing sarcomeric proteins. Moreover, the bioengineered human muscles were subjected to electrical stimulation, and the exerted contractile forces were measured in a non-invasive manner. Overall, our results demonstrated that the bioengineered human skeletal muscles could be built in xeno-free cell culture platforms to assess tissue functionality, which is promising for drug development applications.

JTD Keywords: 3d culture, generation, identification, image, manipulate, matrigel, mechanics, model, platelet lysate, scaffolds, skeletal muscle, tissue engineering, xeno-free, Platform, Skeletal muscle, Xeno-free

Lopez-Muñoz GA, Mughal S, Ramón-Azcón J, (2022). Sensors and Biosensors in Organs-on-a-Chip Platforms Advances In Experimental Medicine And Biology 1379, 55-80

Biosensors represent a powerful analytical tool for analyzing biomolecular interactions with the potential to achieve real-time quantitative analysis with high accuracy using low sample volumes, minimum sample pretreatment with high potential for the development of in situ and highly integrated monitoring platforms. Considering these advantages, their use in cell-culture systems has increased over the last few years. Between the different technologies for cell culture, organs-on-a-chip (OOCs) represent a novel technology that tries to mimic an organ's functionality by combining tissue engineering/organoid with microfluidics. Although there are still challenges to achieving OOC models with high organ mimicking relevance, these devices can offer effective models for drug treatment development by identifying drug targets, screening toxicity, and determining the potential effects of drugs in living beings. Consequently, in the future, we might replace animal studies by offering more ethical test models. Considering the relevance that different physiological and biochemical parameters have in the correct functionality of cells, sensing and biosensing platforms can offer an effective way for the real-time monitoring of physiological parameters and, in our opinion, more relevant, the secretion of biomarkers such as cytokines, growth factors, and others related with the influence of drugs or other types of stimulus in cell metabolism. Keeping this concept in mind, in this chapter, we focus on describing the potential use of sensors and biosensors in OOC devices to achieve fully integrated platforms that monitor physiological parameters and cell metabolism.© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

JTD Keywords: alignment, biosensors, cell, crystal microbalance biosensor, electrochemical biosensors, future, graphene oxide, label-free detection, organ-on-a-chip, oxygen, pre-clinical platforms, real-time analysis, screening, Biosensors, Organ-on-a-chip, Pre-clinical platforms, Screening, Sensors, Surface-plasmon resonance

Bravo, J, Ribeiro, I, Terceiro, AF, Andrade, EB, Portugal, CC, Lopes, IM, Azevedo, MM, Sousa, M, Lopes, CDF, Lobo, AC, Canedo, T, Relvas, JB, Summavielle, T, (2022). Neuron-Microglia Contact-Dependent Mechanisms Attenuate Methamphetamine-Induced Microglia Reactivity and Enhance Neuronal Plasticity Cells 11,

Exposure to methamphetamine (Meth) has been classically associated with damage to neuronal terminals. However, it is now becoming clear that addiction may also result from the interplay between glial cells and neurons. Recently, we demonstrated that binge Meth administration promotes microgliosis and microglia pro-inflammation via astrocytic glutamate release in a TNF/IP(3)R2-Ca2+-dependent manner. Here, we investigated the contribution of neuronal cells to this process. As the crosstalk between microglia and neurons may occur by contact-dependent and/or contact-independent mechanisms, we developed co-cultures of primary neurons and microglia in microfluidic devices to investigate how their interaction affects Meth-induced microglia activation. Our results show that neurons exposed to Meth do not activate microglia in a cell-autonomous way but require astrocyte mediation. Importantly, we found that neurons can partially prevent Meth-induced microglia activation via astrocytes, which seems to be achieved by increasing arginase 1 expression and strengthening the CD200/CD200r pathway. We also observed an increase in synaptic individual area, as determined by co-localization of pre- and post-synaptic markers. The present study provides evidence that contact-dependent mechanisms between neurons and microglia can attenuate pro-inflammatory events such as Meth-induced microglia activation.

