by Keyword: Synthesis

Resina L, Alemán C, Ferreira FC, Esteves T, (2023). Protein-imprinted polymers: How far have "plastic antibodies" come? Biotechnology Advances 68, 108220

Antibodies are highly selective and sensitive, making them the gold standard for recognition affinity tools. However, their production cost is high and their downstream processing is time-consuming. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are tailor-made by incorporating specific molecular recognition sites in their structure, thus translating into receptor-like activity mode of action. The interest in molecular imprinting technology, applied to biomacromolecules, has increased in the past decade. MIPs, produced using biomolecules as templates, commonly referred to as "plastic antibodies" or "artificial receptors", have been considered as suitable cheaper and easy to produce alternatives to antibodies. Research on MIPs, designed to recognize proteins or peptides is particularly important, with potential contributions towards biomedical applications, namely biosensors and targeted drug delivery systems. This mini review will cover recent advances on (bio)molecular imprinting technology, where proteins or peptides are targeted or mimicked for sensing and therapeutic applications. Polymerization methods are reviewed elsewhere, being out of the scope of this review. Template selection and immobilization approaches, monomers and applications will be discussed, highlighting possible drawbacks and gaps in research.Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: artificial antibodies, assay, biomimetics, biomolecules, biosensors, delivery, diagnostics, drug delivery, electrochemical detection, nanoparticles, receptors, science-and-technology, selective recognition, selective targeting, separation, templates, Artificial antibodies, Biomimetics, Biomolecules, Biosensors, Diagnostics, Drug delivery, Molecularly imprinted polymers, Nanoparticles, Selective targeting, Solid-phase synthesis

Gallo J, Villasante A, (2023). Recent Advances in Biomimetic Nanocarrier-Based Photothermal Therapy for Cancer Treatment International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 24, 15484

Nanomedicine presents innovative solutions for cancer treatment, including photothermal therapy (PTT). PTT centers on the design of photoactivatable nanoparticles capable of absorbing non-toxic near-infrared light, generating heat within target cells to induce cell death. The successful transition from benchside to bedside application of PTT critically depends on the core properties of nanoparticles responsible for converting light into heat and the surface properties for precise cell-specific targeting. Precisely targeting the intended cells remains a primary challenge in PTT. In recent years, a groundbreaking approach has emerged to address this challenge by functionalizing nanocarriers and enhancing cell targeting. This strategy involves the creation of biomimetic nanoparticles that combine desired biocompatibility properties with the immune evasion mechanisms of natural materials. This review comprehensively outlines various strategies for designing biomimetic photoactivatable nanocarriers for PTT, with a primary focus on its application in cancer therapy. Additionally, we shed light on the hurdles involved in translating PTT from research to clinical practice, along with an overview of current clinical applications.

JTD Keywords: biomimetic nanoparticles, cancer treatment, diagnosis, drug-delivery, erythrocyte-membrane, facile synthesis, iron-oxide nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles, metastatic breast-cancer, size, stem-cells, Biomimetic nanoparticles, Cancer treatment, Membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles, Photothermal therapy

De Matteis, Valeria, Griego, Anna, Scarpa, Edoardo, Cascione, Mariafrancesca, Singh, Jagpreet, Rizzello, Loris, (2023). Size Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Derived from Olive Mill Wastewater in THP-1 Cell Lines Applied Sciences-Basel 13, 6033

The constant demand of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for different applications requires a new selection of solvents and reagents for their synthesis, to make them less toxic to living organisms and the environment. Among the alternative technologies that can be used to exclude the use of toxic products, green chemistry is based on the employment of biomolecules derived from plants or microorganisms to achieve NPs. Therefore, with the aim of applying the principles of circular economy, the waste deriving from the production of olive oil represents a useful source of polyphenols to be used as reduction agents to obtain AgNPs. In our work, we employed the Olive Mill Wastewater (OMWW), the so-called vegetation water typical of the Mediterranean geographical area, to achieve two sizes of AgNPs, i.e., 50 nm and 30 nm. These NPs were tested on the human monocytic cell line (THP-1) using two concentrations (3 µM and 5 µM) to understand their ability to trigger or not the inflammatory response. This was undertaken following IL-6, IL-8, IL-5 and TNF-α secretion and the NF-kB translocation. We concluded that the AgNPs did not induce strong activation of these pathways, especially when the cells were treated with higher dimensional NPs. Consequently, the application of these NPs in vivo for therapeutic purpose could be significant.

JTD Keywords: agricultural waste, immune response, physicochemical properties, Green synthesis, Silver nanoparticles

Sans, J, Arnau, M, Sanz, V, Turon, P, Aleman, C, (2022). Fine-tuning of polarized hydroxyapatite for the catalytic conversion of dinitrogen to ammonium under mild conditions Chemical Engineering Journal 446, 137440

Polarized hydroxyapatite (p-HAp), a calcium phosphate catalyst obtained at high temperature under intense electric field, has been used for the synthesis of ammonium starting from N2 and liquid water at low pressure (<6 bar) and temperatures below 120 C. The success of the nitrogen fixation process has been demonstrated by isotope labelling experiments using 15N2. Considering the optimal reaction conditions for the production of ammonium, the yield is as high as 154.6 +/- 25.8 mu mol/g of catalyst. The proposed synthesis exhibits three important advantages for its utilization in green chemistry environmental processes related to the recycling of polluted air. These are: i) the catalysts converts CO2 into valuable chemical products in addition of transforming N2 in ammonium; ii) the final energy balance is very favorable since no external electrical field is necessary to promote nitrogen and carbon fixation reactions; and iii) products are easily transferred to water favoring their extraction and avoiding the saturation of the catalyst.

JTD Keywords: Adsorbed nitrogen, Air pollution, Amino-acids, Electrophotosynthesis, Environmental process, Facile synthesis, Fixation, Functionalization, Hydroxyapatite, Nitride, Nitrogen reduction, Polarized catalyst

Sans, Jordi, Arnau, Marc, Turon, Pau, Alemán, Carlos, (2022). Permanently polarized hydroxyapatite, an outstanding catalytic material for carbon and nitrogen fixation Materials Horizons 9, 1566-1576

Permanently polarized hydroxyapatite is a new material with electrical enhanced properties. This review discusses the advances in this material in terms of structure, properties and catalytic activity of green processes.

