by Keyword: Field

Tanwar, S, Millan-Solsona, R, Ruiz-Molina, S, Mas-Torrent, M, Kyndiah, A, Gomila, G, (2024). Nanoscale Operando Characterization of Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors Reveals Charge Transport Bottlenecks Advanced Materials 36, 2309767

Charge transport in electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors (EGOFETs) is governed by the microstructural property of the semiconducting thin film that is in direct contact with the electrolyte. Therefore, a comprehensive nanoscale operando characterization of the active channel is crucial to pinpoint various charge transport bottlenecks for rational and targeted optimization of the devices. Here, the local electrical properties of EGOFETs are systematically probed by in-liquid scanning dielectric microscopy (in-liquid SDM) and a direct picture of their functional mechanism at the nanoscale is provided across all operational regimes, starting from subthreshold, linear to saturation, until the onset of pinch-off. To this end, a robust interpretation framework of in-liquid SDM is introduced that enables quantitative local electric potential mapping directly from raw experimental data without requiring calibration or numerical simulations. Based on this development, a straightforward nanoscale assessment of various charge transport bottlenecks is performed, like contact access resistances, inter- and intradomain charge transport, microstructural inhomogeneities, and conduction anisotropy, which have been inaccessible earlier. Present results contribute to the fundamental understanding of charge transport in electrolyte-gated transistors and promote the development of direct structure-property-function relationships to guide future design rules. This study delves into the charge transport properties of electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors by employing in-liquid scanning dielectric microscopy. By introducing a novel interpretation framework, the research achieves quantitative mapping of the local electric potential, facilitating a detailed assessment of charge transport bottlenecks across all operational regimes. The findings can fosterthe formulation ofstructure-property-function relationships for device optimization.image

JTD Keywords: Conduction anisotropy, Conductivity maps, Electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors, Nanoscale, Operando, Operation regimes, Potential maps, Scanning dielectric microscopy

Arnau, Marc, Sans, Jordi, Gallego, Eva, Peraales, Jose Francisco, Turon, Pau, Aleman, Carlos, (2024). Polarized hydroxyapatite, a ceramic nanocatalyst to convert automotive carbon emissions into ethanol Journal Of Environmental Chemical Engineering 12, 112255

This paper is aimed to develop ultrananoporous polarized hydroxyapatite (HAp) catalyst and evaluate its per-formance in transforming CO2 into useable ethanol considering three different scenarios: 1) a batch reaction using a mixture of CO2 and CH4 as feeding gas; 2) a batch reaction using as reactant exhaust gases captured from the fumes of diesel vehicles; and 3) a continuous flow reaction using pure CO2 as feeding gas. Ultrananoporous HAp scaffolds were prepared using a four-step process: 1) as prepared HAp powder was mixed with 60% wt. of a commercial hydrogel at low-temperature; 2) the resulting paste was shaped at low temperature to reduce the adhesion between the metallic tools and the mixture, enhancing the homogeneity of the sample; 3) the shaped paste was calcined in air by applying 1000 oC during 2 h to eliminate the hydrogel; and 4) an external DC electric field of 3 kV/cm was imposed at 1000 oC during 1 h to the calcined scaffold. The resulting polarized scaffolds both ultrananoporosity and catalytic activation. Thus, the mass: volume ratio of the ultrananoporous catalyst was much lower than that of conventional HAp catalyst (718 vs 5093 g/L. Furthermore, the ethanol yield was much higher (up to a factor of x21.4) for the ultrananoporous catalyst than for the compact one, allowing us to conclude that ultrananoporous polarized HAp catalyst is a promising technology for transforming CO2 into valuable chemical products from highly polluted gases, especially those coming from road, sea and air transport.

JTD Keywords: A: ceramics, Air pollution, Automotives, Batch reactions, Calcination, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Co2 fixation, Co2 reduction, Desig, Electric fields, Environmental process, Ethanol, Exhaust gases, Feeding gas, Fumes, Hydrogels, Hydroxyapatite, Lows-temperatures, Nano-catalyst, Nanocatalysts, Polarized catalys, Polarized catalyst, Scaffolds, Temperature, ]+ catalyst

Eills, James, Azagra, Marc, Gomez-Cabeza, David, Tayler, Michael C D, Marco-Rius, Irene, (2024). Polarization losses from the nonadiabatic passage of hyperpolarized solutions through metallic components Journal Of Magnetic Resonance Open 18, 100144

From complex -mixture analysis to in vivo molecular imaging, applications of liquid -state nuclear spin hyperpolarization have expanded widely over recent years. In most cases, hyperpolarized solutions are generated and transported from the polarization instrument to the measurement device. The sample hyperpolarization usually survives this transport, since the changes in magnetic fields that are external to the sample are typically adiabatic (slow) with respect to the internal nuclear spin dynamics. The passage of polarized samples through weakly magnetic components such as stainless steel syringe needles and ferrules is not always adiabatic, can lead to near -complete destruction of the magnetization. To avoid this effect becoming "folklore"in field of hyperpolarized NMR, we present a systematic investigation to highlight the problem and investigate possible solutions. Experiments were carried out on: (i) dissolution-DNP-polarized [1-13C]pyruvate with detection at 1.4 T, and (ii) 1.5 -T -polarized H2O with NMR detection at 2.5 mu T. We show that the degree adiabaticity of solutions passing through metal parts is intrinsically unpredictable, likely depending on factors such as solution flow rate, degree of remanent ferromagnetism in the metal, and nuclear spin However, the magnetization destruction effects can be suppressed by application of an external field order of 0.1-10 mT.

JTD Keywords: Benchtop nmr, Hyperpolarization, Low-field mri, Non-adiabatic, Para-hydrogen, Spin relaxation

Bodrenko, I, Ceccarelli, M, Acosta-Gutierrez, S, (2023). The mechanism of an electrostatic nanofilter: overcoming entropy with electrostatics Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 25, 26497-26506

General porins are nature's sieving machinery in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Their unique hourglass-shaped architecture is highly conserved among different bacterial membrane proteins and other biological channels. These biological nanopores have been designed to protect the interior of the bacterial cell from leakage of toxic compounds while selectively allowing the entry of the molecules needed for cell growth and function. The mechanism of transport through porins is of utmost and direct interest for drug discovery, extending toward nanotechnology applications for blue energy, separations, and sequencing. Here we present a theoretical framework for analysing the filter of general porins in relation to translocating molecules with the aid of enhanced molecular simulations quantitatively. Using different electrostatic probes in the form of a series of related molecules, we describe the nature of this filter and how to finely tune permeability by exploiting electrostatic interactions between the pore and the translocating molecule. Eventually, we show how enhanced simulations constitute today a valid tool for characterising the mechanism and quantifying energetically the transport of molecules through nanopores. General porins are nature's sieving machinery in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In the diffusive transport process of molecules, electrostatic interactions can help to decrease the entropic free energy barrier.