JTD Keywords: cd200, contact-dependent, methamphetamine, neuron-to-microglia, psd95, Activation, Cd200, Contact-dependent, Expression, Glutamate, Methamphetamine, Neuron-to-microglia, Neuroprotection, Platform, Psd95

Duro-Castano, Aroa, Rodríguez-Arco, Laura, Ruiz-Pérez, Lorena, De Pace, Cesare, Marchello, Gabriele, Noble-Jesus, Carlos, Battaglia, Giuseppe, (2021). One-Pot Synthesis of Oxidation-Sensitive Supramolecular Gels and Vesicles Biomacromolecules 22, 5052-5064

Polypeptide-based nanoparticles offer unique advantages from a nanomedicine perspective such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and stimuli-responsive properties to (patho)physiological conditions. Conventionally, self-assembled polypeptide nanostructures are prepared by first synthesizing their constituent amphiphilic polypeptides followed by postpolymerization self-assembly. Herein, we describe the one-pot synthesis of oxidation-sensitive supramolecular micelles and vesicles. This was achieved by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) of the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) precursor of methionine using poly(ethylene oxide) as a stabilizing and hydrophilic block in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). By adjusting the hydrophobic block length and concentration, we obtained a range of morphologies from spherical to wormlike micelles, to vesicles. Remarkably, the secondary structure of polypeptides greatly influenced the final morphology of the assemblies. Surprisingly, wormlike micellar morphologies were obtained for a wide range of methionine block lengths and solid contents, with spherical micelles restricted to very short hydrophobic lengths. Wormlike micelles further assembled into oxidation-sensitive, self-standing gels in the reaction pot. Both vesicles and wormlike micelles obtained using this method demonstrated to degrade under controlled oxidant conditions, which would expand their biomedical applications such as in sustained drug release or as cellular scaffolds in tissue engineering.

JTD Keywords: alpha-amino-acid, hydrogels, leuchs anhydrides, platform, polypeptides, transformation, triggered cargo release, Amino acids, Amphiphilics, Biocompatibility, Biodegradability, Block lengths, Controlled drug delivery, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Ethylene, Gels, Hydrophobicity, Medical nanotechnology, Methionine, Micelles, Morphology, One-pot synthesis, Organic solvents, Oxidation, Physiological condition, Polyethylene oxides, Post-polymerization, Ring-opening polymerization, Scaffolds (biology), Self assembly, Stimuli-responsive properties, Supramolecular chemistry, Supramolecular gels, Supramolecular micelles, Wormlike micelle

Nashimoto Y, Abe M, Fujii R, Taira N, Ida H, Takahashi Y, Ino K, Ramon-Azcon J, Shiku H, (2021). Topography and Permeability Analyses of Vasculature-on-a-Chip Using Scanning Probe Microscopies Advanced Healthcare Materials 10, e2101186

Microphysiological systems (MPS) or organs-on-chips (OoC) can emulate the physiological functions of organs in vitro and are effective tools for determining human drug responses in preclinical studies. However, the analysis of MPS has relied heavily on optical tools, resulting in difficulties in real-time and high spatial resolution imaging of the target cell functions. In this study, the role of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) as an analytical tool for MPS is evaluated. An access hole is made in a typical MPS system with stacked microchannels to insert SPM probes into the system. For the first study, a simple vascular model composed of only endothelial cells is prepared for SPM analysis. Changes in permeability and local chemical flux are quantitatively evaluated during the construction of the vascular system. The morphological changes in the endothelial cells after flow stimulation are imaged at the single-cell level for topographical analysis. Finally, the possibility of adapting the permeability and topographical analysis using SPM for the intestinal vascular system is further evaluated. It is believed that this study will pave the way for an in situ permeability assay and structural analysis of MPS using SPM.

JTD Keywords: cell, electrochemical microscopy, membrane-permeability, microphysiological systems, organs-chips, platform, scanning electrochemical microscopy, scanning ion conductance microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, shear-stress, surface-topography, Ion conductance microscopy, Microphysiological systems, Organs-chips, Scanning electrochemical microscopy, Scanning ion conductance microscopy, Scanning probe microscopy

Mestre R, García N, Patiño T, Guix M, Fuentes J, Valerio-Santiago M, Almiñana N, Sánchez S, (2021). 3D-bioengineered model of human skeletal muscle tissue with phenotypic features of aging for drug testing purposes Biofabrication 13,

