DONATE

Publications

by Keyword: assay

Claussnitzer, Melina, Parikh, Victoria N, Wagner, Alex H, Arbesfeld, Jeremy A, Bult, Carol J, Firth, Helen V, Muffley, Lara A, Ba, Alex N Nguyen, Riehle, Kevin, Roth, Frederick P, Tabet, Daniel, Bolognesi, Benedetta, Glazer, Andrew M, Rubin, Alan F, (2024). Minimum information and guidelines for reporting a multiplexed assay of variant effect Genome Biology 25, 100

Multiplexed assays of variant effect (MAVEs) have emerged as a powerful approach for interrogating thousands of genetic variants in a single experiment. The flexibility and widespread adoption of these techniques across diverse disciplines have led to a heterogeneous mix of data formats and descriptions, which complicates the downstream use of the resulting datasets. To address these issues and promote reproducibility and reuse of MAVE data, we define a set of minimum information standards for MAVE data and metadata and outline a controlled vocabulary aligned with established biomedical ontologies for describing these experimental designs.

JTD Keywords: Genomics, standards, genetic variants, multiplexed assays of variant effect, mave, deep mutational scanning, dm


Liu, M, Zhang, C, Gong, XM, Zhang, T, Lian, MM, Chew, EGY, Cardilla, A, Suzuki, K, Wang, HM, Yuan, Y, Li, Y, Naik, MY, Wang, YX, Zhou, BR, Soon, WZ, Aizawa, E, Li, P, Low, JH, Tandiono, M, Montagud, E, Moya-Rull, D, Esteban, CR, Luque, Y, Fang, ML, Khor, CC, Montserrat, N, Campistol, JM, Belmonte, JCI, Foo, JN, Xia, Y, (2024). Kidney organoid models reveal cilium-autophagy metabolic axis as a therapeutic target for PKD both in vitro and in vivo Cell Stem Cell 31, 52-70.e8

Human pluripotent stem cell -derived kidney organoids offer unprecedented opportunities for studying polycystic kidney disease (PKD), which still has no effective cure. Here, we developed both in vitro and in vivo organoid models of PKD that manifested tubular injury and aberrant upregulation of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system. Single -cell analysis revealed that a myriad of metabolic changes occurred during cystogenesis, including defective autophagy. Experimental activation of autophagy via ATG5 overexpression or primary cilia ablation significantly inhibited cystogenesis in PKD kidney organoids. Employing the organoid xenograft model of PKD, which spontaneously developed tubular cysts, we demonstrate that minoxidil, a potent autophagy activator and an FDA -approved drug, effectively attenuated cyst formation in vivo. This in vivo organoid model of PKD will enhance our capability to discover novel disease mechanisms and validate candidate drugs for clinical translation.

JTD Keywords: Adenylate kinase, Adult, Animal cell, Animal experiment, Animal model, Animal tissue, Article, Autophagosome, Autophagy, Autophagy (cellular), Autosomal-dominant, Calcium homeostasis, Cilia, Cilium, Cohort analysis, Controlled study, Cyclic amp, Disease, Dominant polycystic kidney, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, Epithelium, Exon, Expression, Female, Food and drug administration, Framework, Generation, Growth, Hepatitis a virus cellular receptor 1, Human, Human cell, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, In vitro study, In vivo study, Kidney, Kidney organoid, Kidney polycystic disease, Male, Minoxidil, Mouse, Mutations, Nonhuman, Organoid, Organoids, Platelet derived growth factor beta receptor, Pluripotent stem-cells, Polycystic kidney diseases, Protein kinase lkb1, Renin, Sequestosome 1, Single cell analysis, Single cell rna seq, Small nuclear rna, Tunel assay, Upregulation, Western blotting, Whole exome sequencing


Manzano-Muñoz A, Yeste J, Ortega MA, Samitier J, Ramón-Azcón J, Montero J, (2024). A New Microfluidic Device to Facilitate Functional Precision Medicine Assays Methods In Molecular Biology 2748, 99-108

Functional precision medicine (FPM) has emerged as a new approach to improve cancer treatment. Despite its potential, FPM assays present important limitations such as the number of cells and trained personnel required. To overcome these impediments, here we describe a novel microfluidic platform that can be used to perform FPM assays, optimizing the use of primary cancer cells and simplifying the process by using microfluidics to automatize the process.© 2024. The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

JTD Keywords: Bioassay, Biological assay, Cancer treatment, Functional assays, Lab-on-a-chip devices, Microfluidics, Personalized medicine, Precision medicine


Boda, SK, Willkomm, N, Barrera, MS, Mansky, L, Aparicio, C, (2023). Electrostatic capture of viruses on cationic biopolymer membranes for intra-oral disease sampling Colloids And Surfaces B-Biointerfaces 232, 113602

Naso- and oropharyngeal swabs are the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) -recommended disease sampling methods for respiratory viruses. The short swabbing time for sampling by these methods may lead to variability in test results. Further, these methods are mildly invasive and can cause discomfort, tearing or gag reflexes in tested individuals. If longer sampling time is coupled with lesser patient discomfort, test reliability and patient compliance can be improved. Towards this end, we developed cationic biopolymer membranes for the electrostatic capturing of viruses in the oral cavity. Here, chemically (EDC-NHS) crosslinked uncharged chitosan (CS) nanofiber membranes were conferred either with negative surface charge by anionic poly-aspartic acid (pAsp) coating or positive charge by cationic poly-L-lysine (PLL). Consistent with our preliminary findings of dynamic light scattering (DLS) size measurements showing large agglomerates of anionic virus-like particles (VLPs) and cationic PLL in solution, a 75% increase in VLP adsorption by PLL coated CS membranes was recorded by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in comparison to untreated controls. It is envisaged that the electrostatic concentration of respiratory viruses on cationic membranes can be superior alternatives to traditional swabbing in the oral cavity.