JTD Keywords: Channel, Diffusion barrier, Electric-field, Molecular-dynamics, Outer-membrane permeability, Permeation, Porins, Simulations, Translocation, Transport

Smith, CS, Alvarez, Z, Qiu, RM, Sasselli, IR, Clemons, T, Ortega, JA, Vilela-Picos, M, Wellman, H, Kiskinis, E, Stupp, SI, (2023). Enhanced Neuron Growth and Electrical Activity by a Supramolecular Netrin-1 Mimetic Nanofiber Acs Nano 17, 19887-19902

Neurotrophic factors are essential not only for guiding the organization of the developing nervous system but also for supporting the survival and growth of neurons after traumatic injury. In the central nervous system (CNS), inhibitory factors and the formation of a glial scar after injury hinder the functional recovery of neurons, requiring exogenous therapies to promote regeneration. Netrin-1, a neurotrophic factor, can initiate axon guidance, outgrowth, and branching, as well as synaptogenesis, through activation of deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) receptors. We report here the development of a nanofiber-shaped supramolecular mimetic of netrin-1 with monomers that incorporate a cyclic peptide sequence as the bioactive component. The mimetic structure was found to activate the DCC receptor in primary cortical neurons using low molar ratios of the bioactive comonomer. The supramolecular nanofibers enhanced neurite outgrowth and upregulated maturation as well as pre- and postsynaptic markers over time, resulting in differences in electrical activity similar to neurons treated with the recombinant netrin-1 protein. The results suggest the possibility of using the supramolecular structure as a therapeutic to promote regenerative bioactivity in CNS injuries.

JTD Keywords: axon growth, axon guidance, cell-migration, colorectal-cancer, dcc, dopaminergic-neurons, force-field, functional recovery, netrin-1, neurite outgrowth, neuronal maturation, neurotrophic factor, neurotrophicfactor mimetic, synapsis, Axon growth, Coarse-grained model, Netrin-1, Neuronal maturation, Neurotrophic factor mimetic, Peptide amphiphile, Synapsis

Chuchkova, Liubov, Bodenstedt, Sven, Picazo-Frutos, Roman, Eills, James, Tretiak, Oleg, Hu, Yinan, Barskiy, Danila A, de Santis, Jacopo, Tayler, Michael C D, Budker, Dmitry, Sheberstov, Kirill F, (2023). Magnetometer-Detected Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Photochemically Hyperpolarized Molecules Journal Of Physical Chemistry Letters 14, 6814-6822

Photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) enables nuclear spin ordering by irradiating samples with light. Polarized spins are conventionally detected via high-field chemical-shift-resolved NMR (above 0.1 T). In this Letter, we demonstrate in situ low-field photo-CIDNP measurements using a magnetically shielded fast-field-cycling NMR setup detecting Larmor precession via atomic magnetometers. For solutions comprising mM concentrations of the photochemically polarized molecules, hyperpolarized 1H magnetization is detected by pulse-acquired NMR spectroscopy. The observed NMR line widths are about 5 times narrower than normally anticipated in high-field NMR and are systematically affected by light irradiation during the acquisition period, reflecting a reduction of the transverse relaxation time constant, T2*, on the order of 10%. Magnetometer-detected photo-CIDNP spectroscopy enables straightforward observation of spin-chemistry processes in the ambient field range from a few nT to tens of mT. Potential applications of this measuring modality are discussed.

JTD Keywords: field-dependence, mechanism, nmr, parahydrogen, photo-cidnp, polarization, quinone, spin-hyperpolarization, Radical-pair

Ferre-Torres, J, Noguera-Monteagudo, A, Lopez-Canosa, A, Romero-Arias, JR, Barrio, R, Castaño, O, Hernandez-Machado, A, (2023). Modelling of chemotactic sprouting endothelial cells through an extracellular matrix Frontiers In Bioengineering And Biotechnology 11, 1145550

Sprouting angiogenesis is a core biological process critical to vascular development. Its accurate simulation, relevant to multiple facets of human health, is of broad, interdisciplinary appeal. This study presents an in-silico model replicating a microfluidic assay where endothelial cells sprout into a biomimetic extracellular matrix, specifically, a large-pore, low-concentration fibrin-based porous hydrogel, influenced by chemotactic factors. We introduce a novel approach by incorporating the extracellular matrix and chemotactic factor effects into a unified term using a single parameter, primarily focusing on modelling sprouting dynamics and morphology. This continuous model naturally describes chemotactic-induced sprouting with no need for additional rules. In addition, we extended our base model to account for matrix sensing and degradation, crucial aspects of angiogenesis. We validate our model via a hybrid in-silico experimental method, comparing the model predictions with experimental results derived from the microfluidic setup. Our results underscore the intricate relationship between the extracellular matrix structure and angiogenic sprouting, proposing a promising method for predicting the influence of the extracellular matrix on angiogenesis.Copyright © 2023 Ferre-Torres, Noguera-Monteagudo, Lopez-Canosa, Romero-Arias, Barrio, Castaño and Hernandez-Machado.

JTD Keywords: angiogenesis, biomimmetic, chemotaxis, endothelial cells, filopodia, growth, in silico model, mathematical models, mechanisms, metalloproteinase, migration, morphogenesis, phase field, pore-size, simulation, Angiogenesis, Biomimmetic, Chemotaxis, Endothelial cells, Extracellular matrix, In silico model, Mathematical models, Phase field, Tip cells

Huetter, L, Kyndiah, A, Gomila, G, (2023). Analytical Physical Model for Electrolyte Gated Organic Field Effect Transistors in the Helmholtz Approximation Advanced Theory And Simulations 6, 2200696

Castrejón-Comas, V, Alemán, C, Pérez-Madrigal, MM, (2023). Multifunctional conductive hyaluronic acid hydrogels for wound care and skin regeneration Biomaterials Science 11, 2266-2276

Conductive and interactive hydrogels based on hyaluronic acid are engineered as wound dressings that enhance skin tissue regeneration either through electrical stimulation or by displaying multifunctional performance and, ultimately, interactivity.