JTD Keywords: ammonia, bone, copper hydroxyapatite, electrophotosynthesis, nanoparticles, oxidation, phase-transition, reduction, Amino-acids

Sans, Jordi, Arnau, Marc, Sanz, Vanesa, Turon, Pau, Alemán, Carlos, (2022). Polarized Hydroxyapatite: New Insights and Future Perspectives Through Systematic Electrical Characterization at the Interface Advanced Materials Interfaces 9,

Cascione M, Rizzello L, Manno D, Serra A, De Matteis V, (2022). Green Silver Nanoparticles Promote Inflammation Shutdown in Human Leukemic Monocytes Materials (Basel) 15,

The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in the biomedical field deserves a mindful analysis of the possible inflammatory response which could limit their use in the clinic. Despite the anti-cancer properties of Ag NPs having been widely demonstrated, there are still few studies concerning their involvement in the activation of specific inflammatory pathways. The inflammatory outcome depends on the synthetic route used in the NPs production, in which toxic reagents are employed. In this work, we compared two types of Ag NPs, obtained by two different chemical routes: conventional synthesis using sodium citrate and a green protocol based on leaf extracts as a source of reduction and capping agents. A careful physicochemical characterization was carried out showing spherical and stable Ag NPs with an average size between 20 nm and 35 nm for conventional and green Ag NPs respectively. Then, we evaluated their ability to induce the activation of inflammation in Human Leukemic Monocytes (THP-1) differentiated into M0 macrophages using 1 µM and 2 µM NPs concentrations (corresponded to 0.1 µg/mL and 0.2 µg/mL respectively) and two-time points (24 h and 48 h). Our results showed a clear difference in Nuclear Factor ?B (NF-?b) activation, Interleukins 6–8 (IL-6, IL-8) secretion, Tumor Necrosis Factor-? (TNF-?) and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression exerted by the two kinds of Ag NPs. Green Ag NPs were definitely tolerated by macrophages compared to conventional Ag NPs which induced the activation of all the factors mentioned above. Subsequently, the exposure of breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) to the green Ag NPs showed that they exhibited antitumor activity like the conventional ones, but surprisingly, using the MCF-10A line (not tumoral breast cells) the green Ag NPs did not cause a significant decrease in cell viability. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: activation, biosynthesis, gold nanoparticles, green route, inflammation response, mechanism, metal, nanotechnology, physico-chemical properties, raman-spectroscopy, resonance, silver nanoparticles, surface, Biomedical fields, Cell culture, Cell death, Chemical activation, Chemical routes, Conventional synthesis, Diseases, Green route, Inflammation response, Inflammatory response, Macrophages, Metal nanoparticles, Nf-kappa-b, Pathology, Physico-chemical properties, Physicochemical property, Property, Silver nanoparticles, Sodium compounds, Synthetic routes, Toxic reagents

Sans, J, Arnau, M, Roa, JJ, Turon, P, Alernan, C, (2022). Tailorable Nanoporous Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Electrothermal Catalysis Acs Applied Nano Materials 5, 8526-8536

Polarized hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffolds with customized architecture at the nanoscale have been presented as a green alternative to conventional catalysts used for carbon and dinitrogen fixation. HAp printable inks with controlled nanoporosity and rheological properties have been successfully achieved by incorporating Pluronic hydrogel. Nanoporous scaffolds with good mechanical properties, as demonstrated by means of the nanoindentation technique, have been obtained by a sintering treatment and the posterior thermally induced polarization process. Their catalytic activity has been evaluated by considering three different key reactions (all in the presence of liquid water): (1) the synthesis of amino acids from gas mixtures of N-2, CO2, and CH4; (2) the production of ethanol from gas mixtures of CO2 and CH4; and (3) the synthesis of ammonia from N-2 gas. Comparison of the yields obtained by using nanoporous and nonporous (conventional) polarized HAp catalysts shows that both the nanoporosity and water absorption capacity of the former represent a drawback when the catalytic reaction requires auxiliary coating layers, as for example for the production of amino acids. This is because the surface nanopores achieved by incorporating Pluronic hydrogel are completely hindered by such auxiliary coating layers. On the contrary, the catalytic activity improves drastically for reactions in which the HAp-based scaffolds with enhanced nanoporosity are used as catalysts. More specifically, the carbon fixation from CO2 and CH4 to yield ethanol improves by more than 3000% when compared with nonporous HAp catalyst. Similarly, the synthesis of ammonia by dinitrogen fixation increases by more than 2000%. Therefore, HAp catalysts based on nanoporous scaffolds exhibit an extraordinary potential for scalability and industrial utilization for many chemical reactions, enabling a feasible green chemistry alternative to catalysts based on heavy metals.

JTD Keywords: Amino acids, Amino-acids, Ammonium production, Bone, Carbon fixation, Composites, Constitutive phases, Decarbonization, Dinitrogen, Ditrogen fixation, Elastic-modulus, Electrophotosynthesis, Ethanol production, Hardness, Indentation, Nanoindentation, Pluronic hydrogel, Polarized hydroxyapatite

Biosca, A, Ramirez, M, Gomez-Gomez, A, Lafuente, A, Iglesias, V, Pozo, OJ, Imperial, S, Fernandez-Busquets, X, (2022). Characterization of Domiphen Bromide as a New Fast-Acting Antiplasmodial Agent Inhibiting the Apicoplastidic Methyl Erythritol Phosphate Pathway Pharmaceutics 14,

The evolution of resistance by the malaria parasite to artemisinin, the key component of the combination therapy strategies that are at the core of current antimalarial treatments, calls for the urgent identification of new fast-acting antimalarials. The apicoplast organelle is a preferred target of antimalarial drugs because it contains biochemical processes absent from the human host. Fosmidomycin is the only drug in clinical trials targeting the apicoplast, where it inhibits the methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here, we characterized the antiplasmodial activity of domiphen bromide (DB), another MEP pathway inhibitor with a rapid mode of action that arrests the in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum at the early trophozoite stage. Metabolomic analysis of the MEP pathway and Krebs cycle intermediates in 20 mu M DB-treated parasites suggested a rapid activation of glycolysis with a concomitant decrease in mitochondrial activity, consistent with a rapid killing of the pathogen. These results present DB as a model compound for the development of new, potentially interesting drugs for future antimalarial combination therapies.