JTD Keywords: Cationic biopolymer membranes, Disease sampling, Dynamic light scattering (dls), Electrostatic capture of viruses, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), Magnetic beads, Virus -like particles (vlps)


Resina, L, Alemán, C, Ferreira, FC, Esteves, T, (2023). Protein-imprinted polymers: How far have "plastic antibodies" come? Biotechnology Advances 68, 108220

Antibodies are highly selective and sensitive, making them the gold standard for recognition affinity tools. However, their production cost is high and their downstream processing is time-consuming. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are tailor-made by incorporating specific molecular recognition sites in their structure, thus translating into receptor-like activity mode of action. The interest in molecular imprinting technology, applied to biomacromolecules, has increased in the past decade. MIPs, produced using biomolecules as templates, commonly referred to as "plastic antibodies" or "artificial receptors", have been considered as suitable cheaper and easy to produce alternatives to antibodies. Research on MIPs, designed to recognize proteins or peptides is particularly important, with potential contributions towards biomedical applications, namely biosensors and targeted drug delivery systems. This mini review will cover recent advances on (bio)molecular imprinting technology, where proteins or peptides are targeted or mimicked for sensing and therapeutic applications. Polymerization methods are reviewed elsewhere, being out of the scope of this review. Template selection and immobilization approaches, monomers and applications will be discussed, highlighting possible drawbacks and gaps in research.Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: artificial antibodies, assay, biomimetics, biomolecules, biosensors, delivery, diagnostics, drug delivery, electrochemical detection, nanoparticles, receptors, science-and-technology, selective recognition, selective targeting, separation, templates, Artificial antibodies, Biomimetics, Biomolecules, Biosensors, Diagnostics, Drug delivery, Molecularly imprinted polymers, Nanoparticles, Selective targeting, Solid-phase synthesis


Pedraz, L, Torrents, E, (2023). An easy method for quantification of anaerobic and microaerobic gene expression with fluorescent reporter proteins Biotechniques 75, 250-255

Fluorescent proteins, such as green fluorescent proteins, are invaluable tools for detecting and quantifying gene expression in high-throughput reporter gene assays. However, they introduce significant inaccuracies in studies involving microaerobiosis or anaerobiosis, as oxygen is required for the maturation of these proteins' chromophores. In this study, the authors highlight the errors incurred by using fluorescent proteins under limited oxygenation by comparing standard fluorescence-based reporter gene assays to quantitative real-time PCR data in the study of a complex oxygen-regulated gene network. Furthermore, a solution to perform quantification of anaerobic and microaerobic gene expression with fluorescent reporter proteins using a microplate reader with an oxygen control system and applying pulses of full oxygenation before fluorescence measurements is provided.

JTD Keywords: fluorescent proteins, gene expression, gfp, microaerobiosis, promoters, reporter gene assay, transcriptional fusion, Anaerobiosis, Fluorescent proteins, Gene expression, Gfp, Microaerobiosis, Pseudomonas-aeruginosa, Reporter gene assay, Transcriptional fusion


Velasco, P, Bautista, F, Rubio, A, Aguilar, Y, Rives, S, Dapena, JL, Pérez, A, Ramirez, M, Saiz-Ladera, C, Izquierdo, E, Escudero, A, Camós, M, Vega-Garcia, N, Ortega, M, Hidalgo-Gomez, G, Palacio, C, Menéndez, P, Bueno, C, Montero, J, Romecín, PA, Zazo, S, Alvarez, F, Parras, J, Ortega-Sabater, C, Chulián, S, Rosa, M, Cirillo, D, García, E, García, J, Manzano-Muñoz, A, Minguela, A, Fuster, JL, (2023). The relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia network (ReALLNet): a multidisciplinary project from the spanish society of pediatric hematology and oncology (SEHOP) Frontiers In Pediatrics 11, 1269560

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric cancer, with survival rates exceeding 85%. However, 15% of patients will relapse; consequently, their survival rates decrease to below 50%. Therefore, several research and innovation studies are focusing on pediatric relapsed or refractory ALL (R/R ALL). Driven by this context and following the European strategic plan to implement precision medicine equitably, the Relapsed ALL Network (ReALLNet) was launched under the umbrella of SEHOP in 2021, aiming to connect bedside patient care with expert groups in R/R ALL in an interdisciplinary and multicentric network. To achieve this objective, a board consisting of experts in diagnosis, management, preclinical research, and clinical trials has been established. The requirements of treatment centers have been evaluated, and the available oncogenomic and functional study resources have been assessed and organized. A shipping platform has been developed to process samples requiring study derivation, and an integrated diagnostic committee has been established to report results. These biological data, as well as patient outcomes, are collected in a national registry. Additionally, samples from all patients are stored in a biobank. This comprehensive repository of data and samples is expected to foster an environment where preclinical researchers and data scientists can seek to meet the complex needs of this challenging population. This proof of concept aims to demonstrate that a network-based organization, such as that embodied by ReALLNet, provides the ideal niche for the equitable and efficient implementation of "what's next" in the management of children with R/R ALL.© 2023 Velasco, Bautista, Rubio, Aguilar, Rives, Dapena, Pérez, Ramirez, Saiz-Ladera, Izquierdo, Escudero, Camós, Vega-Garcia, Ortega, Hidalgo-Gómez, Palacio, Menéndez, Bueno, Montero, Romecín, Zazo, Alvarez, Parras, Ortega-Sabater, Chulián, Rosa, Cirillo, García, García, Manzano-Muñoz, Minguela and Fuster.