JTD Keywords: antibacterial, fields, Injectable hydrogels

Alvarez, Z, Ortega, JA, Sato, K, Sasselli, IR, Kolberg-Edelbrock, AN, Qiu, RM, Marshall, KA, Nguyen, TP, Smith, CS, Quinlan, KA, Papakis, V, Syrgiannis, Z, Sather, NA, Musumeci, C, Engel, E, Stupp, SI, Kiskinis, E, (2023). Artificial extracellular matrix scaffolds of mobile molecules enhance maturation of human stem cell-derived neurons Cell Stem Cell 30, 219-238

Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technologies offer a unique resource for modeling neurological diseases. However, iPSC models are fraught with technical limitations including abnormal aggregation and inefficient maturation of differentiated neurons. These problems are in part due to the absence of synergistic cues of the native extracellular matrix (ECM). We report on the use of three artificial ECMs based on peptide amphiphile (PA) supramolecular nanofibers. All nanofibers display the laminin-derived IKVAV signal on their surface but differ in the nature of their non-bioactive domains. We find that nanofibers with greater intensity of internal supramolecular motion have enhanced bioactivity toward hiPSC-derived motor and cortical neurons. Proteomic, biochemical, and functional assays reveal that highly mobile PA scaffolds caused enhanced β1-integrin pathway activation, reduced aggregation, increased arborization, and matured electrophysiological activity of neurons. Our work highlights the importance of designing biomimetic ECMs to study the development, function, and dysfunction of human neurons.Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: differentiation, force-field, laminin, migration, nanostructures, peptide amphiphiles, spinal-cord, statistical-model, supramolecular materials, Coarse-grained model, Dynamics, Extracellular matrix, Ikvav, Ipsc-derived neurons, Laminin, Neuronal maturation, Peptide amphiphiles, Supramolecular motion, Supramolecular nanofibers

Kostas Mouloudakis, Sven Bodenstedt, Marc Azagra, Morgan W. Mitchell, Irene Marco-Rius, and Michael C. D. Tayler, (2023). Real-Time Polarimetry of Hyperpolarized 13C Nuclear Spins Using an Atomic Magnetometer Journal Of Physical Chemistry Letters 14, 1192-1197

We introduce a method for nondestructive quantification of nuclear spin polarization, of relevance to hyperpolarized spin tracers widely used in magnetic resonance from spectroscopy to in vivo imaging. In a bias field of around 30 nT we use a high-sensitivity miniaturized 87Rb-vapor magnetometer to measure the field generated by the sample, as it is driven by a windowed dynamical decoupling pulse sequence that both maximizes the nuclear spin lifetime and modulates the polarization for easy detection. We demonstrate the procedure applied to a 0.08 M hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate solution produced by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization, measuring polarization repeatedly during natural decay at Earth's field. Application to real-time and continuous quality monitoring of hyperpolarized substances is discussed.

JTD Keywords: performance, polarization, Atomic magnetometers, Bias field, High sensitivity, Hyperpolarized, In-vivo imaging, Magnetic resonance, Magnetic-resonance, Magnetic-resonance,polarizatio, Magnetic-resonance,polarization,performanc, Magnetometers, Non destructive, Nuclear spins, Nuclear-spin polarization, Performance, Polarization, Rb vapors, Real- time, Spin dynamics, Spin polarization

Moussa, DG, Sharma, AK, Mansour, TA, Witthuhn, B, Perdigao, J, Rudney, JD, Aparicio, C, Gomez, A, (2022). Functional signatures of ex-vivo dental caries onset Journal Of Oral Microbiology 14, 2123624

The etiology of dental caries remains poorly understood. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, a number of studies have focused on the microbial ecology of the disease. However, taxonomic associations with caries have not been consistent. Researchers have also pursued function-centric studies of the caries microbial communities aiming to identify consistently conserved functional pathways. A major question is whether changes in microbiome are a cause or a consequence of the disease. Thus, there is a critical need to define conserved functional signatures at the onset of dental caries.Since it is unethical to induce carious lesions clinically, we developed an innovative longitudinal ex-vivo model integrated with the advanced non-invasive multiphoton second harmonic generation bioimaging to spot the very early signs of dental caries, combined with 16S rRNA short amplicon sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomics.For the first time, we induced longitudinally monitored caries lesions validated with the scanning electron microscope. Consequently, we spotted the caries onset and, associated with it, distinguished five differentiating metabolites - Lactate, Pyruvate, Dihydroxyacetone phosphate, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (upregulated) and Fumarate (downregulated). Those metabolites co-occurred with certain bacterial taxa; Streptococcus, Veillonella, Actinomyces, Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, and Granulicatella, regardless of the abundance of other taxa.These findings are crucial for understanding the etiology and dynamics of dental caries, and devising targeted interventions to prevent disease progression.© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

JTD Keywords: bacteria, biofilms, children, dental caries, generation, genomics, longitudinal model, metabolism, metabolomics, microscopy, non-invasive bioimaging, oral microbiome, plaque, restorations, signatures, Dental caries, Field-emission sem, Signatures

Tuveri, GM, Ceccarelli, M, Pira, A, Bodrenko, IV, (2022). The Optimal Permeation of Cyclic Boronates to Cross the Outer Membrane via the Porin Pathway Antibiotics 11, 840

We investigated the diffusion of three cyclic boronates formulated as beta-lactamase inhibitors through the porin OmpF to evaluate their potential to cross OM via the porin pathway. The three nonbeta-lactam molecules diffuse through the porin eyelet region with the same mechanism observed for beta-lactam molecules and diazobicyclooctan derivatives, with the electric dipole moment aligned with the transversal electric field. In particular, the BOH group can interact with both the basic ladder and the acidic loop L3, which is characteristic of the size-constricted region of this class of porins. On one hand, we confirm that the transport of small molecules through enterobacter porins has a common general mechanism; on the other, the class of cyclic boronate molecules does not seem to have particular difficulties in diffusing through enterobacter porins, thus representing a good scaffold for new anti-infectives targeting Gram-negative bacteria research.

