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by Keyword: OSA

Sole-Marti, X, Labay, C, Raymond, Y, Franch, J, Benitez, R, Ginebra, MP, Canal, C, (2023). Ceramic-hydrogel composite as carrier for cold-plasma reactive-species: Safety and osteogenic capacity in vivo Plasma Processes And Polymers 20, 2200155

Plasma-treated hydrogels have been put forward as a potential selective osteosarcoma therapy through the release of reactive species to the diseased site. To allow their translation to the clinics, it is crucial to show that the oxidative stress delivered by such hydrogels does not adversely affect healthy tissues. This is evaluated here by investigating the in vivo performance of a robocasted calcium phosphate cement infiltrated by a plasma-treated hydrogel. The plasma-treated composite implanted in a critical size bone defect of healthy rabbits revealed its safety, allowing equivalent bone ingrowth compared to the control scaffolds and to that of direct plasma treatment of the bone defect. This opens the door for using composite biomaterials containing plasma-generated reactive species in bone therapies.

JTD Keywords: Atmospheric plasma, Bone, Bone graft, Ceramic-hydrogel composite, Cold atmospheric plasma, Local therapy, Osteosarcoma, Plasma-treated polymer solutions, Substitutes, Survival


García-Díaz, María, Cendra, Maria del Mar, Alonso-Roman, Raquel, Urdániz, María, Torrents, Eduard, Martínez, Elena, (2022). Mimicking the Intestinal Host–Pathogen Interactions in a 3D In Vitro Model: The Role of the Mucus Layer Pharmaceutics 14, 1552

The intestinal mucus lines the luminal surface of the intestinal epithelium. This mucus is a dynamic semipermeable barrier and one of the first-line defense mechanisms against the outside environment, protecting the body against chemical, mechanical, or biological external insults. At the same time, the intestinal mucus accommodates the resident microbiota, providing nutrients and attachment sites, and therefore playing an essential role in the host–pathogen interactions and gut homeostasis. Underneath this mucus layer, the intestinal epithelium is organized into finger-like protrusions called villi and invaginations called crypts. This characteristic 3D architecture is known to influence the epithelial cell differentiation and function. However, when modelling in vitro the intestinal host–pathogen interactions, these two essential features, the intestinal mucus and the 3D topography are often not represented, thus limiting the relevance of the models. Here we present an in vitro model that mimics the small intestinal mucosa and its interactions with intestinal pathogens in a relevant manner, containing the secreted mucus layer and the epithelial barrier in a 3D villus-like hydrogel scaffold. This 3D architecture significantly enhanced the secretion of mucus. In infection with the pathogenic adherent invasive E. coli strain LF82, characteristic of Crohn’s disease, we observed that this secreted mucus promoted the adhesion of the pathogen and at the same time had a protective effect upon its invasion. This pathogenic strain was able to survive inside the epithelial cells and trigger an inflammatory response that was milder when a thick mucus layer was present. Thus, we demonstrated that our model faithfully mimics the key features of the intestinal mucosa necessary to study the interactions with intestinal pathogens.

JTD Keywords: barrier function, bile-salts, cells, drug-delivery, host-pathogen interaction, hydrogels, ileal mucosa, infection, intestinal models, intestinal mucus, microbiome, patient, responses, 3d in vitro models, Invasive escherichia-coli


Blanco-Cabra, N, Movellan, J, Marradi, M, Gracia, R, Salvador, C, Dupin, D, Loinaz, I, Torrents, E, (2022). Neutralization of ionic interactions by dextran-based single-chain nanoparticles improves tobramycin diffusion into a mature biofilm Npj Biofilms And Microbiomes 8, 52

The extracellular matrix protects biofilm cells by reducing diffusion of antimicrobials. Tobramycin is an antibiotic used extensively to treat P. aeruginosa biofilms, but it is sequestered in the biofilm periphery by the extracellular negative charge matrix and loses its efficacy significantly. Dispersal of the biofilm extracellular matrix with enzymes such as DNase I is another promising therapy that enhances antibiotic diffusion into the biofilm. Here, we combine the charge neutralization of tobramycin provided by dextran-based single-chain polymer nanoparticles (SCPNs) together with DNase I to break the biofilm matrix. Our study demonstrates that the SCPNs improve the activity of tobramycin and DNase I by neutralizing the ionic interactions that keep this antibiotic in the biofilm periphery. Moreover, the detailed effects and interactions of nanoformulations with extracellular matrix components were revealed through time-lapse imaging of the P. aeruginosa biofilms by laser scanning confocal microscopy with specific labeling of the different biofilm components.

JTD Keywords: Cystic-fibrosis sputum, Delivery, Extracellular dna, Infections, Pseudomonas-aeruginosa, Transport


Low, SC, Verschure, PFMJ, Santos-Pata, D, (2022). Saccade rate is associated with recall of items in working memory Learning & Memory 29, 146-154

Working memory has been shown to rely on theta oscillations' phase synchronicity for item encoding and recall. At the same time, saccadic eye movements during visual exploration have been observed to trigger theta-phase resets, raising the question of whether the neuronal substrates of mnemonic processing rely on motor-evoked responses. To quantify the relationship between saccades and working memory load, we recorded eye tracking and behavioral data from human participants simultaneously performing an n-back Sternberg auditory task and a hue-based catch detection task. In addition to task-specific interference in performance, we also found that saccade rate was modulated by working memory load in the Sternberg task's preresponse stage. Our results support the possibility of interplay between saccades and hippocampal theta during working memory retrieval of items.