JTD Keywords: antibiotics, antimalarial drugs, domiphen bromide, malaria, plasmodium falciparum, Antibiotics, Antimalarial drugs, Antimalarial-drug, Artemisinin, Combination therapies, Domiphen bromide, Intraerythrocytic stages, Isoprenoid biosynthesis, Malaria, Methyl erythritol phosphate pathway, Nonmevalonate pathway, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium-falciparum apicoplast, Red-blood-cells, Targeted delivery

Roca, C, Avalos-Padilla, Y, Prieto-Simon, B, Iglesias, V, Ramirez, M, Imperial, S, Fernandez-Busquets, X, (2022). Selection of an Aptamer against the Enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate Reductoisomerase from Plasmodium falciparum Pharmaceutics 14,

The methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis is essential for malaria parasites and also for several human pathogenic bacteria, thus representing an interesting target for future antimalarials and antibiotics and for diagnostic strategies. We have developed a DNA aptamer (D10) against Plasmodium falciparum 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), the second enzyme of this metabolic route. D10 binds in vitro to recombinant DXR from P. falciparum and Escherichia coli, showing at 10 mu M a ca. 50% inhibition of the bacterial enzyme. In silico docking analysis indicates that D10 associates with DXR in solvent-exposed regions outside the active center pocket. According to fluorescence confocal microscopy data, this aptamer specifically targets in P. falciparum in vitro cultures the apicoplast organelle where the MEP pathway is localized and is, therefore, a highly specific marker of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium vs. naive erythrocytes. D10 is also selective for the detection of MEP+ bacteria (e.g., E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) vs. those lacking DXR (e.g., Enterococcus faecalis). Based on these results, we discuss the potential of DNA aptamers in the development of ligands that can outcompete the performance of the well-established antibody technology for future therapeutic and diagnostic approaches.

JTD Keywords: 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase, dna aptamers, plasmodium, 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase, Apicoplast, Dna aptamers, Drug targets, Evolution, Inhibitors, Isoprenoid biosynthesis, Malaria, Methyl erythritol phosphate pathway, Pathway, Plasmodium, Protein-protein, Web server

De Matteis, V, Rizzello, L, Cascione, M, Pellegrino, P, Singh, J, Manno, D, Rinaldi, R, (2022). Sustainable Synthesis of FITC Chitosan-Capped Gold Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications Clean Technologies 4, 942-953

The quest for novel nanoscale materials for different applications necessitates that they are easy to obtain and have excellent physical properties and low toxicity. Moreover, considering the ongoing environmental impact of noxious chemical waste products, it is important to adopt eco-friendly approaches for nanoparticle synthesis. In this work, a natural polymer (medium molecular weight chitosan) derived from chitin was employed as a reducing agent to obtain gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with a chitosan shell (AuNPs@CS) by a microwave oven. The chitosan is economically viable and cost-competitive in the market showing also nontoxic behavior in the environment and living organisms. The synthesized AuNPs@CS-FITC NPs were fully characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic characterization techniques. The size distribution of NPs was about 15 nm, which is a suitable dimension to use in biomedical applications due to their high tissue penetration, great circulation in blood, and optimal clearance as well as low toxicity. The prepared polymer-capped NPs were further functionalized with a fluorescent molecule, i.e., Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC), to perform imaging in the cell. The results highlighted the goodness of the synthesis procedure, as well as the high internalization rate that resulted in an optimal fluorescence intensity. Thus, this work presents a good sustainable/green approach-mediated polymer nanocomposite for various applications in the field of diagnostic imaging.

JTD Keywords: Agent, Biomedical, Fluorescent, Gold nanoparticles, Green synthesis, Nanomaterials, Silver nanoparticles

Duro-Castano, Aroa, Rodríguez-Arco, Laura, Ruiz-Pérez, Lorena, De Pace, Cesare, Marchello, Gabriele, Noble-Jesus, Carlos, Battaglia, Giuseppe, (2021). One-Pot Synthesis of Oxidation-Sensitive Supramolecular Gels and Vesicles Biomacromolecules 22, 5052-5064

Polypeptide-based nanoparticles offer unique advantages from a nanomedicine perspective such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and stimuli-responsive properties to (patho)physiological conditions. Conventionally, self-assembled polypeptide nanostructures are prepared by first synthesizing their constituent amphiphilic polypeptides followed by postpolymerization self-assembly. Herein, we describe the one-pot synthesis of oxidation-sensitive supramolecular micelles and vesicles. This was achieved by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) of the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) precursor of methionine using poly(ethylene oxide) as a stabilizing and hydrophilic block in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). By adjusting the hydrophobic block length and concentration, we obtained a range of morphologies from spherical to wormlike micelles, to vesicles. Remarkably, the secondary structure of polypeptides greatly influenced the final morphology of the assemblies. Surprisingly, wormlike micellar morphologies were obtained for a wide range of methionine block lengths and solid contents, with spherical micelles restricted to very short hydrophobic lengths. Wormlike micelles further assembled into oxidation-sensitive, self-standing gels in the reaction pot. Both vesicles and wormlike micelles obtained using this method demonstrated to degrade under controlled oxidant conditions, which would expand their biomedical applications such as in sustained drug release or as cellular scaffolds in tissue engineering.

JTD Keywords: alpha-amino-acid, hydrogels, leuchs anhydrides, platform, polypeptides, transformation, triggered cargo release, Amino acids, Amphiphilics, Biocompatibility, Biodegradability, Block lengths, Controlled drug delivery, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Ethylene, Gels, Hydrophobicity, Medical nanotechnology, Methionine, Micelles, Morphology, One-pot synthesis, Organic solvents, Oxidation, Physiological condition, Polyethylene oxides, Post-polymerization, Ring-opening polymerization, Scaffolds (biology), Self assembly, Stimuli-responsive properties, Supramolecular chemistry, Supramolecular gels, Supramolecular micelles, Wormlike micelle

Chacon DS, Torres TM, da Silva IB, de Araújo TF, Roque AdA, Pinheiro FASD, Selegato D, Pilon A, Reginaldo FPS, da Costa CT, Vilasboa J, Freire RT, Voigt EL, Zuanazzi JAS, Libonati R, Rodrigues JA, Santos FLM, Scortecci KC, Lopes NP, Ferreira LDS, dos Santos LV, Cavalheiro AJ, Fett-Neto AG, Giordani RB, (2021). Erythrina velutina Willd. alkaloids: Piecing biosynthesis together from transcriptome analysis and metabolite profiling of seeds and leaves Journal Of Advanced Research 34, 123-136