JTD Keywords: beta-lactamase inhibitors, cyclic boronates, diffusion current, metadynamics, molecular dynamics simulations, permeation, Antibiotics, Beta-lactamase inhibitors, Cyclic boronates, Diffusion, Diffusion current, Discovery, Electric-field, Metadynamics, Molecular dynamics simulations, Molecular-dynamics simulations, Nanopores, Permeability, Permeation, Porins, Rules, Translocation

Cascione, M, Rizzello, L, Manno, D, Serra, A, De Matteis, V, (2022). Green Silver Nanoparticles Promote Inflammation Shutdown in Human Leukemic Monocytes Materials (Basel) 15, 775

The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in the biomedical field deserves a mindful analysis of the possible inflammatory response which could limit their use in the clinic. Despite the anti-cancer properties of Ag NPs having been widely demonstrated, there are still few studies concerning their involvement in the activation of specific inflammatory pathways. The inflammatory outcome depends on the synthetic route used in the NPs production, in which toxic reagents are employed. In this work, we compared two types of Ag NPs, obtained by two different chemical routes: conventional synthesis using sodium citrate and a green protocol based on leaf extracts as a source of reduction and capping agents. A careful physicochemical characterization was carried out showing spherical and stable Ag NPs with an average size between 20 nm and 35 nm for conventional and green Ag NPs respectively. Then, we evaluated their ability to induce the activation of inflammation in Human Leukemic Monocytes (THP-1) differentiated into M0 macrophages using 1 µM and 2 µM NPs concentrations (corresponded to 0.1 µg/mL and 0.2 µg/mL respectively) and two-time points (24 h and 48 h). Our results showed a clear difference in Nuclear Factor ?B (NF-?b) activation, Interleukins 6–8 (IL-6, IL-8) secretion, Tumor Necrosis Factor-? (TNF-?) and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression exerted by the two kinds of Ag NPs. Green Ag NPs were definitely tolerated by macrophages compared to conventional Ag NPs which induced the activation of all the factors mentioned above. Subsequently, the exposure of breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) to the green Ag NPs showed that they exhibited antitumor activity like the conventional ones, but surprisingly, using the MCF-10A line (not tumoral breast cells) the green Ag NPs did not cause a significant decrease in cell viability. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: activation, biosynthesis, gold nanoparticles, green route, inflammation response, mechanism, metal, nanotechnology, physico-chemical properties, raman-spectroscopy, resonance, silver nanoparticles, surface, Biomedical fields, Cell culture, Cell death, Chemical activation, Chemical routes, Conventional synthesis, Diseases, Green route, Inflammation response, Inflammatory response, Macrophages, Metal nanoparticles, Nf-kappa-b, Pathology, Physico-chemical properties, Physicochemical property, Property, Silver nanoparticles, Sodium compounds, Synthetic routes, Toxic reagents

Puiggalí-Jou, A, Babeli, I, Roa, JJ, Zoppe, JO, Garcia-Amorós, J, Ginebra, MP, Alemán, C, García-Torres, J, (2021). Remote Spatiotemporal Control of a Magnetic and Electroconductive Hydrogel Network via Magnetic Fields for Soft Electronic Applications Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces 13, 42486-42501

Multifunctional hydrogels are a class of materials offering new opportunities for interfacing living organisms with machines due to their mechanical compliance, biocompatibility, and capacity to be triggered by external stimuli. Here, we report a dual magnetic- and electric-stimuli-responsive hydrogel with the capacity to be disassembled and reassembled up to three times through reversible cross-links. This allows its use as an electronic device (e.g., temperature sensor) in the cross-linked state and spatiotemporal control through narrow channels in the disassembled state via the application of magnetic fields, followed by reassembly. The hydrogel consists of an interpenetrated polymer network of alginate (Alg) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), which imparts mechanical and electrical properties, respectively. In addition, the incorporation of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) endows the hydrogel with magnetic properties. After structural, (electro)chemical, and physical characterization, we successfully performed dynamic and continuous transport of the hydrogel through disassembly, transporting the polymer-Fe3O4 NP aggregates toward a target using magnetic fields and its final reassembly to recover the multifunctional hydrogel in the cross-linked state. We also successfully tested the PEDOT/Alg/Fe3O4 NP hydrogel for temperature sensing and magnetic hyperthermia after various disassembly/re-cross-linking cycles. The present methodology can pave the way to a new generation of soft electronic devices with the capacity to be remotely transported.

JTD Keywords: conductive hydrogel, constructs, magnetic field, magnetite nanoparticle, nanoindentation, soft electronics, spatiotemporal control, Conductive hydrogel, Conductive hydrogels, Magnetic field, Magnetite nanoparticle, Soft electronics, Spatiotemporal control

Rial-Hermida, MI, Rey-Rico, A, Blanco-Fernandez, B, Carballo-Pedrares, N, Byrne, EM, Mano, JF, (2021). Recent Progress on Polysaccharide-Based Hydrogels for Controlled Delivery of Therapeutic Biomolecules Acs Biomaterials Science & Engineering 7, 4102-4127

A plethora of applications using polysaccharides have been developed in recent years due to their availability as well as their frequent nontoxicity and biodegradability. These polymers are usually obtained from renewable sources or are byproducts of industrial processes, thus, their use is collaborative in waste management and shows promise for an enhanced sustainable circular economy. Regarding the development of novel delivery systems for biotherapeutics, the potential of polysaccharides is attractive for the previously mentioned properties and also for the possibility of chemical modification of their structures, their ability to form matrixes of diverse architectures and mechanical properties, as well as for their ability to maintain bioactivity following incorporation of the biomolecules into the matrix. Biotherapeutics, such as proteins, growth factors, gene vectors, enzymes, hormones, DNA/RNA, and antibodies are currently in use as major therapeutics in a wide range of pathologies. In the present review, we summarize recent progress in the development of polysaccharide-based hydrogels of diverse nature, alone or in combination with other polymers or drug delivery systems, which have been implemented in the delivery of biotherapeutics in the pharmaceutical and biomedical fields. © 2021 American Chemical Society.

JTD Keywords: biodegradable dextran hydrogels, biotherapeutics, bone morphogenetic protein-2, carrageenan-based hydrogels, chitosan-based hydrogels, controlled delivery, controlled-release, cross-linked hydrogels, growth-factor delivery, hydrogels, in-vitro characterization, polysaccharides, self-healing hydrogel, stimuli-responsiveness, tissue engineering, Antibodies, Bioactivity, Biodegradability, Biomedical fields, Biomolecules, Biotherapeutics, Chemical modification, Circular economy, Controlled delivery, Controlled drug delivery, Delivery systems, Drug delivery system, Functional polymers, Hyaluronic-acid hydrogels, Hydrogels, Industrial processs, Polysaccharides, Recent progress, Renewable sources, Stimuli-responsiveness, Targeted drug delivery, Tissue engineering, Waste management

Lopez-Canosa, Adrian, Perez-Amodio, Soledad, Yanac-Huertas, Eduardo, Ordono, Jesus, Rodriguez-Trujillo, Romen, Samitier, Josep, Castano, Oscar, Engel, Elisabeth, (2021). A microphysiological system combining electrospun fibers and electrical stimulation for the maturation of highly anisotropic cardiac tissue Biofabrication 13, 35047