JTD Keywords: artificial intelligence, cancer registry, children, discovery, functional assay, outcomes, precision medicine, risk-factors, Artificial intelligence, B-cell precursor, Cancer registry, Functional assay, Precision medicine, Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia


Fowler, DM, Adams, DJ, Gloyn, AL, Hahn, WC, Marks, DS, Muffley, LA, Neal, JT, Roth, FP, Rubin, AF, Starita, LM, Hurles, ME, Ahituv, N, Bahcal, OG, Baldridge, D, Berg, JS, Berger, AH, Bianchi, AH, Bolognesi, B, Boutros, M, Brenner, S, Brush, MH, Bryant, V, Bult, CJ, Bulyk, M, Call, M, Carter, H, Claussnitzer, M, Chen, F, Cline, MS, Cuperus, JT, Dawood, M, De Jong, HN, Dias, M, Dunn, M, Engreitz, J, Farh, K, Febbo, PG, Fields, S, Findlay, GM, Firth, H, Fraser, JS, Frazer, J, Frontini, M, Romero, IG, Glazer, AM, Guler, M, Hartmann-Petersen, R, Houlston, R, Huang, KL, Hutter, CM, Jagannathan, S, James, RG, Kampmann, M, Karchin, R, Kinney, JB, Komor, AC, Kosuri, S, Lehner, B, Lindorff-Larsen, K, Lombard, Z, MacArthur, DG, Martin, M, McDermott, U, McNulty, SM, Ba, ANN, O'Donnell-Luria, A, O'Roak, BJ, Parikh, VN, Parts, L, Pazin, MJ, Pesaran, T, Petrovski, S, Queitsch, C, Root, DE, Shendure, J, Spurdle, AB, Taylor, KL, Turnbull, C, Villen, J, Vissers, LELM, Wagner, AH, Wakefield, MJ, Weile, J, Xiao, J, (2023). An Atlas of Variant Effects to understand the genome at nucleotide resolution Genome Biology 24, 147

Sequencing has revealed hundreds of millions of human genetic variants, and continued efforts will only add to this variant avalanche. Insufficient information exists to interpret the effects of most variants, limiting opportunities for precision medicine and comprehension of genome function. A solution lies in experimental assessment of the functional effect of variants, which can reveal their biological and clinical impact. However, variant effect assays have generally been undertaken reactively for individual variants only after and, in most cases long after, their first observation. Now, multiplexed assays of variant effect can characterise massive numbers of variants simultaneously, yielding variant effect maps that reveal the function of every possible single nucleotide change in a gene or regulatory element. Generating maps for every protein encoding gene and regulatory element in the human genome would create an 'Atlas' of variant effect maps and transform our understanding of genetics and usher in a new era of nucleotide-resolution functional knowledge of the genome. An Atlas would reveal the fundamental biology of the human genome, inform human evolution, empower the development and use of therapeutics and maximize the utility of genomics for diagnosing and treating disease. The Atlas of Variant Effects Alliance is an international collaborative group comprising hundreds of researchers, technologists and clinicians dedicated to realising an Atlas of Variant Effects to help deliver on the promise of genomics.

JTD Keywords: functional genomics, genome interpretation, global alliance, multiplexed assay of variant effect, saturation mutagenesis, Functional genomics, Genome interpretation, Global alliance, Multiplexed assay of variant effect, Saturation mutagenesis, Variant effect


Sanmukh, SG, Admella, J, Moya-Andérico, L, Fehér, T, Arévalo-Jaimes, BV, Blanco-Cabra, N, Torrents, E, (2023). Accessing the In Vivo Efficiency of Clinically Isolated Phages against Uropathogenic and Invasive Biofilm-Forming Escherichia coli Strains for Phage Therapy Cells 12, 344

Escherichia coli is one of the most common members of the intestinal microbiota. Many of its strains are associated with various inflammatory infections, including urinary or gut infections, especially when displaying antibiotic resistance or in patients with suppressed immune systems. According to recent reports, the biofilm-forming potential of E. coli is a crucial factor for its increased resistance against antibiotics. To overcome the limitations of using antibiotics against resistant E. coli strains, the world is turning once more towards bacteriophage therapy, which is becoming a promising candidate amongst the current personalized approaches to target different bacterial infections. Although matured and persistent biofilms pose a serious challenge to phage therapy, they can still become an effective alternative to antibiotic treatment. Here, we assess the efficiency of clinically isolated phages in phage therapy against representative clinical uropathogenic and invasive biofilm-forming E. coli strains. Our results demonstrate that irrespective of host specificity, bacteriophages producing clear plaques with a high burst size, and exhibiting depolymerizing activity, are good candidates against biofilm-producing E. coli pathogens as verified from our in vitro and in vivo experiments using Galleria mellonella where survival was significantly increased for phage-therapy-treated larvae.