JTD Keywords: Eeg, Microsaccades, Normality, Parietal cortex, Persistent activity, Prefrontal cortex


Iglesias-Fernandez, M, Buxadera-Palomero, J, Sadowska, JM, Espanol, M, Ginebra, MP, (2022). Implementation of bactericidal topographies on biomimetic calcium phosphates and the potential effect of its reactivity Biomaterials Advances 136, 212797

Since the discovery that nanostructured surfaces were able to kill bacteria, many works have been published focusing on the design of nanopatterned surfaces with antimicrobial properties. Synthetic bone grafts, based on calcium phosphate (CaP) formulations, can greatly benefit from this discovery if adequate nanotopographies can be developed. However, CaP are reactive materials and experience ionic exchanges when placed into aqueous solutions which may in turn affect cell behaviour and complicate the interpretation of the bactericidal results. The present study explores the bactericidal potential of two nanopillared CaP prepared by hydrolysis of two different sizes of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) powders under biomimetic or hydrothermal conditions. A more lethal bactericidal response toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa (similar to 75% killing efficiency of adhered bacteria) was obtained from the hydrothermally treated CaP which consisted in a more irregular topography in terms of pillar size (radius: 20-60 nm), interpillar distances (100-1500 nm) and pillar distribution (pillar groups forming bouquets) than the biomimetically treated one (radius: 20-40 nm and interpillar distances: 50-200 nm with a homogeneous pillar distribution). The material reactivity was greatly influenced by the type of medium (nutrient-rich versus nutrient-free) and the presence or not of bacteria. A lower reactivity and superior bacterial attachment were observed in the nutrient-free medium while a lower attachment was observed for the nutrient rich medium which was explained by a superior reactivity of the material paired with the lower tendency of planktonic bacteria to adhere on surfaces in the presence of nutrients. Importantly, the ionic exchanges produced by the presence of materials were not toxic to planktonic cells. Thus, we can conclude that topography was the main contributor to mortality in the bacterial adhesion tests.

JTD Keywords: Adhesion, Antibacterial, Bactericidal, Biomaterials, Calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, Calcium phosphates, Hydroxyapatite, In-vitro, Infections, Nanopillars, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas-aeruginosa, Reactivity, Recent progress, Silver, Topography, Transmission


Marte L, Boronat S, Barrios R, Barcons-Simon A, Bolognesi B, Cabrera M, Ayté J, Hidalgo E, (2022). Expression of Huntingtin and TDP-43 Derivatives in Fission Yeast Can Cause Both Beneficial and Toxic Effects International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 3950

Many neurodegenerative disorders display protein aggregation as a hallmark, Huntingtin and TDP-43 aggregates being characteristic of Huntington disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, respectively. However, whether these aggregates cause the diseases, are secondary by-products, or even have protective effects, is a matter of debate. Mutations in both human proteins can modulate the structure, number and type of aggregates, as well as their toxicity. To study the role of protein aggregates in cellular fitness, we have expressed in a highly tractable unicellular model different variants of Huntingtin and TDP-43. They each display specific patterns of aggregation and toxicity, even though in both cases proteins have to be very highly expressed to affect cell fitness. The aggregation properties of Huntingtin, but not of TDP-43, are affected by chaperones such as Hsp104 and the Hsp40 couple Mas5, suggesting that the TDP-43, but not Huntingtin, derivatives have intrinsic aggregation propensity. Importantly, expression of the aggregating form of Huntingtin causes a significant extension of fission yeast lifespan, probably as a consequence of kidnapping chaperones required for maintaining stress responses off. Our study demonstrates that in general these prion-like proteins do not cause toxicity under normal conditions, and in fact they can protect cells through indirect mechanisms which up-regulate cellular defense pathways. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: aggregation, antioxidant, degradation, features, fission yeast, gene, neurodegenerative diseases, pap1, polyglutamine toxicity, protein aggregation, proteins, stress, tdp-43, Amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis, Chaperone, Chemistry, Dna binding protein, Dna-binding proteins, Fission yeast, Genetics, Human, Humans, Huntingtin, Metabolism, Molecular chaperones, Neurodegenerative diseases, Prion, Prions, Protein aggregate, Protein aggregates, Protein aggregation, Schizosaccharomyces, Tdp-43


Soriente, A, Amodio, SP, Fasolino, I, Raucci, MG, Demitri, C, Engel, E, Ambrosio, L, (2022). ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, PRO-ANGIOGENIC AND OSTEOGENIC PROPERTIES OF CS SCAFFOLD FOR BONE FRACTURE TREATMENT (Abstract 899) Tissue Engineering Part a 28, S253