The creation of cardiac tissue models for preclinical testing is still a non-solved problem in drug discovery, due to the limitations related to thein vitroreplication of cardiac tissue complexity. Among these limitations, the difficulty of mimicking the functional properties of the myocardium due to the immaturity of the used cells hampers the obtention of reliable results that could be translated into human patients.In vivomodels are the current gold standard to test new treatments, although it is widely acknowledged that the used animals are unable to fully recapitulate human physiology, which often leads to failures during clinical trials. In the present work, we present a microfluidic platform that aims to provide a range of signaling cues to immature cardiac cells to drive them towards an adult phenotype. The device combines topographical electrospun nanofibers with electrical stimulation in a microfabricated system. We validated our platform using a co-culture of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, showing that it allows us to control the degree of anisotropy of the cardiac tissue inside the microdevice in a cost-effective way. Moreover, a 3D computational model of the electrical field was created and validated to demonstrate that our platform is able to closely match the distribution obtained with the gold standard (planar electrode technology) using inexpensive rod-shaped biocompatible stainless-steel electrodes. The functionality of the electrical stimulation was shown to induce a higher expression of the tight junction protein Cx-43, as well as the upregulation of several key genes involved in conductive and structural cardiac properties. These results validate our platform as a powerful tool for the tissue engineering community due to its low cost, high imaging compatibility, versatility, and high-throughput configuration capabilities.

JTD Keywords: bioreactor, cardiac tissue engineering, cardiomyocytes, electrospinning, fabrication, fibroblasts, heart-on-a-chip, heart-tissue, in vitro models, myocardium, orientation, platform, scaffolds, Cardiac tissue engineering, Electrospinning, Field stimulation, Heart-on-a-chip, In vitro models, Microphysiological system

Kyndiah, A, Checa, M, Leonardi, F, Millan-Solsona, R, Di Muzio, M, Tanwar, S, Fumagalli, L, Mas-Torrent, M, Gomila, G, (2021). Nanoscale Mapping of the Conductivity and Interfacial Capacitance of an Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistor under Operation Advanced Functional Materials 31, 2008032

© 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH Probing nanoscale electrical properties of organic semiconducting materials at the interface with an electrolyte solution under externally applied voltages is key in the field of organic bioelectronics. It is demonstrated that the conductivity and interfacial capacitance of the active channel of an electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor (EGOFET) under operation can be probed at the nanoscale using scanning dielectric microscopy in force detection mode in liquid environment. Local electrostatic force versus gate voltage transfer characteristics are obtained on the device and correlated with the global current–voltage transfer characteristics of the EGOFET. Nanoscale maps of the conductivity of the semiconducting channel show the dependence of the channel conductivity on the gate voltage and its variation along the channel due to the space charge limited conduction. The maps reveal very small electrical heterogeneities, which correspond to local interfacial capacitance variations due to an ultrathin non-uniform insulating layer resulting from a phase separation in the organic semiconducting blend. Present results offer insights into the transduction mechanism at the organic semiconductor/electrolyte interfaces at scales down to ≈100 nm, which can bring substantial optimization of organic electronic devices for bioelectronic applications such as electrical recording on excitable cells or label-free biosensing.

JTD Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, Bioelectronic devices, Electrolyte gated organic field effect transistors, In-liquid scanning dielectric microscopy, Organic semiconducting blend

Kyndiah, A., Leonardi, F., Tarantino, C., Cramer, T., Millan-Solsona, R., Garreta, E., Montserrat, N., Mas-Torrent, M., Gomila, G., (2020). Bioelectronic recordings of cardiomyocytes with accumulation mode electrolyte gated organic field effect transistors Biosensors and Bioelectronics 150, 111844

Organic electronic materials offer an untapped potential for novel tools for low-invasive electrophysiological recording and stimulation devices. Such materials combine semiconducting properties with tailored surface chemistry, elastic mechanical properties and chemical stability in water. In this work, we investigate solution processed Electrolyte Gated Organic Field Effect Transistors (EGOFETs) based on a small molecule semiconductor. We demonstrate that EGOFETs based on a blend of soluble organic semiconductor 2,8-Difluoro-5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl)anthradithiophene (diF-TES-ADT) combined with an insulating polymer show excellent sensitivity and long-term recording under electrophysiological applications. Our devices can stably record the extracellular potential of human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocyte cells (hPSCs-CMs) for several weeks. In addition, cytotoxicity tests of pharmaceutical drugs, such as Norepinephrine and Verapamil was achieved with excellent sensitivity. This work demonstrates that organic transistors based on organic blends are excellent bioelectronics transducer for extracellular electrical recording of excitable cells and tissues thus providing a valid alternative to electrochemical transistors.

JTD Keywords: Bioelectronics, Cardiac cells, Organic electronics, Organic field effect transistors, Organic semiconducting blend

Alert, R., Trepat, X., (2020). Physical models of collective cell migration Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics 11, 77-101

Collective cell migration is a key driver of embryonic development, wound healing, and some types of cancer invasion. Here, we provide a physical perspective of the mechanisms underlying collective cell migration. We begin with a catalog of the cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions that govern cell migration, which we classify into positional and orientational interactions. We then review the physical models that have been developed to explain how these interactions give rise to collective cellular movement. These models span the subcellular to the supracellular scales, and they include lattice models, phase-field models, active network models, particle models, and continuum models. For each type of model, we discuss its formulation, its limitations, and the main emergent phenomena that it has successfully explained. These phenomena include flocking and fluid-solid transitions, as well as wetting, fingering, and mechanical waves in spreading epithelial monolayers. We close by outlining remaining challenges and future directions in the physics of collective cell migration.

JTD Keywords: Active network models, Cellular Potts models, Continuum models, Particle models, Phase-field models, Tissue biophysics

Bos, J. J., Vinck, M., Marchesi, P., Keestra, A., van Mourik-Donga, L. A., Jackson, J. C., Verschure, P., Pennartz, C. M. A., (2019). Multiplexing of self and other information in hippocampal ensembles Cell Reports 29, (12), 3859-3871.e6

In addition to coding a subject’s location in space, the hippocampus has been suggested to code social information, including the spatial position of conspecifics. “Social place cells” have been reported for tasks in which an observer mimics the behavior of a demonstrator. We examine whether rat hippocampal neurons may encode the behavior of a minirobot, but without requiring the animal to mimic it. Rather than finding social place cells, we observe that robot behavioral patterns modulate place fields coding animal position. This modulation may be confounded by correlations between robot movement and changes in the animal’s position. Although rat position indeed significantly predicts robot behavior, we find that hippocampal ensembles code additional information about robot movement patterns. Fast-spiking interneurons are particularly informative about robot position and global behavior. In conclusion, when the animal’s own behavior is conditional on external agents, the hippocampus multiplexes information about self and others.