JTD Keywords: antibiotic resistance, assay, bacteriophage, bacteriophages, biofilm-forming potential, infection, inflammatory infections, mechanisms, Galleria-mellonella, Intestinal microflora


Bonilla-Pons, SA, Nakagawa, S, Bahima, EG, Fernández-Blanco, A, Pesaresi, M, D'Antin, JC, Sebastian-Perez, R, Greco, D, Domínguez-Sala, E, Gómez-Riera, R, Compte, RIB, Dierssen, M, Pulido, NM, Cosma, MP, (2022). Müller glia fused with adult stem cells undergo neural differentiation in human retinal models Ebiomedicine 77, 103914

Visual impairments are a critical medical hurdle to be addressed in modern society. Müller glia (MG) have regenerative potential in the retina in lower vertebrates, but not in mammals. However, in mice, in vivo cell fusion between MG and adult stem cells forms hybrids that can partially regenerate ablated neurons.We used organotypic cultures of human retina and preparations of dissociated cells to test the hypothesis that cell fusion between human MG and adult stem cells can induce neuronal regeneration in human systems. Moreover, we established a microinjection system for transplanting human retinal organoids to demonstrate hybrid differentiation.We first found that cell fusion occurs between MG and adult stem cells, in organotypic cultures of human retina as well as in cell cultures. Next, we showed that the resulting hybrids can differentiate and acquire a proto-neural electrophysiology profile when the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is activated in the adult stem cells prior fusion. Finally, we demonstrated the engraftment and differentiation of these hybrids into human retinal organoids.We show fusion between human MG and adult stem cells, and demonstrate that the resulting hybrid cells can differentiate towards neural fate in human model systems. Our results suggest that cell fusion-mediated therapy is a potential regenerative approach for treating human retinal dystrophies.This work was supported by La Caixa Health (HR17-00231), Velux Stiftung (976a) and the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, (BFU2017-86760-P) (AEI/FEDER, UE), AGAUR (2017 SGR 689, 2017 SGR 926).Published by Elsevier B.V.

JTD Keywords: cell fusion, expression, fusion, ganglion-cells, in-vitro, mouse, müller glia, neural differentiation, organoids, regeneration, retina regeneration, stem cells, stromal cells, transplantation, 4',6 diamidino 2 phenylindole, 5' nucleotidase, Agarose, Alcohol, Arpe-19 cell line, Article, Beta catenin, Beta tubulin, Bone-marrow-cells, Bromophenol blue, Buffer, Calcium cell level, Calcium phosphate, Calretinin, Canonical wnt signaling, Cd34 antigen, Cell culture, Cell fusion, Cell viability, Coculture, Complementary dna, Confocal microscopy, Cornea transplantation, Cryopreservation, Cryoprotection, Crystal structure, Current clamp technique, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Dodecyl sulfate sodium, Edetic acid, Electrophysiology, Endoglin, Fetal bovine serum, Fibroblast growth factor 2, Flow cytometry, Fluorescence activated cell sorting, Fluorescence intensity, Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase, Glycerol, Glycine, Hoe 33342, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Incubation time, Interleukin 1beta, Lentivirus vector, Matrigel, Mercaptoethanol, Microinjection, Mueller cell, Müller glia, N methyl dextro aspartic acid, Nerve cell differentiation, Neural differentiation, Nitrogen, Nonhuman, Organoids, Paraffin, Paraffin embedding, Paraformaldehyde, Patch clamp technique, Penicillin derivative, Phenolsulfonphthalein, Phenotype, Phosphate buffered saline, Phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor, Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Potassium chloride, Povidone iodine, Promoter region, Proteinase inhibitor, Real time polymerase chain reaction, Receptor type tyrosine protein phosphatase c, Restriction endonuclease, Retina, Retina dystrophy, Retina regeneration, Retinol, Rhodopsin, Rna extraction, Stem cell, Stem cells, Subcutaneous fat, Tunel assay, Visual impairment, Western blotting


Gawish, R, Starkl, P, Pimenov, L, Hladik, A, Lakovits, K, Oberndorfer, F, Cronin, SJF, Ohradanova-Repic, A, Wirnsberger, G, Agerer, B, Endler, L, Capraz, T, Perthold, JW, Cikes, D, Koglgruber, R, Hagelkruys, A, Montserrat, N, Mirazimi, A, Boon, L, Stockinger, H, Bergthaler, A, Oostenbrink, C, Penninger, JM, Knapp, S, (2022). ACE2 is the critical in vivo receptor for SARS-CoV-2 in a novel COVID-19 mouse model with TNF-and IFNy-driven immunopathology Elife 11, e74623

Despite tremendous progress in the understanding of COVID-19, mechanistic insight into immunological, disease-driving factors remains limited. We generated maVie16, a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2, by serial passaging of a human isolate. In silico modeling revealed how only three Spike mutations of maVie16 enhanced interaction with murine ACE2. maVie16 induced profound pathology in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, and the resulting mouse COVID-19 (mCOVID-19) replicated critical aspects of human disease, including early lymphopenia, pulmonary immune cell infiltration, pneumonia, and specific adaptive immunity. Inhibition of the proinflammatory cyto-kines IFN? and TNF substantially reduced immunopathology. Importantly, genetic ACE2-deficiency completely prevented mCOVID-19 development. Finally, inhalation therapy with recombinant ACE2 fully protected mice from mCOVID-19, revealing a novel and efficient treatment. Thus, we here present maVie16 as a new tool to model COVID-19 for the discovery of new therapies and show that disease severity is determined by cytokine-driven immunopathology and critically dependent on ACE2 in vivo. © Gawish et al.