Several studies are aimed at developing systems based on naturaland biocompatible polymers for bone tissue engineering. Here, weemphasized how the bio-activation of chitosan (CS)-based scaffoldsby organic and inorganic signals is able to promote osteogenesis,angiogenesis and to modulate the inflammation response by usingin vitro models to mimic bone fracture microenvironment. CSscaffolds by using two different approaches based on inorganic andorganic compounds, were bio-activated respectively1. The expres-sion of inflammatory mediators was investigated (TGF-band IL-6).Additionally, to assess the effect of CS scaffold on angiogenesis,CD31 expression, cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and tubeformation by HUVECs were detected. The results highlighted thatinorganic and organic signals promote cell proliferation and differ-entiation without significant differences between the material groups.In particular, scaffolds bio-activated by using inorganic signals(hydroxyapatite nanoparticles) inhibit pro-inflammatory mediator’sproduction (IL-1band IL-6), induce anti-inflammatory cytokinegeneration (IL-10) and reduce nitric monoxide metabolites (nitrites).Conversely, scaffolds bio-activated by using organic signals (BMP-2mimicking peptide) were able to decrease pro-inflammatory markerswithout any effect on anti-inflammatory cytokines levels and on ni-trites. Furthermore, scaffolds promote angiogenesis by increasingcell proliferation, migration and tube formation with best resultsobtained for BMP based-scaffolds. Our results support the conceptthat CS biomaterials may be novel multi-target devices to treat bonerelated inflammation stimulating neo-vascularization of tissue-en-gineered constructs.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The study was supported by OPENLAB. The authors thank Mariarosaria Bonetti for lab technicalsupport & data elaboration and Dr. Roberta Marzella for support toproject management.

JTD Keywords: Angiogenesis, Chitosan/pegda based scaffolds, Osteogenesis


Oliveira LFD, Mallafré-Muro C, Giner J, Perea L, Sibila O, Pardo A, Marco S, (2022). Breath analysis using electronic nose and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: A pilot study on bronchial infections in bronchiectasis Clinica Chimica Acta 526, 6-13

Background and aims: In this work, breath samples from clinically stable bronchiectasis patients with and without bronchial infections by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa- PA) were collected and chemically analysed to determine if they have clinical value in the monitoring of these patients. Materials and methods: A cohort was recruited inviting bronchiectasis patients (25) and controls (9). Among the former group, 12 members were suffering PA infection. Breath samples were collected in Tedlar bags and analyzed by e-nose and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The obtained data were analyzed by chemometric methods to determine their discriminant power in regards to their health condition. Results were evaluated with blind samples. Results: Breath analysis by electronic nose successfully separated the three groups with an overall classification rate of 84% for the three-class classification problem. The best discrimination was obtained between control and bronchiectasis with PA infection samples 100% (CI95%: 84–100%) on external validation and the results were confirmed by permutation tests. The discrimination analysis by GC-MS provided good results but did not reach proper statistical significance after a permutation test. Conclusions: Breath sample analysis by electronic nose followed by proper predictive models successfully differentiated between control, Bronchiectasis and Bronchiectasis PA samples. © 2021 The Author(s)

JTD Keywords: biomarkers, breath analysis, bronchiectasis, diagnosis, e-nose, fingerprints, gc-ms, identification, lung-cancer, partial least-squares, pseudomonas-aeruginosa, signal processing, validation, volatile organic-compounds, Airway bacterial-colonization, Breath analysis, Bronchiectasis, E-nose, Gc-ms, Signal processing


Pellegrini P, Hervera A, Varea O, Brewer MK, López-Soldado I, Guitart A, Aguilera M, Prats N, del Río JA, Guinovart JJ, Duran J, (2022). Lack of p62 Impairs Glycogen Aggregation and Exacerbates Pathology in a Mouse Model of Myoclonic Epilepsy of Lafora Molecular Neurobiology 59, 1214-1229

Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal childhood-onset dementia characterized by the extensive accumulation of glycogen aggregates—the so-called Lafora Bodies (LBs)—in several organs. The accumulation of LBs in the brain underlies the neurological phenotype of the disease. LBs are composed of abnormal glycogen and various associated proteins, including p62, an autophagy adaptor that participates in the aggregation and clearance of misfolded proteins. To study the role of p62 in the formation of LBs and its participation in the pathology of LD, we generated a mouse model of the disease (malinKO) lacking p62. Deletion of p62 prevented LB accumulation in skeletal muscle and cardiac tissue. In the brain, the absence of p62 altered LB morphology and increased susceptibility to epilepsy. These results demonstrate that p62 participates in the formation of LBs and suggest that the sequestration of abnormal glycogen into LBs is a protective mechanism through which it reduces the deleterious consequences of its accumulation in the brain. © 2021, The Author(s).