JTD Keywords: CA1, Decoding, Information theory, Interneuron, Mutual information, Place cells, Place field, Tobot, Docial behavior, Tetrode

Oliva, A. M., Homs-Corbera, A., Torrents, E., Juarez, A., Samitier, J., (2014). Synergystic effect of temperature and electric field intensity in Escherichia coli inactivation Micro and Nanosystems , 6, (2), 79-86

Electric Fields are increasingly used to manipulate bacteria. However, there is no systematic and definitive study on how the different electric parameters change bacteria viability. Here we present a study on the effects of electric field intensity and temperature to bacterial cultures. Escherichia coli colonies have been exposed to different electric field intensities at 1MHz during 5 minutes by means of a microfluidic device specially designed for the experiment. From the analysis of the results it is possible to see that Escherichia coli survival rate diminishes when applying field intensities as low as 220V during 5 minutes. Death rates also increase when stronger fields are applied. However, viability of survived bacteria is maintained. Additionally, temperature shows a synergistic effect with voltage. When temperature was increased, results showed a stronger sensitivity of cells to the electric field. Moreover, the expression patterns of Outer Membrane Protein A and Ribosomal Proteins differ in control and treated samples, suggesting changes in bacterial metabolism and structure.

JTD Keywords: E. coli, Electric field, Temperature, Viability

Oliva, A. M., Homs, A., Torrents, E., Juarez, A., Samitier, J., (2014). Effect of electric field and temperature in E.Coli viability IFMBE Proceedings XIII Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 2013 (ed. Roa Romero, Laura M.), Springer (Seville, Spain) 41, 1833-1836

Electromagnetic Fields are increasingly used to manipulate bacteria. However, there is no systematic and definitive study on how the different electric parameters change bacteria viability. Here we present preliminary data on the effect of electric field intensity and temperature applica- tion. E. Coli colonies have been exposed to different voltages at 1MHz during 5 minutes by means of a custom-made micro- fluidic device. Results show that E.Coli survival rate is already reduced by applying field intensities as low as 220V/cm during 5 minutes. The use of stronger fields resulted in death rates increase also. Viability of survived bacteria was maintained. On the other hand, temperature has shown a synergistic effect with voltage. When temperature is increased results seem to indicate stronger sensitivity of cells to the electric field. It is necessary to continue studying the contribution of other para- meters as intensity, time, frequency or concentration, to study further synergies.

JTD Keywords: E. Coli, Electromagnetic Field, Temperature, Viability

Bueno, M., Paganetti, H., Duch, M. A., Schuemann, J., (2013). An algorithm to assess the need for clinical Monte Carlo dose calculation for small proton therapy fields based on quantification of tissue heterogeneity Medical Physics , 40, (8), 081704

Purpose: In proton therapy, complex density heterogeneities within the beam path constitute a challenge to dose calculation algorithms. This might question the reliability of dose distributions predicted by treatment planning systems based on analytical dose calculation. For cases in which substantial dose errors are expected, resorting to Monte Carlo dose calculations might be essential to ensure a successful treatment outcome and therefore the benefit is worth a presumably long computation time. The aim of this study was to define an indicator for the accuracy of dose delivery based on analytical dose calculations in treatment planning systems for small proton therapy fields to identify those patients for which Monte Carlo dose calculation is warranted. Methods: Fourteen patients treated at our facility with small passively scattered proton beams (apertures diameters below 7 cm) were selected. Plans were generated in the XiO treatment planning system in combination with a pencil beam algorithm developed at the Massachusetts General Hospital and compared to Monte Carlo dose calculations. Differences in the dose to the 50% of the gross tumor volume (D50, GTV) were assessed in a field-by-field basis. A simple and fast methodology was developed to quantify the inhomogeneity of the tissue traversed by a single small proton beam using a heterogeneity index (HI) - a concept presented by Plugfelder [Med. Phys. 34, 1506-1513 (2007)10.1118/1. 2710329] for scanned proton beams. Finally, the potential correlation between the error made by the pencil beam based treatment planning algorithm for each field and the level of tissue heterogeneity traversed by the proton beam given by the HI was evaluated. Results: Discrepancies up to 5.4% were found in D50 for single fields, although dose differences were within clinical tolerance levels (<3%) when combining all of the fields involved in the treatment. The discrepancies found for each field exhibited a strong correlation to their associated HI-values (Spearman's ρ = 0.8, p < 0.0001); the higher the level of tissue inhomogeneities for a particular field, the larger the error by the analytical algorithm. With the established correlation a threshold for HI can be set by choosing a tolerance level of 2-3% - commonly accepted in radiotherapy. Conclusions: The HI is a good indicator for the accuracy of proton field delivery in terms of GTV prescription dose coverage when small fields are delivered. Each HI-value was obtained from the CT image in less than 3 min on a computer with 2 GHz CPU allowing implementation of this methodology in clinical routine. For HI-values exceeding the threshold, either a change in beam direction (if feasible) or a recalculation of the dose with Monte Carlo would be highly recommended.

JTD Keywords: Heterogeneities, Heterogeneity index, Monte Carlo, Proton therapy, Small fields

Garcia-Parajo, M. F., (2012). The role of nanophotonics in regenerative medicine Nanotechnology in Regenerative Medicine - Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology) (ed. Navarro, M., Planell, J. A.), Springer (New York, USA) 811, 267-284

Cells respond to biochemical and mechanical stimuli through a series of steps that begin at the molecular, nanometre level, and translate finally in global cell response. Defects in biochemical- and/or mechanical-sensing, transduction or cellular response are the cause of multiple diseases, including cancer and immune disorders among others. Within the booming field of regenerative medicine, there is an increasing need for developing and applying nanotechnology tools to bring understanding on the cellular machinery and molecular interactions at the nanoscale. Nanotechnology, nanophotonics and in particular, high-resolution-based fluorescence approaches are already delivering crucial information on the way that cells respond to their environment and how they organize their receptors to perform specialized functions. This chapter focuses on emerging super-resolution optical techniques, summarizing their principles, technical implementation, and reviewing some of the achievements reached so far.

JTD Keywords: Cell membrane organization, Nanophotonics, Near-field optical microscopy, Super-resolution optical microscopy

van Zanten, T. S., Garcia-Parajo, M. F., (2012). Super-resolution near-field optical microscopy Comprehensive Biophysics (ed. Egelman, E. H.), Elsevier (Desdren, Germany) Volume 2: Biophysical Techniques for Characterization of Cells, 144-164

Near-field optical microscopy is a technique not limited by the laws of diffraction that enables simultaneous high-resolution fluorescence and topographic measurements at the nanometer scale. This chapter highlights the intrinsic advantages of near-field optics in the study of cellular structures. The first part of the chapter lays the foundations of the near-field concept and technical implementation of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM), whereas the second part of the chapter focuses on applications of NSOM to the study of model membranes and cellular structures on the plasma membrane. The last part of the chapter discusses further directions of near-field optics, including optical antennas and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy approaches in the near-field regime.