© 2021 Introduction: Natural products of pharmaceutical interest often do not reach the drug market due to the associated low yields and difficult extraction. Knowledge of biosynthetic pathways is a key element in the development of biotechnological strategies for plant specialized metabolite production. The scarce studies regarding non-model plants impair advances in this field. Erythrina spp. are mainly used as central nervous system depressants in folk medicine and are important sources of bioactive tetracyclic benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, which can act on several pathology-related biological targets. Objective: Herein the purpose is to employ combined transcriptome and metabolome analyses (seeds and leaves) of a non-model medicinal Fabaceae species grown in its unique arid natural habitat. The study tries to propose a putative biosynthetic pathway for the bioactive alkaloids by using an omic integrated approach. Methods: The Next Generation Sequencing-based transcriptome (de novo RNA sequencing) was carried out in a Illumina NextSeq 500 platform. Regarding the targeted metabolite profiling, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to a micrOTOF-QII, High Resolution Mass Spectrometer, were used. Results: This detailed macro and micromolecular approach applied to seeds and leaves of E. velutina revealed 42 alkaloids by metabolome tools. Based on the combined evidence, 24 gene candidates were put together in a putative pathway leading to the singular alkaloid diversity of this species. Conclusion: These results contribute by indicating potential biotechnological targets Erythrina alkaloids biosynthesis as well as to improve molecular databases with omic data from a non-model medicinal plant. Furthermore, they reveal an interesting chemical diversity in Erythrina velutina harvested in Caatinga. Last, but not least, this data may also contribute to tap Brazilian biodiversity in a rational and sustainable fashion, promoting adequate public policies for preservation and protection of sensitive areas within the Caatinga.

JTD Keywords: benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, caatinga, codeinone reductase, erythrina velutina, expression, mass-spectrometry, molecular-cloning, morphine biosynthesis, natural-products, opium poppy, papaver-somniferum, plant-metabolism, targeted metabolite profile, transcriptome, Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, Berberine bridge enzyme, Caatinga, Erythrina velutina, Targeted metabolite profile, Transcriptome

Calistri A, Luganini A, Mognetti B, Elder E, Sibille G, Conciatori V, Del Vecchio C, Sainas S, Boschi D, Montserrat N, Mirazimi A, Lolli ML, Gribaudo G, Parolin C, (2021). The new generation hdhodh inhibitor meds433 hinders the in vitro replication of sars-cov-2 and other human coronaviruses Microorganisms 9,

Although coronaviruses (CoVs) have long been predicted to cause zoonotic diseases and pandemics with high probability, the lack of effective anti-pan-CoVs drugs rapidly usable against the emerging SARS-CoV-2 actually prevented a promptly therapeutic intervention for COVID-19. Development of host-targeting antivirals could be an alternative strategy for the control of emerging CoVs infections, as they could be quickly repositioned from one pandemic event to another. To contribute to these pandemic preparedness efforts, here we report on the broad-spectrum CoVs antiviral activity of MEDS433, a new inhibitor of the human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (hDHODH), a key cellular enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway. MEDS433 in-hibited the in vitro replication of hCoV-OC43 and hCoV-229E, as well as of SARS-CoV-2, at low nanomolar range. Notably, the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of MEDS433 against SARS-CoV-2 was also observed in kidney organoids generated from human embryonic stem cells. Then, the antiviral activity of MEDS433 was reversed by the addition of exogenous uridine or the product of hDHODH, the orotate, thus confirming hDHODH as the specific target of MEDS433 in hCoVs-infected cells. Taken together, these findings suggest MEDS433 as a potential candidate to develop novel drugs for COVID-19, as well as broad-spectrum antiviral agents exploitable for future CoVs threats.

JTD Keywords: antiviral activity, biosynthesis, broad-spectrum antiviral, combination treatment, coronavirus, dipyridamole, hdhodh inhibitor, organoids, pyrimidine, pyrimidine biosynthesis, sars-cov-2, target, virus-infection, Antiviral activ-ity, Broad-spectrum antiviral, Combination treatment, Coronavirus, Gene-expression, Hdhodh inhibitor, Organoids, Pyrimidine biosynthesis, Sars-cov-2

De Matteis V, Cascione M, Rizzello L, Manno DE, Di Guglielmo C, Rinaldi R, (2021). Synergistic effect induced by gold nanoparticles with polyphenols shell during thermal therapy: Macrophage inflammatory response and cancer cell death assessment Cancers 13,

Background: In recent decades, gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-based cancer therapy has been heavily debated. The physico-chemical properties of AuNPs can be exploited in photothermal therapy, making them a powerful tool for selectively killing cancer cells. However, the synthetic side products and capping agents often induce a strong activation of the inflammatory pathways of macrophages, thus limiting their further applications in vivo. Methods: Here, we described a green method to obtain stable polyphenol-capped AuNPs (Au NPs@polyphenols), as polyphenols are known for their anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. These NPs were used in human macrophages to test key inflammation-related markers, such as NF-κB, TNF-α, and interleukins-6 and 8. The results were compared with similar NPs obtained by a traditional chemical route (without the polyphenol coating), proving the potential of Au NPs@polyphenols to strongly promote the shutdown of inflammation. This was useful in developing them for use as heat-synergized tools in the thermal treatment of two types of cancer cells, namely, breast cancer (MCF-7) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. The cell viability, calcium release, oxidative stress, HSP-70 expression, mitochondrial, and DNA damage, as well as cytoskeleton alteration, were evaluated. Results: Our results clearly demonstrate that the combined strategy markedly exerts anticancer effects against the tested cancer cell, while neither of the single treatments (only heat or only NPs) induced significant changes. Conclusions: Au NP@polyphenols may be powerful agents in cancer treatment.