JTD Keywords: accumulation, astrocytes, autophagy receptors, contributes, deficient mice, epilepsy, glycogen, lafora bodies, lafora disease, malin, metabolism, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, p62, polyglucosan bodies, temporal-lobe epilepsy, Epilepsy, Glycogen, Inclusion-body formation, Lafora bodies, Lafora disease, Malin, Neuroinflammation, P62


Vila, JC, Castro-Aguirre, N, Lopez-Munoz, GA, Ferret-Minana, A, De Chiara, F, Ramon-Azcon, J, (2021). Disposable Polymeric Nanostructured Plasmonic Biosensors for Cell Culture Adhesion Monitoring Frontiers In Bioengineering And Biotechnology 9,

Over the last years, optical biosensors based on plasmonic nanomaterials have gained great scientific interest due to their unquestionable advantages compared to other biosensing technologies. They can achieve sensitive, direct, and label-free analysis with exceptional potential for multiplexing and miniaturization. Recently, it has been demonstrated the potential of using optical discs as high throughput nanotemplates for the development of plasmonic biosensors in a cost-effective way. This work is a pilot study focused on the development of an integrated plasmonic biosensor for the monitoring of cell adhesion and growth of human retinal pigmented cell line (ARPE-19) under different media conditions (0 and 2% of FBS). We observed an increase of the plasmonic band displacement under 2% FBS compared to 0% conditions over time (1, 3, and 5 h). These preliminary results show that the proposed plasmonic biosensing approach is a direct, non-destructive, and real-time tool that could be employed in the study of living cells behavior and culture conditions. Furthermore, this setup could assess the viability of the cells and their growth over time with low variability between the technical replicates improving the experimental replicability.

JTD Keywords: cell confluency, cell culture, nanocrystals, optical biosensor, Adhesion monitoring, Biosensing, Biosensors, Cell adhesion, Cell confluency, Cell culture, Cells, Condition, Cost effectiveness, Disposables, Nano-structured, Nanocrystals, Optical bio-sensors, Optical biosensor, Plasmonic biosensors, Plasmonic nanostructures, Plasmonics, Polylysine


Rial-Hermida MI, Rey-Rico A, Blanco-Fernandez B, Carballo-Pedrares N, Byrne EM, Mano JF, (2021). Recent Progress on Polysaccharide-Based Hydrogels for Controlled Delivery of Therapeutic Biomolecules Acs Biomaterials Science & Engineering 7, 4102-4127

A plethora of applications using polysaccharides have been developed in recent years due to their availability as well as their frequent nontoxicity and biodegradability. These polymers are usually obtained from renewable sources or are byproducts of industrial processes, thus, their use is collaborative in waste management and shows promise for an enhanced sustainable circular economy. Regarding the development of novel delivery systems for biotherapeutics, the potential of polysaccharides is attractive for the previously mentioned properties and also for the possibility of chemical modification of their structures, their ability to form matrixes of diverse architectures and mechanical properties, as well as for their ability to maintain bioactivity following incorporation of the biomolecules into the matrix. Biotherapeutics, such as proteins, growth factors, gene vectors, enzymes, hormones, DNA/RNA, and antibodies are currently in use as major therapeutics in a wide range of pathologies. In the present review, we summarize recent progress in the development of polysaccharide-based hydrogels of diverse nature, alone or in combination with other polymers or drug delivery systems, which have been implemented in the delivery of biotherapeutics in the pharmaceutical and biomedical fields. © 2021 American Chemical Society.

JTD Keywords: biodegradable dextran hydrogels, biotherapeutics, bone morphogenetic protein-2, carrageenan-based hydrogels, chitosan-based hydrogels, controlled delivery, controlled-release, cross-linked hydrogels, growth-factor delivery, hydrogels, in-vitro characterization, polysaccharides, self-healing hydrogel, stimuli-responsiveness, tissue engineering, Antibodies, Bioactivity, Biodegradability, Biomedical fields, Biomolecules, Biotherapeutics, Chemical modification, Circular economy, Controlled delivery, Controlled drug delivery, Delivery systems, Drug delivery system, Functional polymers, Hyaluronic-acid hydrogels, Hydrogels, Industrial processs, Polysaccharides, Recent progress, Renewable sources, Stimuli-responsiveness, Targeted drug delivery, Tissue engineering, Waste management


Calò A, Eleta-Lopez A, Ondarçuhu T, Verdaguer A, Bittner AM, (2021). Nanoscale wetting of single viruses Molecules 26,

The epidemic spread of many viral infections is mediated by the environmental conditions and influenced by the ambient humidity. Single virus particles have been mainly visualized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid conditions, where the effect of the relative humidity on virus topography and surface cannot be systematically assessed. In this work, we employed multi-frequency AFM, simultaneously with standard topography imaging, to study the nanoscale wetting of individual Tobacco Mosaic virions (TMV) from ambient relative humidity to water condensation (RH > 100%). We recorded amplitude and phase vs. distance curves (APD curves) on top of single virions at various RH and converted them into force vs. distance curves. The high sensitivity of multifrequency AFM to visualize condensed water and sub-micrometer droplets, filling gaps between individual TMV particles at RH > 100%, is demonstrated. Dynamic force spectroscopy allows detecting a thin water layer of thickness ⁓1 nm, adsorbed on the outer surface of single TMV particles at RH < 60%.