JTD Keywords: Biological membranes, Cell membrane nanoscale compartmentalization, Cellular nanodomains, Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in reduced volumes, Immunoreceptor imaging, Lipid rafts, Near-field scanning optical microscopy, Optical nano-antennas, Shear force imaging, Single molecule detection, Super-resolution microscopy

Ivon Rodriguez-Villarreal, Angeles, Tarn, Mark D., Madden, Leigh A., Lutz, Julia B., Greenman, John, Samitier, Josep, Pamme, Nicole, (2011). Flow focussing of particles and cells based on their intrinsic properties using a simple diamagnetic repulsion setup Lab on a Chip 11, (7), 1240-1248

The continuous flow focussing and manipulation of particles and cells are important factors in microfluidic applications for performing accurate and reproducible procedures downstream. Many particle focussing methods require complex setups or channel designs that can limit the process and its applications. Here, we present diamagnetic repulsion as a simple means of focussing objects in continuous flow, based only on their intrinsic properties without the requirement of any label. Diamagnetic polystyrene particles were suspended in a paramagnetic medium and pumped through a capillary between a pair of permanent magnets, whereupon the particles were repelled by each magnet into the central axis of the capillary, thus achieving focussing. By investigating this effect, we found that the focussing was greatly enhanced with (i) increased magnetic susceptibility of the medium, (ii) reduced flow rate of the suspension, (iii) increased particle size, and (iv) increased residence time in the magnetic field. Furthermore, we applied diamagnetic repulsion to the flow focussing of living, label-free HaCaT cells.

JTD Keywords: Feeble magnetic substances, On-chip, Blood-cells, Microfluidic device, Separation, Field, Levitation, Magnetophoresis, Fractionation, Nanoparticles

van Zanten, T. S., Gomez, J., Manzo, C., Cambi, A., Buceta, J., Reigada, R., Garcia-Parajo, M. F., (2010). Direct mapping of nanoscale compositional connectivity on intact cell membranes Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107, (35), 15437-15442

Lateral segregation of cell membranes is accepted as a primary mechanism for cells to regulate a diversity of cellular functions. In this context, lipid rafts have been conceptualized as organizing principle of biological membranes where underlying cholesterol-mediated selective connectivity must exist even at the resting state. However, such a level of nanoscale compositional connectivity has been challenging to prove. Here we used single-molecule near-field scanning optical microscopy to visualize the nanolandscape of raft ganglioside GM1 after tightening by its ligand cholera toxin (CTxB) on intact cell membranes. We show that CTxB tightening of GM1 is sufficient to initiate a minimal raft coalescence unit, resulting in the formation of cholesterol-dependent GM1 nanodomains <120 nm in size. This particular arrangement appeared independent of cell type and GM1 expression level on the membrane. Simultaneous dual color high-resolution images revealed that GPI anchored and certain transmembrane proteins were recruited to regions proximal (<150 nm) to CTxB-GM1 nanodomains without physical intermixing. Together with in silico experiments, our high-resolution data conclusively demonstrate the existence of raft-based interconnectivity at the nanoscale. Such a linked state on resting cell membranes constitutes thus an obligatory step toward the hierarchical evolution of large-scale raft coalescence upon cell activation.

JTD Keywords: Cholera toxin, Membrane heterogeneity, Near-field scanning optical microscopy, Raft ganglioside GM1, Single-molecule detection

Gil, Vanessa, Bichler, Zoe, Lee, Jae K., Seira, Oscar, Llorens, Franc, Bribian, Ana, Morales, Ricardo, Claverol-Tinture, Enric, Soriano, Eduardo, Sumoy, Lauro, Zheng, Binhai, del Rio, Jose A., (2010). Developmental expression of the oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein in the mouse telencephalon Cerebral Cortex , 20, (8), 1769-1779

The oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein expressed by neurons and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. Attempts have been made to identify the functions of the myelin-associated inhibitory proteins (MAIPs) after axonal lesion or in neurodegeneration. However, the developmental roles of some of these proteins and their receptors remain elusive. Recent studies indicate that NgR1 and the recently discovered receptor PirB restrict cortical synaptic plasticity. However, the putative factors that trigger these effects are unknown. Because Nogo-A is mostly associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and myelin associated glycoprotein appears late during development, the putative participation of OMgp should be considered. Here, we examine the pattern of development of OMgp immunoreactive elements during mouse telencephalic development. OMgp immunoreactivity in the developing cortex follows the establishment of the thalamo-cortical barrel field. At the cellular level, we located OMgp neuronal membranes in dendrites and axons as well as in brain synaptosome fractions and axon varicosities. Lastly, the analysis of the barrel field in OMgp-deficient mice revealed that although thalamo-cortical connections were formed, their targeting in layer IV was altered, and numerous axons ectopically invaded layers II-III. Our data support the idea that early expressed MAIPs play an active role during development and point to OMgp participating in thalamo-cortical connections.

JTD Keywords: Axon plasticity, Barrel-field specification, Cortical lamination, Myelin

van Zanten, T. S., Cambi, A., Garcia-Parajo, M. F., (2010). A nanometer scale optical view on the compartmentalization of cell membranes Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes , 1798, (4), 777-787

For many years, it was believed that the laws of diffraction set a fundamental limit to the spatial resolution of conventional light microscopy. Major developments, especially in the past few years, have demonstrated that the diffraction barrier can be overcome both in the near- and far-field regime. Together with dynamic measurements, a wealth of new information is now emerging regarding the compartmentalization of cell membranes. In this review we focus on optical methods designed to explore the nanoscale architecture of the cell membrane, with a focal point on near-field optical microscopy (NSOM) as the first developed technique to provide truly optical super-resolution beyond the diffraction limit of light. Several examples illustrate the unique capabilities offered by NSOM and highlight its usefulness on cell membrane studies, complementing the palette of biophysical techniques available nowadays.

JTD Keywords: Membrane nanodomain, Lipid raft, Single molecule detection, Near-field scanning optical microscopy, Super-resolution optical microscopy

Tarzan-Lorente, M., Gutierrez-Galvez, A., Martinez, D., Marco, S., (2010). A biologically inspired associative memory for artificial olfaction Practica 2010 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN 2010) , IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA (Barcelona, Spain) , 6 pp.