Three-dimensional engineering of skeletal muscle is becoming increasingly relevant for tissue engineering, disease modeling and bio-hybrid robotics, where flexible, versatile and multidisciplinary approaches for the evaluation of tissue differentiation, functionality and force measurement are required. This works presents a 3D-printed platform of bioengineered human skeletal muscle which can efficiently model the three-dimensional structure of native tissue, while providing information about force generation and contraction profiles. Proper differentiation and maturation of myocytes is demonstrated by the expression of key myo-proteins using immunocytochemistry and analyzed by confocal microscopy, and the functionality assessed via electrical stimulation and analysis of contraction kinetics. To validate the flexibility of this platform for complex tissue modeling, the bioengineered muscle is treated with tumor necrosis factor α to mimic the conditions of aging, which is supported by morphological and functional changes. Moreover, as a proof of concept, the effects of Argireline® Amplified peptide, a cosmetic ingredient that causes muscle relaxation, are evaluated in both healthy and aged tissue models. Therefore, the results demonstrate that this 3D-bioengineered human muscle platform could be used to assess morphological and functional changes in the aging process of muscular tissue with potential applications in biomedicine, cosmetics and bio-hybrid robotics.

JTD Keywords: 3d bioprinting, bio-actuator, drug testing, human skeletal muscle, muscle ageing, platform, tnf-alpha, 3d bioprinting, Bio-actuator, Drug testing, Human skeletal muscle, Muscle ageing, Necrosis-factor-alpha

López-Canosa A, Perez-Amodio S, Yanac-Huertas E, Ordoño J, Rodriguez-Trujillo R, Samitier J, Castaño O, Engel E, (2021). A microphysiological system combining electrospun fibers and electrical stimulation for the maturation of highly anisotropic cardiac tissue Biofabrication 13, 035047

The creation of cardiac tissue models for preclinical testing is still a non-solved problem in drug discovery, due to the limitations related to thein vitroreplication of cardiac tissue complexity. Among these limitations, the difficulty of mimicking the functional properties of the myocardium due to the immaturity of the used cells hampers the obtention of reliable results that could be translated into human patients.In vivomodels are the current gold standard to test new treatments, although it is widely acknowledged that the used animals are unable to fully recapitulate human physiology, which often leads to failures during clinical trials. In the present work, we present a microfluidic platform that aims to provide a range of signaling cues to immature cardiac cells to drive them towards an adult phenotype. The device combines topographical electrospun nanofibers with electrical stimulation in a microfabricated system. We validated our platform using a co-culture of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, showing that it allows us to control the degree of anisotropy of the cardiac tissue inside the microdevice in a cost-effective way. Moreover, a 3D computational model of the electrical field was created and validated to demonstrate that our platform is able to closely match the distribution obtained with the gold standard (planar electrode technology) using inexpensive rod-shaped biocompatible stainless-steel electrodes. The functionality of the electrical stimulation was shown to induce a higher expression of the tight junction protein Cx-43, as well as the upregulation of several key genes involved in conductive and structural cardiac properties. These results validate our platform as a powerful tool for the tissue engineering community due to its low cost, high imaging compatibility, versatility, and high-throughput configuration capabilities.

JTD Keywords: bioreactor, cardiac tissue engineering, cardiomyocytes, electrospinning, fabrication, fibroblasts, heart-on-a-chip, heart-tissue, in vitro models, myocardium, orientation, platform, scaffolds, Cardiac tissue engineering, Electrospinning, Field stimulation, Heart-on-a-chip, In vitro models, Microphysiological system

Ortega MA, Rodríguez-Comas J, Yavas O, Velasco-Mallorquí F, Balaguer-Trias J, Parra V, Novials A, Servitja JM, Quidant R, Ramón-Azcón J, (2021). In Situ LSPR Sensing of Secreted Insulin in Organ-on-Chip Biosensors 11,

Organ-on-a-chip (OOC) devices offer new approaches for metabolic disease modeling and drug discovery by providing biologically relevant models of tissues and organs in vitro with a high degree of control over experimental variables for high-content screening applications. Yet, to fully exploit the potential of these platforms, there is a need to interface them with integrated non-labeled sensing modules, capable of monitoring, in situ, their biochemical response to external stimuli, such as stress or drugs. In order to meet this need, we aim here to develop an integrated technology based on coupling a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing module to an OOC device to monitor the insulin in situ secretion in pancreatic islets, a key physiological event that is usually perturbed in metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). As a proof of concept, we developed a biomimetic islet-on-a-chip (IOC) device composed of mouse pancreatic islets hosted in a cellulose-based scaffold as a novel approach. The IOC was interfaced with a state-of-the-art on-chip LSPR sensing platform to monitor the in situ insulin secretion. The developed platform offers a powerful tool to enable the in situ response study of microtissues to external stimuli for applications such as a drug-screening platform for human models, bypassing animal testing.