JTD Keywords: amplitude-modulation am-afm, atomic-force microscopy, capillary, force reconstruction, multifrequency afm, nanoscale wetting, persistence, reconstruction, relative-humidity, surfaces, tobacco mosaic virus (tmv), tobamovirus, transmission, water, Amplitude-modulation am-afm, Force reconstruction, Multifrequency afm, Nanoscale wetting, Tobacco mosaic virus (tmv), Tobacco mosaic virus (tmv), nanoscale wetting, Tobacco-mosaic-virus


Hamouda I, Labay C, Cvelbar U, Ginebra MP, Canal C, (2021). Selectivity of direct plasma treatment and plasma-conditioned media in bone cancer cell lines Scientific Reports 11,

Atmospheric pressure plasma jets have been shown to impact several cancer cell lines, both in vitro and in vivo. These effects are based on the biochemistry of the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated by plasmas in physiological liquids, referred to as plasma-conditioned liquids. Plasma-conditioned media are efficient in the generation of reactive species, inducing selective cancer cell death. However, the concentration of reactive species generated by plasma in the cell culture media of different cell types can be highly variable, complicating the ability to draw precise conclusions due to the differential sensitivity of different cells to reactive species. Here, we compared the effects of direct and indirect plasma treatment on non-malignant bone cells (hOBs and hMSCs) and bone cancer cells (SaOs-2s and MG63s) by treating the cells directly or exposing them to previously treated cell culture medium. Biological effects were correlated with the concentrations of reactive species generated in the liquid. A linear increase in reactive species in the cell culture medium was observed with increased plasma treatment time independent of the volume treated. Values up to 700 µM for H2O2 and 140 µM of NO2− were attained in 2 mL after 15 min of plasma treatment in AdvDMEM cell culture media. Selectivity towards bone cancer cells was observed after both direct and indirect plasma treatments, leading to a decrease in bone cancer cell viability at 72 h to 30% for the longest plasma treatment times while maintaining the survival of non-malignant cells. Therefore, plasma-conditioned media may represent the basis for a potentially novel non-invasive technique for bone cancer therapy.

JTD Keywords: expression, in-vitro, jet, mechanisms, nitrate, nitrite, osteosarcoma cells, reactive oxygen, Cold atmospheric plasma


Cendra MdM, Torrents E, (2021). Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and their partners in crime Biotechnology Advances 49,

Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and the capacity of the bacterium to coexist and interact with a broad range of microorganisms have a substantial clinical impact. This review focuses on the main traits of P. aeruginosa biofilms, such as the structural composition and regulatory networks involved, placing particular emphasis on the clinical challenges they represent in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility and biofilm infection clearance. Furthermore, the ability of P. aeruginosa to grow together with other microorganisms is a significant pathogenic attribute with clinical relevance; hence, the main microbial interactions of Pseudomonas are especially highlighted and detailed throughout this review. This article also explores the infections caused by single and polymicrobial biofilms of P. aeruginosa and the current models used to recreate them under laboratory conditions. Finally, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm strategies developed against P. aeruginosa mono and multispecies biofilms are detailed at the end of this review.

JTD Keywords: aeruginosa models, antibiotic-resistance, antimicrobials, bacterial biofilms, biofilms, c-di-gmp, chronic infections, enterococcus-faecalis, extracellular dna, in-vitro, lectin pa-iil, p, p. aeruginosa models, polymicrobial, polymicrobial interactions, staphylococcus-aureus, Antimicrobials, Biofilms, Chronic infections, P. aeruginosa models, Polymicrobial, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Urinary-tract-infection


Apriceno A, Silvestro I, Girelli A, Francolini I, Pietrelli L, Piozzi A, (2021). Preparation and characterization of chitosan-coated manganese-ferrite nanoparticles conjugated with laccase for environmental bioremediation Polymers 13, 1453

Bioremediation with immobilized enzymes has several advantages, such as the enhancement of selectivity, activity, and stability of biocatalysts, as well as enzyme reusability. Laccase has proven to be a good candidate for the removal of a wide range of contaminants. In this study, naked or modified MnFe O magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used as supports for the immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor. To increase enzyme loading and stability, MNPs were coated with chitosan both after the MNP synthesis (MNPs-CS) and during their formation (MNPs-CS ). SEM analysis showed different sizes for the two coated systems, 20 nm and 10 nm for MNPs-CS and MNPs-CS , respectively. After covalent immobilization of laccase by glutaraldehyde, the MNPs-CS -lac and MNPs-CS-lac systems showed a good resistance to temperature denaturation and storage stability. The most promising system for use in repeated batches was MNPs-CS -lac, which degraded about 80% of diclofenac compared to 70% of the free enzyme. The obtained results demonstrated that the MnFe O -CS system could be an excellent candidate for the removal of contaminants. 2 4 in situ in situ in situ in situ 2 4 in situ

JTD Keywords: bioremediation, chitosan, diclofenac, diclofenac removal, immobilized enzyme, laccase, magnetic nanoparticles, phase, removal, supports, Bioremediation, Chitosan, Diclofenac removal, Enzyme immobilization, Immobilized enzyme, Laccase, Magnetic nanoparticles