JTD Keywords: antioxidant, aunps, biocompatibility, biology, calcium, cancer, green synthesis, inflammation response, inhibition, interleukin-6, mechanisms, natural polyphenols, physico-chemical properties, polyphenols, size, thermal treatment, Aunps, Cancer, Green synthesis, Inflammation response, Nobilis l. leaves, Physico-chemical properties, Polyphenols, Thermal treatment

Mendoza MB, Gutierrez S, Ortiz R, Moreno DF, Dermit M, Dodel M, Rebollo E, Bosch M, Mardakheh FK, Gallego C, (2021). The elongation factor eEF1A2 controls translation and actin dynamics in dendritic spines Science Signaling 14, abf5594

Synaptic plasticity involves structural modifications in dendritic spines that are modulated by local protein synthesis and actin remodeling. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms that connect synaptic stimulation to these processes. We found that the phosphorylation of isoform-specific sites in eEF1A2-an essential translation elongation factor in neurons-is a key modulator of structural plasticity in dendritic spines. Expression of a nonphosphorylatable eEF1A2 mutant stimulated mRNA translation but reduced actin dynamics and spine density. By contrast, a phosphomimetic eEF1A2 mutant exhibited decreased association with F-actin and was inactive as a translation elongation factor. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling triggered transient dissociation of eEF1A2 from its regulatory guanine exchange factor (GEF) protein in dendritic spines in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We propose that eEF1A2 establishes a cross-talk mechanism that coordinates translation and actin dynamics during spine remodeling.

JTD Keywords: cytoskeleton, expression, f-actin, factor 1-alpha, factor 1a, messenger-rna, nucleotide exchange, protein-synthesis, synaptic plasticity, Aminoacyl-transfer-rna

Fonte M, Tassi N, Fontinha D, Bouzón-Arnáiz I, Ferraz R, Araújo MJ, Fernàndez-Busquets X, Prudêncio M, Gomes P, Teixeira C, (2021). 4,9-Diaminoacridines and 4-Aminoacridines as Dual-Stage Antiplasmodial Hits Chemmedchem 16, 788-792

© 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH Multi-stage drugs have been prioritized in antimalarial drug discovery, as targeting more than one process in the Plasmodium life cycle is likely to increase efficiency, while decreasing the chances of emergence of resistance by the parasite. Herein, we disclose two novel acridine-based families of compounds that combine the structural features of primaquine and chloroquine. Compounds prepared and studied thus far retained the in vitro activity displayed by the parent drugs against the erythrocytic stages of chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains, and against the hepatic stages of Plasmodium berghei, hence acting as dual-stage antiplasmodial hits.

JTD Keywords: acridines, antimalarial activity, blood-stage, liver-stage, malaria, plasmodium, Acridines, Antimalarial activity, Blood-stage, Liver-stage, Malaria, Plasmodium, Synthesis

De Matteis V, Rizzello L, Ingrosso C, Rinaldi R, (2021). Purification of olive mill wastewater through noble metal nanoparticle synthesis: waste safe disposal and nanomaterial impact on healthy hepatic cell mitochondria Environmental Science And Pollution Research 28, 26154-26171

The exponential increase of waste derived from different human activities points out the importance of their reuse in order to create materials with specific properties that can be used for different applications. In this work, it was showed how the typical Mediterranean organic liquid waste, namely olive mill wastewater (OMWW), obtained during olive oil production, can be turned into an efficient reactive agent for the production of noble metals gold (Au) and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with very well-defined physico-chemical properties. More than that, it was demonstrated that this synthetic procedure also leads to a drastic decrease of the organic pollution load of the OMWW, making it safer for environmental disposal and plants irrigation. Then, using healthy hepatic cell line mitochondria, the biological effects induced by these green metal NPs surrounded by a polyphenols shell, with the same NPs synthetized through a standard chemical colloidal reduction process, were compared, finding out that the green NPs are much safer.

JTD Keywords: antioxidants perturbation, green synthesis, gtpase dynamin-related protein 1 expression, mitochondria assessment, physico-chemical properties, Antioxidants perturbation, Green synthesis, Gtpase dynamin-related protein 1 expression, Mitochondria assessment, Physico-chemical properties, Reusability of waste

Abramov A, Maiti B, Keridou I, Puiggalí J, Reiser O, Díaz DD, (2021). A pH-Triggered Polymer Degradation or Drug Delivery System by Light-Mediated Cis/Trans Isomerization of o-Hydroxy Cinnamates Macromolecular Rapid Communications 42, e2100213

A new methodology for the pH-triggered degradation of polymers or for the release of drugs under visible light irradiation based on the cyclization of ortho-hydroxy-cinnamates (oHC) to coumarins is described. The key oHC structural motif can be readily incorporated into the rational design of novel photocleavable polymers via click chemistry. This main-chain moiety undergoes a fast photocleavage when irradiated with 455 nm light provided that a suitable base is added. A series of polyethylene glycol-alt-ortho-hydroxy cinnamate (polyethylene glycol (PEG)(n)-alt-oHC)-based polymers are synthesized and the time-dependent visible-light initiated cleavage of the photoactive monomer and polymer is investigated in solution by a variety of spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. The photo-degradation behavior of the water-soluble poly(PEG(2000)-alt-oHC) is investigated within a broad pH range (pH = 2.1-11.8), demonstrating fast degradation at pH 11.8, while the stability of the polymer is greatly enhanced at pH 2.1. Moreover, the neat polymer shows long-term stability under daylight conditions, thus allowing its storage without special precautions. In addition, two water-soluble PEG-based drug-carrier molecules (mPEG(2000)-oHC-benzhydrol/phenol) are synthesized and used for drug delivery studies, monitoring the process by UV-vis spectroscopy in an ON/OFF intermittent manner.