JTD Keywords: biosensor, cytoarchitecture, dna hybridization, gelatin, in situ insulin monitoring, langerhans, lspr sensors, microfluidic device, organ-on-a-chip, parallel, platform, scaffold, Human pancreatic-islets, In situ insulin monitoring, Lspr sensors, Organ-on-a-chip

Guix M, Mestre R, Patiño T, de Corato M, Fuentes J, Zarpellon G, Sánchez S, (2021). Biohybrid soft robots with self-stimulating skeletons Science Robotics 6, abe7577

Bioinspired hybrid soft robots that combine living and synthetic components are an emerging field in the development of advanced actuators and other robotic platforms (i.e., swimmers, crawlers, and walkers). The integration of biological components offers unique characteristics that artificial materials cannot precisely replicate, such as adaptability and response to external stimuli. Here, we present a skeletal muscle–based swimming biobot with a three-dimensional (3D)–printed serpentine spring skeleton that provides mechanical integrity and self-stimulation during the cell maturation process. The restoring force inherent to the spring system allows a dynamic skeleton compliance upon spontaneous muscle contraction, leading to a cyclic mechanical stimulation process that improves the muscle force output without external stimuli. Optimization of the 3D-printed skeletons is carried out by studying the geometrical stiffnesses of different designs via finite element analysis. Upon electrical actuation of the muscle tissue, two types of motion mechanisms are experimentally observed: directional swimming when the biobot is at the liquid-air interface and coasting motion when it is near the bottom surface. The integrated compliant skeleton provides both the mechanical self-stimulation and the required asymmetry for directional motion, displaying its maximum velocity at 5 hertz (800 micrometers per second, 3 body lengths per second). This skeletal muscle–based biohybrid swimmer attains speeds comparable with those of cardiac-based biohybrid robots and outperforms other muscle-based swimmers. The integration of serpentine-like structures in hybrid robotic systems allows self-stimulation processes that could lead to higher force outputs in current and future biomimetic robotic platforms. Copyright © 2021 The Authors, some rights reserved;

JTD Keywords: actuators, design, fabrication, mechanics, mems, myotubes, platform, tissue, 3d printers, Agricultural robots, Biological components, Biomimetic processes, Electrical actuation, Geometrical stiffness, Intelligent robots, Liquefied gases, Liquid-air interface, Mechanical integrity, Mechanical stimulation, Muscle, Muscle contractions, Phase interfaces, Robotics, Serpentine, Springs (components), Threedimensional (3-d)

Fernández-Costa JM, Fernández-Garibay X, Velasco-Mallorquí F, Ramón-Azcón J, (2021). Bioengineered in vitro skeletal muscles as new tools for muscular dystrophies preclinical studies Journal Of Tissue Engineering 12, 2041731420981339

© The Author(s) 2021. Muscular dystrophies are a group of highly disabling disorders that share degenerative muscle weakness and wasting as common symptoms. To date, there is not an effective cure for these diseases. In the last years, bioengineered tissues have emerged as powerful tools for preclinical studies. In this review, we summarize the recent technological advances in skeletal muscle tissue engineering. We identify several ground-breaking techniques to fabricate in vitro bioartificial muscles. Accumulating evidence shows that scaffold-based tissue engineering provides topographical cues that enhance the viability and maturation of skeletal muscle. Functional bioartificial muscles have been developed using human myoblasts. These tissues accurately responded to electrical and biological stimulation. Moreover, advanced drug screening tools can be fabricated integrating these tissues in electrical stimulation platforms. However, more work introducing patient-derived cells and integrating these tissues in microdevices is needed to promote the clinical translation of bioengineered skeletal muscle as preclinical tools for muscular dystrophies.