Seras-Franzoso J, Díaz-Riascos ZV, Corchero JL, González P, García-Aranda N, Mandaña M, Riera R, Boullosa A, Mancilla S, Grayston A, Moltó-Abad M, Garcia-Fruitós E, Mendoza R, Pintos-Morell G, Albertazzi L, Rosell A, Casas J, Villaverde A, Schwartz S, Abasolo I, (2021). Extracellular vesicles from recombinant cell factories improve the activity and efficacy of enzymes defective in lysosomal storage disorders Journal Of Extracellular Vesicles 10,

In the present study the use of extracellular vesicles (EVs) as vehicles for therapeutic enzymes in lysosomal storage disorders was explored. EVs were isolated from mammalian cells overexpressing alpha-galactosidase A (GLA) or N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase (SGSH) enzymes, defective in Fabry and Sanfilippo A diseases, respectively. Direct purification of EVs from cell supernatants was found to be a simple and efficient method to obtain highly active GLA and SGSH proteins, even after EV lyophilization. Likewise, EVs carrying GLA (EV-GLA) were rapidly uptaken and reached the lysosomes in cellular models of Fabry disease, restoring lysosomal functionality much more efficiently than the recombinant enzyme in clinical use. In vivo, EVs were well tolerated and distributed among all main organs, including the brain. DiR-labelled EVs were localized in brain parenchyma 1 h after intra-arterial (internal carotid artery) or intravenous (tail vein) administrations. Moreover, a single intravenous administration of EV-GLA was able to reduce globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) substrate levels in clinically relevant tissues, such kidneys and brain. Overall, our results demonstrate that EVs from cells overexpressing lysosomal enzymes act as natural protein delivery systems, improving the activity and the efficacy of the recombinant proteins and facilitating their access to organs neglected by conventional enzyme replacement therapies.

JTD Keywords: alpha?galactosidase a, drug delivery, enzyme replacement therapy, fabry disease, lysosomal storage disorders, n-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase, n?sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase, sanfilippo syndrome, Alpha-galactosidase a, Drug delivery, Enzyme replacement therapy, Fabry disease, Lysosomal storage disorders, N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase, Sanfilippo syndrome


Tornín J, Villasante A, Solé-Martí X, Ginebra MP, Canal C, (2021). Osteosarcoma tissue-engineered model challenges oxidative stress therapy revealing promoted cancer stem cell properties Free Radical Biology And Medicine 164, 107-118

© 2020 The Author(s) The use of oxidative stress generated by Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) in oncology is being recently studied as a novel potential anti-cancer therapy. However, the beneficial effects of CAP for treating osteosarcoma have mostly been demonstrated in 2-dimensional cultures of cells, which do not mimic the complexity of the 3-dimensional (3D) bone microenvironment. In order to evaluate the effects of CAP in a relevant context of the human disease, we developed a 3D tissue-engineered model of osteosarcoma using a bone-like scaffold made of collagen type I and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Human osteosarcoma cells cultured within the scaffold showed a high capacity to infiltrate and proliferate and to exhibit osteomimicry in vitro. As expected, we observed significantly different functional behaviors between monolayer and 3D cultures when treated with Cold Plasma-Activated Ringer's Solution (PAR). Our data reveal that the 3D environment not only protects cells from PAR-induced lethality by scavenging and diminishing the amount of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated by CAP, but also favours the stemness phenotype of osteosarcoma cells. This is the first study that demonstrates the negative effect of PAR on cancer stem-like cell subpopulations in a 3D biomimetic model of cancer. These findings will allow to suitably re-focus research on plasma-based therapies in future.

JTD Keywords: 3d tumor model, cancer stem-like cells, cold atmospheric plasma, osteosarcoma, oxidative stress, plasma activated liquids, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, 3d tumor model, Cancer stem-like cells, Cold atmospheric plasma, Osteosarcoma, Oxidative stress, Plasma activated liquids, Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species


Mateu-Sanz, M, Tornin, J, Ginebra, MP, Canal, C, (2021). Cold Atmospheric Plasma: A New Strategy Based Primarily on Oxidative Stress for Osteosarcoma Therapy Journal Of Clinical Medicine 10,

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor, and its first line of treatment presents a high failure rate. The 5-year survival for children and teenagers with osteosarcoma is 70% (if diagnosed before it has metastasized) or 20% (if spread at the time of diagnosis), stressing the need for novel therapies. Recently, cold atmospheric plasmas (ionized gases consisting of UV-Vis radiation, electromagnetic fields and a great variety of reactive species) and plasma-treated liquids have been shown to have the potential to selectively eliminate cancer cells in different tumors through an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. In this work, we review the current state of the art in cold plasma therapy for osteosarcoma. Specifically, we emphasize the mechanisms unveiled thus far regarding the action of plasmas on osteosarcoma. Finally, we review current and potential future approaches, emphasizing the most critical challenges for the development of osteosarcoma therapies based on this emerging technique.