JTD Keywords: covid-19 mouse model, covid-19 therapy, cytokine storm, immunology, inflammation, mavie16, mouse, mouse-adapted sars-cov-2, program, recombinant soluble ace2, tmprss2, Adaptive immunity, Angiotensin converting enzyme 2, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, Animal, Animal cell, Animal experiment, Animal model, Animal tissue, Animals, Apoptosis, Article, Bagg albino mouse, Breathing rate, Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, C57bl mouse, Cell composition, Cell infiltration, Controlled study, Coronavirus disease 2019, Coronavirus spike glycoprotein, Covid-19, Cytokeratin 18, Cytokine production, Dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase, Disease model, Disease models, animal, Disease severity, Drosophila-melanogaster, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, Expression vector, Flow cytometry, Gamma interferon, Gene editing, Gene expression, Gene mutation, Genetic engineering, Genetics, Glycosylation, High mobility group b1 protein, Histology, Histopathology, Immune response, Immunocompetent cell, Immunology, Immunopathology, Interferon-gamma, Interleukin 2, Metabolism, Mice, inbred balb c, Mice, inbred c57bl, Mouse-adapted sars-cov-2, Myeloperoxidase, Neuropilin 1, Nonhuman, Nucleocapsid protein, Pathogenicity, Peptidyl-dipeptidase a, Pyroptosis, Recombinant soluble ace2, Renin angiotensin aldosterone system, Rna extraction, Rna isolation, Sars-cov-2, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, Spike glycoprotein, coronavirus, T lymphocyte activation, Trabecular meshwork, Tumor necrosis factor, Virology, Virus load, Virus replication, Virus transmission, Virus virulence


RIZZELO, L, DE MATTEIS, V, (2022). Identification of SARS-CoV-2 by Gold Nanoparticles Biocell 46, 2369-2380

The SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks highlighted the need for effective, reliable, fast, easy-to-do and cheap diagnostics procedures. We pragmatically experienced that an early positive-case detection, inevitably coupled with a mass vaccination campaign, is a milestone to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can indeed play a crucial role in this context, as their physicochemical, optics and electronics properties are being extensively used in photothermal therapy (PTT), radiation therapy (RT), drug delivery and diagnostic. AuNPs can be synthesized by several approaches to obtain different sizes and shapes that can be easily functionalized with many kinds of molecules such as antibodies, proteins, probes, and lipids. In addition, AuNPs showed high biocompatibility making them useful tool in medicine field. We thus reviewed here the most relevant evidence on AuNPs as effective way to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antigens. We trust future diagnostic efforts must take this 'old-fashioned' nanotechnology tool into consideration for the development and commercialization of reliable and feasible detection kits.

JTD Keywords: Aggregation, Antibodies, Assay, Covid-19, Diagnosis, Enhanced raman-scattering, Gold nanoparticles, Immunoassay, Pandemic disease, Physicochemical properties, Rapid detection, Sars-cov-2, Sensors, Surface-plasmon resonance, Therapy


Lopez-Muñoz, GA, Fernández-Costa, JM, Ortega, MA, Balaguer-Trias, J, Martin-Lasierra, E, Ramón-Azcón, J, (2021). Plasmonic nanocrystals on polycarbonate substrates for direct and label-free biodetection of Interleukin-6 in bioengineered 3D skeletal muscles Nanophotonics 10, 4477-4488

Abstract The development of nanostructured plasmonic biosensors has been widely widespread in the last years, motivated by the potential benefits they can offer in integration, miniaturization, multiplexing opportunities, and enhanced performance label-free biodetection in a wide field of applications. Between them, engineering tissues represent a novel, challenging, and prolific application field for nanostructured plasmonic biosensors considering the previously described benefits and the low levels of secreted biomarkers (?pM–nM) to detect. Here, we present an integrated plasmonic nanocrystals-based biosensor using high throughput nanostructured polycarbonate substrates. Metallic film thickness and incident angle of light for reflectance measurements were optimized to enhance the detection of antibody–antigen biorecognition events using numerical simulations. We achieved an enhancement in biodetection up to 3× as the incident angle of light decreases, which can be related to shorter evanescent decay lengths. We achieved a high reproducibility between channels with a coefficient of variation below 2% in bulk refractive index measurements, demonstrating a high potential for multiplexed sensing. Finally, biosensing potential was demonstrated by the direct and label-free detection of interleukin-6 biomarker in undiluted cell culture media supernatants from bioengineered 3D skeletal muscle tissues stimulated with different concentrations of endotoxins achieving a limit of detection (LOD) of ? 0.03 ng/mL (1.4 pM).

JTD Keywords: assay, crystals, drug, label-free biosensing, molecules, plasmonic nanostructures, sensors, skeletal muscle, tissue engineering, Biodetection, Biomarkers, Biosensors, Cell culture, Cells, Chemical detection, Histology, Interleukin-6, Interleukin6 (il6), Label free, Label-free biosensing, Muscle, Nano-structured, Nanocrystals, Plasmonic nanocrystals, Plasmonic nanostructures, Plasmonics, Polycarbonate substrates, Polycarbonates, Refractive index, Sensitivity, Skeletal muscle, Tissue engineering, Tissues engineerings


Rubí-Sans, G, Nyga, A, Rebollo, E, Pérez-Amodio, S, Otero, J, Navajas, D, Mateos-Timoneda, MA, Engel, E, (2021). Development of Cell-Derived Matrices for Three-Dimensional in Vitro Cancer Cell Models Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces 13, 44108-44123