JTD Keywords: coumarins, drug delivery, e/z-double bond isomerization, o-hydroxy cinnamates, polymer degradation, Aliphatic compounds, Antioxidant activity, Antitumor, Chromatographic techniques, Chromatography, Cis/trans isomerization, Controlled drug delivery, Coumarin derivatives, Coumarins, Drug delivery, Drug delivery system, E/z-double bond isomerization, Films, Hydrogels, Image enhancement, Light, Long term stability, O-hydroxy cinnamates, Particles, Photoactive monomers, Photodegradation, Polyethylene glycols, Polyethylenes, Polymer degradation, Responsive polymers, Salts, Structural motifs, Synthesis (chemical), Targeted drug delivery, Visible light photocatalysis, Visible-light irradiation

Sans, J, Sanz, V, del Valle, LJ, Puiggali, J, Turon, P, Aleman, C, (2021). Optimization of permanently polarized hydroxyapatite catalyst. Implications for the electrophotosynthesis of amino acids by nitrogen and carbon fixation Journal Of Catalysis 397, 98-107

The enhanced catalytic activity of permanently polarized hydroxyapatite, which is achieved using a thermally stimulated polarization process, largely depends on both the experimental conditions used to prepare crystalline hydroxyapatite from its calcium and phosphate precursors and the polarization process parameters. A mineral similar to brushite, which is an apatitic phase that can evolve to hydroxyapatite, is found at the surface of highly crystalline hydroxyapatite. It appears after chemical precipitation and hydrothermal treatment performed at 150 degrees C for 24 h followed by a sinterization at 1000 degrees C and a polarization treatment by applying a voltage of 500 Vat high temperature. Both the high crystallinity and the presence of brushite-like phase on the electrophotocatalyst affect the nitrogen and carbon fixation under mild reaction conditions (95 degrees C and 6 bar) and the synthesis of glycine and alanine from a simple gas mixture containing N-2, CO2, CH4 and H2O. Thus, the Gly/Ala ratio can be customized by controlling the presence of brushite on the surface of the catalyst, enabling to develop new strategies to regulate the production of amino acids by nitrogen and carbon fixation. (C) 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: Amino acids, Brushite, Carbon, Carbon dioxide fixation, Catalyst activity, Catalytic apatites, Chemical precipitation, Crystalline hydroxyapatite, Crystallinity, Decomposition, Enhanced catalytic activity, Experimental conditions, Heterogeneous catalysis, High crystallinity, Hydrothermal synthesis, Hydrothermal treatments, Hydroxyapatite, Lactic-acid, Mild reaction conditions, Molecular nitrogen fixation, Nitrogen, Nitrogen fixation, Phosphate, Polarization, Precipitation (chemical), Process parameters, Thermally stimulated polarization

Revilla-López, G., Sans, J., Casanovas, J., Bertran, O., Puiggalí, J., Turon, P., Alemán, C., (2020). Analysis of nitrogen fixation by a catalyst capable of transforming N2, CO2 and CH4 into amino acids under mild reactions conditions Applied Catalysis A: General 596, 117526

The processes related to the fixation of nitrogen in a catalyst able to produce glycine and alanine from a N2, CO2 and CH4 gas mixture at mild reaction conditions have been studied by combining experimental and theoretical investigations. Results have allowed to understand the role of different elements of the catalyst, which is constituted by permanently polarized hydroxyapatite (p-HAp), zirconia, and aminotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (ATMP). ATMP attracts N2 molecules towards the surface, maintaining them close to the zirconia and p-HAp components that are the most active from a catalytic point of view. On the other hand, the associative mechanism is thermodynamically favoured under mild reaction conditions with respect to the dissociative one, which is limited by the barrier associated to the Nsingle bondN bond cleavage. Because this reaction mechanism is similar to that employed in the nitrogen fixation by nitrogenase enzymes, these findings provide an opportunity to design new bioinspired catalysts.

JTD Keywords: Artificial photosynthesis, Carbon fixation, Hydroxyapatite, N[sbnd]N bond cleavage

Lopez-Martinez, Montserrat, López-Ortiz, Manuel, Antinori, Maria Elena, Wientjes, Emilie, Nin-Hill, Alba, Rovira, Carme, Croce, Roberta, Díez-Pérez, Ismael, Gorostiza, Pau, (2019). Electrochemically gated long distance charge transport in photosystem I Angewandte Chemie International Edition 58, (38), 13280-13284

The transport of electrons along photosynthetic and respiratory chains involves a series of enzymatic reactions that are coupled through redox mediators, including proteins and small molecules. The use of native and synthetic redox probes is key to understand charge transport mechanisms, and to design bioelectronic sensors and solar energy conversion devices. However, redox probes have limited tunability to exchange charge at the desired electrochemical potentials (energy levels) and at different protein sites. Here, we take advantage of electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ECSTM) to control the Fermi level and nanometric position of the ECSTM probe in order to study electron transport in individual photosystem I (PSI) complexes. Current-distance measurements at different potentiostatic conditions indicate that PSI supports long-distance transport that is electrochemically gated near the redox potential of P700, with current extending farther under hole injection conditions.

JTD Keywords: Current decay, ECSTM, Electrochemical gate, Electron transfer, Photosynthesis

Pollastri, S., Jorba, I., Hawkins, T. J., Llusià , J., Michelozzi, M., Navajas, D., Peñuelas, J., Hussey, P. J., Knight, M. R., Loreto, F., (2019). Leaves of isoprene-emitting tobacco plants maintain PSII stability at high temperatures New Phytologist 223, (3), 1307-1318

At high temperatures, isoprene-emitting plants display a higher photosynthetic rate and a lower nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) compared with nonemitting plants. The mechanism of this phenomenon, which may be very important under current climate warming, is still elusive. NPQ was dissected into its components, and chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) was used to analyse the dynamics of excited chlorophyll relaxation in isoprene-emitting and nonemitting plants. Thylakoid membrane stiffness was also measured using atomic force microscope (AFM) to identify a possible mode of action of isoprene in improving photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic stability. We show that, when compared with nonemitters, isoprene-emitting tobacco plants exposed at high temperatures display a reduced increase of the NPQ energy-dependent component (qE) and stable (1) chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime; (2) amplitude of the fluorescence decay components; and (3) thylakoid membrane stiffness. Our study shows for the first time that isoprene maintains PSII stability at high temperatures by preventing the modifications of the surrounding environment, namely providing a more steady and homogeneous distribution of the light-absorbing centres and a stable thylakoid membrane stiffness. Isoprene photoprotects leaves with a mechanism alternative to NPQ, enabling plants to maintain a high photosynthetic rate at rising temperatures.