JTD Keywords: cancer stem cells, cold atmospheric plasma, osteosarcoma, oxidative stress, plasma treated liquids, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, Antineoplastic activity, Antineoplastic agent, Cancer chemotherapy, Cancer stem cell, Cancer stem cells, Cancer surgery, Cancer survival, Cell therapy, Cold atmospheric plasma, Cold atmospheric plasma therapy, Electromagnetism, Human, In vitro study, Intracellular signaling, Oncogene, Osteosarcoma, Oxidative stress, Plasma treated liquids, Reactive nitrogen species, Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, Reactive oxygen metabolite, Review, Tumor microenvironment


Soriente A, Amodio SP, Fasolino I, Raucci MG, Demitri C, Engel E, Ambrosio L, (2021). Chitosan/PEGDA based scaffolds as bioinspired materials to control in vitro angiogenesis Materials Science & Engineering C-Materials For Biological Applications 118,

© 2020 Elsevier B.V. In the current work, our purpose was based on the assessment of bioactive chitosan (CS)/Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) based scaffolds ability to stimulate in vitro angiogenesis process. The bioactivation of the scaffolds was accomplished by using organic (BMP-2 peptide) and inorganic (hydroxyapatite nanoparticles) cues. In particular, the properties of the materials in terms of biological response promotion on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were studied by using in vitro angiogenesis tests based on cell growth and proliferation. Furthermore, our interest was to examine the scaffolds capability to modulate two important steps involved in angiogenesis process: migration and tube formation of cells. Our data underlined that bioactive signals on CS/PEGDA scaffolds surface induce a desirable effect on angiogenic response concerning angiogenic marker expression (CD-31) and endothelial tissue formation (tube formation). Taken together, the results emphasized the concept that bioactive CS/PEGDA scaffolds may be novel implants for stimulating neovascularization of tissue-engineered constructs in regenerative medicine field.

JTD Keywords: angiogenesis, bmp-2 peptide, chitosan/pegda based scaffolds, human umbilical vein endothelial cells huvecs, Angiogenesis, Bmp-2 peptide, Chitosan/pegda based scaffolds, Human umbilical vein endothelial cells huvecs, Osteogenesis


Mateu-Sanz, M., Tornín, J., Brulin, B., Khlyustova, A., Ginebra, M. P., Layrolle, P., Canal, C., (2020). Cold plasma-treated ringer's saline: A weapon to target osteosarcoma Cancers 12, (1), 227

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the main primary bone cancer, presenting poor prognosis and difficult treatment. An innovative therapy may be found in cold plasmas, which show anti-cancer effects related to the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in liquids. In vitro models are based on the effects of plasma-treated culture media on cell cultures. However, effects of plasma-activated saline solutions with clinical application have not yet been explored in OS. The aim of this study is to obtain mechanistic insights on the action of plasma-activated Ringer’s saline (PAR) for OS therapy in cell and organotypic cultures. To that aim, cold atmospheric plasma jets were used to obtain PAR, which produced cytotoxic effects in human OS cells (SaOS-2, MG-63, and U2-OS), related to the increasing concentration of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated. Proof of selectivity was found in the sustained viability of hBM-MSCs with the same treatments. Organotypic cultures of murine OS confirmed the time-dependent cytotoxicity observed in 2D. Histological analysis showed a decrease in proliferating cells (lower Ki-67 expression). It is shown that the selectivity of PAR is highly dependent on the concentrations of reactive species, being the differential intracellular reactive oxygen species increase and DNA damage between OS cells and hBM-MSCs key mediators for cell apoptosis.

JTD Keywords: Bone cancer, Cold atmospheric plasma, Organotypic model, Osteosarcoma, Plasma-activated liquid, Reactive species, Ringer's saline


Del Mar Cendra, Maria, Torrents, Eduard, (2020). Differential adaptability between reference strains and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa into the lung epithelium intracellular lifestyle Virulence 11, (1), 862-876

Intracellular invasion is an advantageous mechanism used by pathogens to evade host defense and antimicrobial therapy. In patients, the intracellular microbial lifestyle can lead to infection persistence and recurrence, thus worsening outcomes. Lung infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, especially in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, are often aggravated by intracellular invasion and persistence of the pathogen. Proliferation of the infectious species relies on a continuous deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) supply, for which the ribonucleotide reductase enzyme (RNR) is the unique provider. The large genome plasticity of P. aeruginosa and its ability to rapidly adapt to different environments are challenges for studying the pathophysiology associated with this type of infection. Using different reference strains and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa independently combined with alveolar (A549) and bronchial (16HBE14o- and CF-CFBE41o-) epithelial cells, we analyzed host–pathogen interactions and intracellular bacterial persistence with the aim of determining a cell type-directed infection promoted by the P. aeruginosa strains. The oscillations in cellular toxicity and oxygen consumption promoted by the intracellular persistence of the strains were also analyzed among the different infectious lung models. Significantly, we identified class II RNR as the enzyme that supplies dNTPs to intracellular P. aeruginosa. This discovery could contribute to the development of RNR-targeted strategies against the chronicity occurring in this type of lung infection. Overall our study demonstrates that the choice of bacterial strain is critical to properly study the type of infectious process with relevant translational outcomes.