Most morphogenetic and pathological processes are driven by cells responding to the surrounding matrix, such as its composition, architecture, and mechanical properties. Despite increasing evidence for the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) in tissue and disease development, many in vitro substitutes still fail to effectively mimic the native microenvironment. We established a novel method to produce macroscale (>1 cm) mesenchymal cell-derived matrices (CDMs) aimed to mimic the fibrotic tumor microenvironment surrounding epithelial cancer cells. CDMs are produced by human adipose mesenchymal stem cells cultured in sacrificial 3D scaffold templates of fibronectin-coated poly-lactic acid microcarriers (MCs) in the presence of macromolecular crowders. We showed that decellularized CDMs closely mimic the fibrillar protein composition, architecture, and mechanical properties of human fibrotic ECM from cancer masses. CDMs had highly reproducible composition made of collagen types I and III and fibronectin ECM with tunable mechanical properties. Moreover, decellularized and MC-free CDMs were successfully repopulated with cancer cells throughout their 3D structure, and following chemotherapeutic treatment, cancer cells showed greater doxorubicin resistance compared to 3D culture in collagen hydrogels. Collectively, these results support the use of CDMs as a reproducible and tunable tool for developing 3D in vitro cancer models.

JTD Keywords: 3d cell-derived matrices, adipose mesenchymal stem cells, collagen matrix, colorectal adenocarcinoma, cytotoxicity assay, deposition, expansion, extracellular microenvironment, extracellular-matrix, fibronectin, growth, macromolecular crowders, microcarriers, scaffolds, tissue, 3d cell-derived matrices, Adipose mesenchymal stem cells, Cytotoxicity assay, Extracellular microenvironment, Macromolecular crowders, Mesenchymal stem-cells, Microcarriers


Perez-Lopez, Briza, Mir, Monica, (2021). Commercialized diagnostic technologies to combat SARS-CoV2: Advantages and disadvantages Talanta 225, 121898

© 2020 Elsevier B.V. The current situation of the Covid-19 pandemic is indicated by a huge number of infections, high lethality, and rapid spread. These circumstances have stopped the activity of almost the entire world, affecting severely the global economy. A rapid diagnosis of the Covid-19 and a generalized testing protocol is essential to fight against the pandemic and to maintain health control in the population. Principal biosensing and diagnostic technologies used to monitor the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 are based on specific genomic analysis and rapid immune tests, both with different technology platforms that include advantages and disadvantages. Most of the in vitro diagnosis companies are competing to be the first on validating under different regulations their technology for placing their platforms for Covid-19 detection as fast as possible in this big international market. A comprehensive analysis of the commercialized technologies for the genomic based sensing and the antibody/antigen detection methods devoted to Covid-19 diagnosis is described in this review, which have been detailed and listed under different countries regulations. The effectiveness of the described technologies throughout the different stages of the disease and a critical comparison of the emerging technologies in the market to counterattack this pandemic have been discussed.

JTD Keywords: covid-19, in vitro diagnosis (ivd), lateral flow immunoassay, point of care (poc), reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), sars-cov-2, Covid-19, In vitro diagnosis (ivd), Lateral flow immunoassay, Point of care (poc), Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), Sars-cov-2


Watt, AC, Cejas, P, DeCristo, MJ, Metzger, O, Lam, EYN, Qiu, XT, BrinJones, H, Kesten, N, Coulson, R, Font-Tello, A, Lim, K, Vadhi, R, Daniels, VW, Montero, J, Taing, L, Meyer, CA, Gilan, O, Bell, CC, Korthauer, KD, Giambartolomei, C, Pasaniuc, B, Seo, JH, Freedman, ML, Ma, CT, Ellis, MJ, Krop, I, Winer, E, Letai, A, Brown, M, Dawson, MA, Long, HW, Zhao, JJ, Goel, S, (2021). CDK4/6 inhibition reprograms the breast cancer enhancer landscape by stimulating AP-1 transcriptional activity Nature Cancer 2, 34-+

Goel and colleagues show that CDK4/6 inhibition induces global chromatin changes mediated by AP-1 factors, which mediate key biological and clinical effects in breast cancer. Pharmacologic inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) were designed to induce cancer cell cycle arrest. Recent studies have suggested that these agents also exert other effects, influencing cancer cell immunogenicity, apoptotic responses and differentiation. Using cell-based and mouse models of breast cancer together with clinical specimens, we show that CDK4/6 inhibitors induce remodeling of cancer cell chromatin characterized by widespread enhancer activation, and that this explains many of these effects. The newly activated enhancers include classical super-enhancers that drive luminal differentiation and apoptotic evasion, as well as a set of enhancers overlying endogenous retroviral elements that are enriched for proximity to interferon-driven genes. Mechanistically, CDK4/6 inhibition increases the level of several activator protein-1 transcription factor proteins, which are in turn implicated in the activity of many of the new enhancers. Our findings offer insights into CDK4/6 pathway biology and should inform the future development of CDK4/6 inhibitors.