JTD Keywords: (High) temperature, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Chlorophyll fluorescence (quenching and lifetime), Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), Isoprene, Nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ), Photosynthesis

De Matteis, Valeria, Rizzello, Loris, Ingrosso, Chiara, Liatsi-Douvitsa, Eva, De Giorgi, Maria Luisa, De Matteis, Giovanni, Rinaldi, Rosaria, (2019). Cultivar-dependent anticancer and antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using leaves of different Olea Europaea trees Nanomaterials 9, (11), 1544

The green synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) is currently under worldwide investigation as an eco-friendly alternative to traditional routes (NPs): the absence of toxic solvents and catalysts make it suitable in the design of promising nanomaterials for nanomedicine applications. In this work, we used the extracts collected from leaves of two cultivars (Leccino and Carolea) belonging to the species Olea Europaea, to synthesize silver NPs (AgNPs) in different pH conditions and low temperature. NPs underwent full morphological characterization with the aim to define a suitable protocol to obtain a monodispersed population of AgNPs. Afterwards, to validate the reproducibility of the mentioned synthetic procedure, we moved on to another Mediterranean plant, the Laurus Nobilis. Interestingly, the NPs obtained using the two olive cultivars produced NPs with different shape and size, strictly depending on the cultivar selected and pH. Furthermore, the potential ability to inhibit the growth of two woman cancer cells (breast adenocarcinoma cells, MCF-7 and human cervical epithelioid carcinoma, HeLa) were assessed for these AgNPs, as well as their capability to mitigate the bacteria concentration in samples of contaminated well water. Our results showed that toxicity was stronger when MCF-7 and Hela cells were exposed to AgNPs derived from Carolea obtained at pH 7 presenting irregular shape; on the other hand, greater antibacterial effect was revealed using AgNPs obtained at pH 8 (smaller and monodispersed) on well water, enriched with bacteria and coliforms.

JTD Keywords: Green synthesis, Silver nanoparticles, Olea Europaea, Leccino, Carolea, Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity, Antibacterial activity

Frau-Méndez, Margalida A., Fernández-Vega, Iván, Ansoleaga, Belén, Blanco, Rosa, Carmona, Margarita, Antonio del Rio, Jose, Zerr, Inga, Llorens, Franc, Zarranz, Juan José, Ferrer, Isidro, (2017). Fatal familial insomnia: Mitochondrial and protein synthesis machinery decline in the mediodorsal thalamus Brain Pathology 27, (1), 95-106

The expression of subunits of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and components of the protein synthesis machinery from the nucleolus to the ribosome was analyzed in the mediodorsal thalamus in seven cases of Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI) compared with age-matched controls. NDUFB8 (complex I subunit), SDHB (complex II subunit), UQCRC2 (complex III subunit), COX2 (complex IV subunit) and ATP50 (complex V subunit) expression levels, as revealed by western blotting, were reduced in FFI. Voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and ATP5H were also reduced due to the marked depopulation of neurons. In contrast, a marked increase in superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) was found in reactive astrocytes thus suggesting that astrocytes are key factors in oxidative stress responses. The histone-binding chaperones nucleolin and nucleoplasmin 3, and histone H3 di-methylated K9 were markedly reduced together with a decrease in the expression of protein transcription elongation factor eEF1A. These findings show severe impairment in the expression of crucial components of mitochondrial function and protein synthesis in parallel with neuron loss in mediodorsal thalamus at terminal stages of FFI. Therapeutic measures must be taken long before the appearance of clinical symptoms to prevent the devastating effects of FFI.

JTD Keywords: Fatal familial insomnia, Mitochondria, Protein synthesis, Mitochondrial respiratory chain, Nucleolus, Ribosome

Garcia-Esparcia, Paula, López-González, Irene, Grau-Rivera, Oriol, García-Garrido, María Francisca, Konetti, Anusha, Llorens, Franc, Zafar, Saima, Carmona, Margarita, del Rio, José Antonio, Zerr, Inga, Gelpi, Ellen, Ferrer, Isidro, (2017). Dementia with Lewy Bodies: Molecular pathology in the frontal cortex in typical and rapidly progressive forms Frontiers in Neurology 8, Article 89

Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess mitochondrial function, energy, and purine metabolism, protein synthesis machinery from the nucleolus to the ribosome, inflammation, and expression of newly identified ectopic olfactory receptors (ORs) and taste receptors (TASRs) in the frontal cortex of typical cases of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and cases with rapid clinical course (rpDLB: 2 years or less) compared with middle-aged non-affected individuals, in order to learn about the biochemical abnormalities underlying Lewy body pathology. Methods: Real-time quantitative PCR, mitochondrial enzymatic assays, and analysis of β-amyloid, tau, and synuclein species were used. Results: The main alterations in DLB and rpDLB, which are more marked in the rapidly progressive forms, include (i) deregulated expression of several mRNAs and proteins of mitochondrial subunits, and reduced activity of complexes I, II, III, and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain; (ii) reduced expression of selected molecules involved in energy metabolism and increased expression of enzymes involved in purine metabolism; (iii) abnormal expression of nucleolar proteins, rRNA18S, genes encoding ribosomal proteins, and initiation factors of the transcription at the ribosome; (iv) discrete inflammation; and (v) marked deregulation of brain ORs and TASRs, respectively. Severe mitochondrial dysfunction involving activity of four complexes, minimal inflammatory responses, and dramatic altered expression of ORs and TASRs discriminate DLB from Alzheimer’s disease. Altered solubility and aggregation of α-synuclein, increased β-amyloid bound to membranes, and absence of soluble tau oligomers are common in DLB and rpDLB. Low levels of soluble β-amyloid are found in DLB. However, increased soluble β-amyloid 1–40 and β-amyloid 1–42, and increased TNFα mRNA and protein expression, distinguish rpDLB. Conclusion: Molecular alterations in frontal cortex in DLB involve key biochemical pathways such as mitochondria and energy metabolism, protein synthesis, purine metabolism, among others and are accompanied by discrete innate inflammatory response.