In this paper, we propose a biologically inspired architecture for a Hopfield-like associative memory applied to artificial olfaction. The proposed algorithm captures the projection between two neural layers of the insect olfactory system (Antennal Lobe and Mushroom Body) with a kernel based projection. We have tested its classification performance as a function of the size of the training set and the time elapsed since training and compared it with that obtained with a Support Vector Machine.

JTD Keywords: Biocomputing, Chemioception, Content-addressable storage, Hopfield neural nets, Support vector machines

Fumagalli, L., Ferrari, G., Sampietro, M., Gomila, G., (2009). Quantitative nanoscale dielectric microscopy of single-layer supported biomembranes Nano Letters 9, (4), 1604-1608

We present the experimental demonstration of low-frequency dielectric constant imaging of single-layer supported biomembranes at the nanoscale. The dielectric constant image has been quantitatively reconstructed by combining the thickness and local capacitance obtained using a scanning force microscope equipped with a sub-attofarad low-frequency capacitance detector. This work opens new possibilities for studying bioelectric phenomena and the dielectric properties of biological membranes at the nanoscale.

JTD Keywords: Atomic-force microscopy, Nnear-field microscopy, Purple membrane, Scanning capacitance, Biological-systems, Fluid, Spectroscopy, Resolution, Proteins, Dynamics

van Zanten, T. S., Cambi, A., Koopman, M., Joosten, B., Figdor, Carl G., Garcia-Parajo, M. F., (2009). Hotspots of GPI-anchored proteins and integrin nanoclusters function as nucleation sites for cell adhesion Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106, (44), 18557-18562

Recruitment of receptor proteins to lipid rafts has been proposed as an important mechanism to regulate their cellular function. In particular, rafts have been implicated in regulation of integrin-mediated cell adhesion, although the underlying mechanism remains elusive. We used single-molecule near-field optical microscopy (NSOM) with localization accuracy of approximately 3 nm, to capture the spatio-functional relationship between the integrin LFA-1 and raft components (GPI-APs) on immune cells. Dual color nanoscale imaging revealed the existence of a nanodomain GPI-AP subpopulation that further concentrated in regions smaller than 250 nm, suggesting a hierarchical prearrangement of GPI-APs on resting monocytes. We previously demonstrated that in quiescent monocytes, LFA-1 preorganizes in nanoclusters. We now show that integrin nanoclusters are spatially different but reside proximal to GPI-AP nanodomains, forming hotspots on the cell surface. Ligand-mediated integrin activation resulted in an interconversion from monomers to nanodomains of GPI-APs and the generation of nascent adhesion sites where integrin and GPI-APs colocalized at the nanoscale. Cholesterol depletion significantly affected the reciprocal distribution pattern of LFA-1 and GPI-APs in the resting state, and LFA-1 adhesion to its ligand. As such, our data demonstrate the existence of nanoplatforms as essential intermediates in nascent cell adhesion. Since raft association with a variety of membrane proteins other than LFA-1 has been documented, we propose that hotspots regions enriched with raft components and functional receptors may constitute a prototype of nanoscale inter-receptor assembly and correspond to a generic mechanism to offer cells with privileged areas for rapid cellular function and responses to the outside world.

JTD Keywords: Integrin LFA-1, Membrane nanocompartments, Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM), Single molecule detection

Mir, M., Homs, A., Samitier, J., (2009). Integrated electrochemical DNA biosensors for lab-on-a-chip devices Electrophoresis , 30, (19), 3386-3397

Analytical devices able to perform accurate and fast automatic DNA detection or sequencing procedures have many potential benefits in the biomedical and environmental fields. The conversion of biological or biochemical responses into quantifiable optical, mechanical or electronic signals is achieved by means of biosensors. Most of these transducing elements can be miniaturized and incorporated into lab-on-a-chip devices, also known as Micro Total Analysis Systems. The use of multiple DNA biosensors integrated in these miniaturized laboratories, which perform several analytical operations at the microscale, has many cost and efficiency advantages. Tiny amounts of reagents and samples are needed and highly sensitive, fast and parallel assays can be done at low cost. A particular type of DNA biosensors are the ones used based on electrochemical principles. These sensors offer several advantages over the popular fluorescence-based detection schemes. The resulting signal is electrical and can be processed by conventional electronics in a very cheap and fast manner. Furthermore, the integration and miniaturization of electrochemical transducers in a microsystem makes easier its fabrication in front of the most common currently used detection method. In this review, different electrochemical DNA biosensors integrated in analytical microfluidic devices are discussed and some early stage commercial products based on this strategy are presented.

JTD Keywords: DNA, Electrochemical DNA biosensors, Electrochemistry, Lab-on-a-chip, Micro Total Analysis systems, Field-effect transistors, Sequence-specific detection, Chemical-analysis systems, Solid-state nanopores, Carbon nanotubes, Microfluidic device, Electrical detection, Hybridization, Molecules, Sensor

de Bakker, Barbel I., Bodnar, Andrea, van Dijk, Erik M. H. P., Vamosi, Gyorgy, Damjanovich, Sandor, Waldmann, Thomas A., van Hulst, Niek F., Jenei, Attila, Garcia-Parajo, M. F., (2008). Nanometer-scale organization of the alpha subunits of the receptors for IL2 and IL15 in human T lymphoma cells Journal of Cell Science 121, (5), 627-633

Interleukin 2 and interleukin 15 (IL2 and IL15, respectively) provide quite distinct contributions to T-cell-mediated immunity, despite having similar receptor composition and signaling machinery. As most of the proposed mechanisms underlying this apparent paradox attribute key significance to the individual {alpha}-chains of IL2 and IL15 receptors, we investigated the spatial organization of the receptors IL2R{alpha} and IL15R{alpha} at the nanometer scale expressed on a human CD4+ leukemia T cell line using single-molecule-sensitive near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM). In agreement with previous findings, we here confirm clustering of IL2R{alpha} and IL15R{alpha} at the submicron scale. In addition to clustering, our single-molecule data reveal that a non-negligible percentage of the receptors are organized as monomers. Only a minor fraction of IL2R{alpha} molecules reside outside the clustered domains, whereas [~]30% of IL15R{alpha} molecules organize as monomers or small clusters, excluded from the main domain regions. Interestingly, we also found that the packing densities per unit area of both IL2R{alpha} and IL15R{alpha} domains remained constant, suggesting a `building block' type of assembly involving repeated structures and composition. Finally, dual-color NSOM demonstrated co-clustering of the two {alpha}-chains. Our results should aid understanding the action of the IL2R-IL15R system in T cell function and also might contribute to the more rationale design of IL2R- or IL15R-targeted immunotherapy agents for treating human leukemia.

JTD Keywords: Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM), Interleukin receptors IL2R, IL15R, Single-molecule detection, Nanometer-scale membrane organization