JTD Keywords: biomaterials, drug screening platforms, muscular dystrophy, skeletal muscle, tissue engineering, Biomaterials, Drug screening platforms, Muscular dystrophy, Skeletal muscle, Tissue engineering

Ponce, I., Aragonès, A. C., Darwish, Nadrim, Pla-Vilanova, P., Oñate, R., Rezende, M. C., Zagal, J. H., Sanz, F., Pavez, J., Díez-Pérez, I., (2015). Building nanoscale molecular wires exploiting electrocatalytic interactions Electrochimica Acta 179, 611-167

Herein, we present a novel method to design nanoscale molecular wires by exploiting well-established electrocatalytic molecular platforms based on metallophthalocyanine blocks. Metallophthalocyanines exhibit high catalytic activity for a wide variety of electrochemical reactions of practical interests. To this aim, metallophthalocyanine molecules can be attached to an electrode surface via a conjugated mercaptopyridine axial ligand that provides (i) stable chemical binding to the metal surface through the thiol-anchoring group, and (ii) a good electrical communication between the metallophthalocyanine ring and the electrode surface. Our previous work demonstrates that long mercaptopyridinium blocks act as excellent linkers in such electrocatalytic platform, resulting in an optimal electrocatalytic activity of the metallophthalocyanine unit. Here we profit from this optimized electrocatalytic molecular platform to design new molecular wires that connect a metal nanoscale junction in a highly efficient and tunable way. To this aim, we use an STM break-junction approach to control the formation of a nanometric gap between two Au electrodes, both functionalized with mercaptopyridinium (bottom) and mercaptopyridine (top). When metallophthalocyanine is introduced into the functionalized metal nanojunction, stable molecular connections between the two electrodes are formed through axial coordination to the top and bottom pyridine moieties. We show that the highest conductance of the resulting nanoscale molecular wire corresponds to an Fe-phthalocyanine as compare to a Cu-phthalocyanine, which follows the electrocatalytic trend for such molecular systems. These results not only demonstrate a new strategy to design new families of highly conductive and tunable nanoscale molecular wires, but it also brings a new nanoscale electrical platform to help understanding some fundamental mechanistic aspects of molecular electrocatalysis.

JTD Keywords: Single-molecule wires, Metallophthalocyanine, Electrocatalytic molecular platform, Molecular Electronics, STM break-junction

Pérez-Madrigal, M. M., Giannotti, M. I., Del Valle, L. J., Franco, L., Armelin, E., Puiggalí, J., Sanz, F., Alemán, C., (2014). Thermoplastic polyurethane:polythiophene nanomembranes for biomedical and biotechnological applications ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 6, (12), 9719-9732

Nanomembranes have been prepared by spin-coating mixtures of a polythiophene (P3TMA) derivative and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) using 20:80, 40:60, and 60:40 TPU:P3TMA weight ratios. After structural, topographical, electrochemical, and thermal characterization, properties typically related with biomedical applications have been investigated: swelling, resistance to both hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation, biocompatibility, and adsorption of type I collagen, which is an extra cellular matrix protein that binds fibronectin favoring cell adhesion processes. The swelling ability and the hydrolytic and enzymatic degradability of TPU:P3TMA membranes increases with the concentration of P3TMA. Moreover, the degradation of the blends is considerably promoted by the presence of enzymes in the hydrolytic medium, TPU:P3TMA blends behaving as biodegradable materials. On the other hand, TPU:P3TMA nanomembranes behave as bioactive platforms stimulating cell adhesion and, especially, cell viability. Type I collagen adsorption largely depends on the substrate employed to support the nanomembrane, whereas it is practically independent of the chemical nature of the polymeric material used to fabricate the nanomembrane. However, detailed microscopy study of the morphology and topography of adsorbed collagen evidence the formation of different organizations, which range from fibrils to pseudoregular honeycomb networks depending on the composition of the nanomembrane that is in contact with the protein. Scaffolds made of electroactive TPU:P3TMA nanomembranes are potential candidates for tissue engineering biomedical applications.

JTD Keywords: Bioactive platform, Biodegradable blend, Collaged adsorption, Scaffolds, Tissue engineering, Ultrathin films