JTD Keywords: Dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer’s disease, α-synuclein, Mitochondria, Protein synthesis, Inflammation, β-amyloid, Olfactory receptors

Crespo, Anna, Pedraz, Lucas, Astola, Josep, Torrents, Eduard, (2016). Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits deficient biofilm formation in the absence of class II and III ribonucleotide reductases due to hindered anaerobic growth Frontiers in Microbiology 7, Article 688

Chronic lung infections by the ubiquitous and extremely adaptable opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa correlate with the formation of a biofilm, where bacteria grow in association with an extracellular matrix and display a wide range of changes in gene expression and metabolism. This leads to increased resistance to physical stress and antibiotic therapies, while enhancing cell-to-cell communication. Oxygen diffusion through the complex biofilm structure generates an oxygen concentration gradient, leading to the appearance of anaerobic microenvironments. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are a family of highly sophisticated enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the deoxyribonucleotides, and they constitute the only de novo pathway for the formation of the building blocks needed for DNA synthesis and repair. P. aeruginosa is one of the few bacteria encoding all three known RNR classes (Ia, II, and III). Class Ia RNRs are oxygen dependent, class II are oxygen independent, and class III are oxygen sensitive. A tight control of RNR activity is essential for anaerobic growth and therefore for biofilm development. In this work we explored the role of the different RNR classes in biofilm formation under aerobic and anaerobic initial conditions and using static and continuous-flow biofilm models. We demonstrated the importance of class II and III RNR for proper cell division in biofilm development and maturation. We also determined that these classes are transcriptionally induced during biofilm formation and under anaerobic conditions. The molecular mechanism of their anaerobic regulation was also studied, finding that the Anr/Dnr system is responsible for class II RNR induction. These data can be integrated with previous knowledge about biofilms in a model where these structures are understood as a set of layers determined by oxygen concentration and contain cells with different RNR expression profiles, bringing us a step closer to the understanding of this complex growth pattern, essential for P. aeruginosa chronic infections.

JTD Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ribonucleotide Reductases, Vitamin B 12, Anaerobic metabolism, Biofilm formation, DNA Synthesis, Oxygen diffusion, nrd genes.

Ansoleaga, B., Garcia-Esparcia, Paula, Llorens, Franc, Hernández-Ortega, Karina, Carmona Tech, Margarita, Antonio del Rio, José, Zerr, Inga, Ferrer, Isidro, (2016). Altered mitochondria, protein synthesis machinery, and purine metabolism are molecular contributors to the pathogenesis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology , 75, (8), 755-769

Neuron loss, synaptic decline, and spongiform change are the hallmarks of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (sCJD), and may be related to deficiencies in mitochondria, energy metabolism, and protein synthesis. To investigate these relationships, we determined the expression levels of genes encoding subunits of the 5 protein complexes of the electron transport chain, proteins involved in energy metabolism, nucleolar and ribosomal proteins, and enzymes of purine metabolism in frontal cortex samples from 15 cases of sCJD MM1 and age-matched controls. We also assessed the protein expression levels of subunits of the respiratory chain, initiation and elongation translation factors of protein synthesis, and localization of selected mitochondrial components. We identified marked, generalized alterations of mRNA and protein expression of most subunits of all 5 mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in sCJD cases. Expression of molecules involved in protein synthesis and purine metabolism were also altered in sCJD. These findings point to altered mRNA and protein expression of components of mitochondria, protein synthesis machinery, and purine metabolism as components of the pathogenesis of CJD.

JTD Keywords: Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Electron transport chain, Mitochondria, Oxidative phosphorylation, Protein synthesis, Purine.

Torrents, Eduard, (2014). Ribonucleotide reductases: Essential Enzymes for bacterial life Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology , 4, 1-9

Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is a key enzyme that mediates the synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides, the DNA precursors, for DNA synthesis in every living cell. This enzyme converts ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks for DNA replication, and repair. Clearly, RNR enzymes have contributed to the appearance of genetic material that exists today, being essential for the evolution of all organisms on Earth. The strict control of RNR activity and dNTP pool sizes is important, as pool imbalances increase mutation rates, replication anomalies, and genome instability. Thus, RNR activity should be finely regulated allosterically and at the transcriptional level. In this review we examine the distribution, the evolution, and the genetic regulation of bacterial RNRs. Moreover, this enzyme can be considered an ideal target for anti-proliferative compounds designed to inhibit cell replication in eukaryotic cells (cancer cells), parasites, viruses, and bacteria.

JTD Keywords: Anaerobiosis, Transcription Factors, Evolution, Gene regulation, Ribonucleotide reductase, DNA Synthesis, NrdR,nrd

Messeguer, J., Masip, I., Montolio, M., del Rio, J. A., Soriano, E., Messeguer, A., (2010). Peptoids bearing tertiary amino residues in the n-alkyl side chains: synthesis of a potent inhibitor of Semaphorin 3A Tetrahedron , 66, (13), 2444-2454

A study on the preparation of N-alkylglycines (peptoids) that contain tertiary amino residues on the N-alkyl side chains is reported. The appropriate combination of the submonomer strategy with N-alkylglycine monomer couplings depending upon the structure of the N-alkyl side chain that must be incorporated into the peptoid is determinant for the efficiency of the synthetic pathway. The application of this strategy to the preparation of SICHI, an N-alkyglycine trimer containing tertiary amino residues in the three N-alkyl branches, and that has been identified as a potent Semaphorin 3A inhibitor, is presented.

JTD Keywords: Peptoids, N-Alkylglycine monomers, Solid-phase synthesis, Semaphorin inhibition, Axonal regeneration

Banos, R. C., Pons, J. I., Madrid, C., Juarez, A., (2008). A global modulatory role for the Yersinia enterocolitica H-NS protein Microbiology , 154, (5), 1281-1289

The H-NS protein plays a significant role in the modulation of gene expression in Gram-negative bacteria. Whereas isolation and characterization of hns mutants in Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella represented critical steps to gain insight into the modulatory role of H-NS, it has hitherto not been possible to isolate hns mutants in Yersinia. The hns mutation is considered to be deleterious in this genus. To study the modulatory role of H-NS in Yersinia we circumvented hns lethality by expressing in Y. enterocolitica a truncated H-NS protein known to exhibit anti-H-NS activity in E. coli (H-NST(EPEC)). Y. enterocolitica cells expressing H-NST(EPEC) showed an altered growth rate and several differences in the protein expression pattern, including the ProV protein, which is modulated by H-NS in other enteric bacteria. To further confirm that H-NST(EPEC) expression in Yersinia can be used to demonstrate H-NS-dependent regulation in this genus, we used this approach to show that H-NS modulates expression of the YmoA protein.

JTD Keywords: Bacterial Proteins/biosynthesis/genetics/ physiology, DNA-Binding Proteins/biosynthesis/genetics/ physiology, Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial, Genes, Essential, Proteome/analysis, RNA, Bacterial/biosynthesis, RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Sequence Deletion, Yersinia enterocolitica/chemistry/genetics/growth & development/ physiology