JTD Keywords: Abemaciclib, Androgen receptor, Animal experiment, Animal model, Animal tissue, Apoptosis, Article, Breast cancer, C-jun, Cancer cell, Carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 1, Caspase 3, Cell cycle arrest, Cells, Chromatin, Chromatin immunoprecipitation, Controlled study, Cyclin dependent kinase 4, Cyclin dependent kinase 6, Dna damage, Epidermal growth factor receptor 2, Estrogen receptor, Female, Flow cytometry, Fulvestrant, Hla drb1 antigen, Human, Human cell, Immunoblotting, Immunogenicity, Immunoprecipitation, Interferon, Luciferase assay, Mcf-7 cell line, Mda-mb-231 cell line, Microarray analysis, Morphogenesis, Mouse, Nonhuman, Palbociclib, Protein, Protein expression, Rb, Resistance, Rna polymerase ii, Rna sequence, Selective-inhibition, Senescence, Short tandem repeat, Signal transduction, Tamoxifen, Transcription elongation, Transcription factor, Transcription factor ap 1, Transcriptome, Tumor biopsy, Tumor differentiation, Tumor spheroid, Tumor xenograft, Vinculin, Whole exome sequencing


Campillo, N., Falcones, B., Otero, J., Colina, R., Gozal, D., Navajas, D., Farré, R., Almendros, I., (2019). Differential oxygenation in tumor microenvironment modulates macrophage and cancer cell crosstalk: Novel experimental settingand proof of concept Frontiers in Oncology 9, 43

Hypoxia is a common characteristic of many solid tumors that has been associated with tumor aggressiveness. Limited diffusion of oxygen generates a gradient of oxygen availability from the blood vessel to the interstitial space and may underlie the recruitment of macrophages fostering cancer progression. However, the available data based on the recruitment of circulating cells to the tumor microenvironment has been so far carried out by conventional co-culture systems which ignore the hypoxic gradient between the vessel to the tumor interstitium. Here, we have designed a novel easy-to-build cell culture device that enables evaluation of cellular cross-talk and cell migration while they are being simultaneously exposed to different oxygenation environments. As a proof-of-concept of the potential role of differential oxygenation among interacting cells we have evaluated the activation and recruitment of macrophages in response to hypoxic melanoma, breast, and kidney cancer cells. We found that hypoxic melanoma and breast cancer cells co-cultured with normoxic macrophages enhanced their directional migration. By contrast, hypoxic kidney cells were not able to increase their recruitment. We also identified well-described hypoxia-induced pathways which could contribute in the immune cell recruitment (VEGFA and PTGS2 genes). Moreover, melanoma and breast cancer increased their proliferation. However, oxygenation levels affected neither kidney cancer cell proliferation nor gene expression, which in turn resulted in no significant changes in macrophage migration and polarization. Therefore, the cell culture device presented here provides an excellent opportunity for researchers to reproduce the in vivo hypoxic gradients in solid tumors and to study their role in recruiting circulating cells to the tumor in specific types of cancer.

JTD Keywords: Hypoxia gradient, Macrophage motility, Models of host-tumor interactions, Novel assay technology, Tumor progression


Franco, Rafael, Aguinaga, David, Reyes, Irene, Canela, Enric I., Lillo, Jaume, Tarutani, Airi, Hasegawa, Masato, del Ser-Badia, Anna, del Rio, José A., Kreutz, Michael R., Saura, Carlos A., Navarro, Gemma, (2018). N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor link to the MAP kinase pathway in cortical and hippocampal neurons and microglia Is dependent on calcium sensors and Is blocked by α-Synuclein, Tau, and phospho-Tau in non-transgenic and transgenic APPSw,Ind Mice Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 11, (273), Article 273

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) respond to glutamate to allow the influx of calcium ions and the signaling to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Both MAPK- and Ca2+-mediated events are important for both neurotransmission and neural cell function and fate. Using a heterologous expression system, we demonstrate that NMDAR may interact with the EF-hand calcium-binding proteins calmodulin, calneuron-1, and NCS1 but not with caldendrin. NMDARs were present in primary cultures of both neurons and microglia from cortex and hippocampus. Calmodulin in microglia, and calmodulin and NCS1 in neurons, are necessary for NMDA-induced MAP kinase pathway activation. Remarkably, signaling to the MAP kinase pathway was blunted in primary cultures of cortical and hippocampal neurons and microglia from wild-type animals by proteins involved in neurodegenerative diseases: α-synuclein, Tau, and p-Tau. A similar blockade by pathogenic proteins was found using samples from the APPSw,Ind transgenic Alzheimer’s disease model. Interestingly, a very marked increase in NMDAR–NCS1 complexes was identified in neurons and a marked increase of both NMDAR–NCS1 and NMDAR–CaM complexes was identified in microglia from the transgenic mice. The results show that α-synuclein, Tau, and p-Tau disrupt the signaling of NMDAR to the MAPK pathway and that calcium sensors are important for NMDAR function both in neurons and microglia. Finally, it should be noted that the expression of receptor–calcium sensor complexes, specially those involving NCS1, is altered in neural cells from APPSw,Ind mouse embryos/pups.

JTD Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, Calmodulin, Calneuron-1, Caldendrin, NCS1, Extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Glutamate receptor, Proximity ligation assay


Pla-Roca, M., Altay, G., Giralt, X., Casals, A., Samitier, J., (2016). Design and development of a microarray processing station (MPS) for automated miniaturized immunoassays Biomedical Microdevices , 18, (4)

Here we describe the design and evaluation of a fluidic device for the automatic processing of microarrays, called microarray processing station or MPS. The microarray processing station once installed on a commercial microarrayer allows automating the washing, and drying steps, which are often performed manually. The substrate where the assay occurs remains on place during the microarray printing, incubation and processing steps, therefore the addressing of nL volumes of the distinct immunoassay reagents such as capture and detection antibodies and samples can be performed on the same coordinate of the substrate with a perfect alignment without requiring any additional mechanical or optical re-alignment methods. This allows the performance of independent immunoassays in a single microarray spot.

JTD Keywords: Automation, Customization, High-throughput screening, Immunoassays, Microarrays


Eckelt, Kay, Masanas, Helena, Llobet, Artur, Gorostiza, P., (2014). Automated high-throughput measurement of body movements and cardiac activity of Xenopus tropicalis tadpoles Journal of Biological Methods , 1, (2), e9

Xenopus tadpoles are an emerging model for developmental, genetic and behavioral studies. A small size, optical accessibility of most of their organs, together with a close genetic and structural relationship to humans make them a convenient experimental model. However, there is only a limited toolset available to measure behavior and organ function of these animals at medium or high-throughput. Herein, we describe an imaging-based platform to quantify body and autonomic movements of Xenopus tropicalis tadpoles of advanced developmental stages. Animals alternate periods of quiescence and locomotor movements and display buccal pumping for oxygen uptake from water and rhythmic cardiac movements. We imaged up to 24 animals in parallel and automatically tracked and quantified their movements by using image analysis software. Animal trajectories, moved distances, activity time, buccal pumping rates and heart beat rates were calculated and used to characterize the effects of test compounds. We evaluated the effects of propranolol and atropine, observing a dose-dependent bradycardia and tachycardia, respectively. This imaging and analysis platform is a simple, cost-effective high-throughput in vivo assay system for genetic, toxicological or pharmacological characterizations.

JTD Keywords: Xenopus tropicalis, Animal behavior, Cardiac imaging, Motion analysis, Animal tracking, Hhigh-throughput in vivo assay


Tort, N., Salvador, J. P., Avino, A., Eritja, R., Comelles, J., Martinez, E., Samitier, J., Marco, M. P., (2012). Synthesis of steroid-oligonucleotide conjugates for a DNA site-encoded SPR immunosensor Bioconjugate Chemistry , 23, (11), 2183-2191

The excellent self-assembling properties of DNA and the excellent specificity of the antibodies to detect analytes of small molecular weight under competitive conditions have been combined in this study. Three oligonucleotide sequences (N(1)up, N(2)up, and N(3)up) have been covalently attached to three steroidal haptens (8, hG, and 13) of three anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), stanozolol (ST), tetrahydrogestrinone (THG), and boldenone (B), respectively. The synthesis of steroid oligonucleotide conjugates has been performed by the reaction of oligonucleotides carrying amino groups with carboxyl acid derivatives of steroidal haptens. Due to the chemical nature of the steroid derivatives, two methods for coupling the haptens and the ssDNA have been studied: a solid-phase coupling strategy and a solution-phase coupling strategy. Specific antibodies against ST, THG, and B have been used in this study to asses the possibility of using the self-assembling properties of the DNA to prepare biofunctional SPR gold chips based on the immobilization of haptens, by hybridization with the complementary oligonucleotide strands possessing SH groups previously immobilized. The capture of the steroid oligonucleotide conjugates and subsequent binding of the specific antibodies can be monitored on the sensogram due to variations produced on the refractive index on top of the gold chip. The resulting steroid oligonucleotide conjugates retain the hybridization and specific binding properties of oligonucleotides and haptens as demonstrated by thermal denaturation experiments and surface plasmon resonance (SPR).

JTD Keywords: Directed protein immobilization, Plasmon resonance biosensor, Self-assembled monolayers, Label-free, Serum samples, Assay, Immunoassays, Antibodies, Progress, Binding


Barthelmebs, L., Jonca, J., Hayat, A., Prieto-Simon, B., Marty, J. L., (2011). Enzyme-Linked Aptamer Assays (ELAAs), based on a competition format for a rapid and sensitive detection of Ochratoxin A in wine Food Control , 22, (5), 737-743

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most important mycotoxins because of its high toxicity to both humans and animals and its occurrence in a number of basic foods and agro-products. The need to develop high-performing methods for OTA analysis able to improve the traditional ones is evident. In this work, through in vitro SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) two aptamers, designated H8 and H12 were produced that bind with nanomolar affinity with Ochratoxin A (OTA). Two strategies were investigated by using an indirect and a direct competitive Enzyme-Linked Aptamer Assay (ELAA) and were compared to the classical competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for the determination of OTA in spiked red wine samples. The limit of detection attained (1 ng/mL), the midpoint value obtained (5 ng/mL) and the analysis time needed (125 min) for the real sample analysis validate the direct competitive ELAA as useful screening tool for routine use in the control of OTA level in wine.

JTD Keywords: Competitive Enzyme-Linked Aptamer Assay (ELAA), DNA aptamer, Ochratoxin A, SELEX, Wine analysis


Garcia, J., Madrid, C., Cendra, M., Juarez, A., Pons, M., (2009). N9L and L9N mutations toggle Hha binding and hemolysin regulation by Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae H-NS FEBS Letters , 583, (17), 2911-2916

Proteins of the Hha/YmoA family co-regulate with H-NS the expression of virulence factors in Enterobacteriaceae. Vibrio cholerae lacks Hha-like proteins and its H-NS (vcH-NS) is unable to bind Hha, in spite of the conservation of a key residue for Hha binding by Escherichia coli H-NS (ecH-NS). Exchange of the residues in position 9 between vcH-NS and ecH-NS strongly reduces Hha binding by ecH-NS and introduces it in vcH- NS. These mutations strongly affect the repression of the hemolysin operon in E. coli and the electrophoretic mobility of complexes formed with a DNA fragment containing its regulatory region.

JTD Keywords: Nucleoid associated protein, H-NS, Hha, Transcription repression, NMR, Electrophoretic mobility shift assays