JTD Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Intracellular persistence, Lung, Epithelial cells, Clinical isolates, Host-pathogen interactions, Intracellular lifestyle, Chronic infections, Cystic fibrosis, Ribonucleotide reductase


Labay, C., Roldán, M., Tampieri, F., Stancampiano, A., Bocanegra, P. E., Ginebra, M. P., Canal, C., (2020). Enhanced generation of reactive species by cold plasma in gelatin solutions for selective cancer cell death ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 12, (42), 47256-47269

Atmospheric pressure plasma jets generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in liquids and biological media, which find application in the new area of plasma medicine. These plasma-treated liquids were demonstrated recently to possess selective properties on killing cancer cells and attracted attention toward new plasma-based cancer therapies. These allow for local delivery by injection in the tumor but can be quickly washed away by body fluids. By confining these RONS in a suitable biocompatible delivery system, great perspectives can be opened in the design of novel biomaterials aimed for cancer therapies. Gelatin solutions are evaluated here to store RONS generated by atmospheric pressure plasma jets, and their release properties are evaluated. The concentration of RONS was studied in 2% gelatin as a function of different plasma parameters (treatment time, nozzle distance, and gas flow) with two different plasma jets. Much higher production of reactive species (H2O2 and NO2-) was revealed in the polymer solution than in water after plasma treatment. The amount of RONS generated in gelatin is greatly improved with respect to water, with concentrations of H2O2 and NO2- between 2 and 12 times higher for the longest plasma treatments. Plasma-treated gelatin exhibited the release of these RONS to a liquid media, which induced an effective killing of bone cancer cells. Indeed, in vitro studies on the sarcoma osteogenic (SaOS-2) cell line exposed to plasma-treated gelatin led to time-dependent increasing cytotoxicity with the longer plasma treatment time of gelatin. While the SaOS-2 cell viability decreased to 12%-23% after 72 h for cells exposed to 3 min of treated gelatin, the viability of healthy cells (hMSC) was preserved (?90%), establishing the selectivity of the plasma-treated gelatin on cancer cells. This sets the basis for designing improved hydrogels with high capacity to deliver RONS locally to tumors.

JTD Keywords: Cold atmospheric plasma, Hydrogel, Osteosarcoma, Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species


Moya-Andérico, Laura, Admella, Joana, Fernandes, Rodrigo, Torrents, Eduard, (2020). Monitoring Gene Expression during a Galleria mellonella Bacterial Infection Microorganisms 8, (11), 1798

Galleria mellonella larvae are an alternative in vivo model that has been extensively used to study the virulence and pathogenicity of different bacteria due to its practicality and lack of ethical constraints. However, the larvae possess intrinsic autofluorescence that obstructs the use of fluorescent proteins to study bacterial infections, hence better methodologies are needed. Here, we report the construction of a promoter probe vector with bioluminescence expression as well as the optimization of a total bacterial RNA extraction protocol to enhance the monitoring of in vivo infections. By employing the vector to construct different gene promoter fusions, variable gene expression levels were efficiently measured in G. mellonella larvae at various time points during the course of infection and without much manipulation of the larvae. Additionally, our optimized RNA extraction protocol facilitates the study of transcriptional gene levels during an in vivo infection. The proposed methodologies will greatly benefit bacterial infection studies as they can contribute to a better understanding of the in vivo infection processes and pathogen–mammalian host interactions.

JTD Keywords: Galleria mellonella, P. aeruginosa, Hemolymph, Hemocytes, Bioluminescence, Promoter probe vector, Optimized RNA extraction, Ribonucleotide reductases


Crespo, Anna, Blanco-Cabra, N., Torrents, Eduard, (2018). Aerobic vitamin B12 biosynthesis is essential for pseudomonas aeruginosa class II ribonucleotide reductase activity during planktonic and biofilm growth Frontiers in Microbiology 9, (986), Article 986

P. aeruginosa is a major pathogenic bacterium in chronic infections and is a model organism for studying biofilms. P. aeruginosa is considered an aerobic bacterium, but in the presence of nitrate, it also grows in anaerobic conditions. Oxygen diffusion through the biofilm generates metabolic and genetic diversity in P. aeruginosa growth, such as in ribonucleotide reductase activity. These essential enzymes are necessary for DNA synthesis and repair. Oxygen availability determines the activity of the three-ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) classes. Class II and III RNRs are active in the absence of oxygen; however, class II RNRs, which are important in P. aeruginosa biofilm growth, require a vitamin B12 cofactor for their enzymatic activity. In this work, we elucidated the conditions in which class II RNRs are active due to vitamin B12 concentration constraints (biosynthesis or environmental availability). We demonstrated that increased vitamin B12 levels during aerobic, stationary and biofilm growth activate class II RNR activity. We also established that the cobN gene is essentially responsible for B12 biosynthesis under planktonic and biofilm growth. Our results unravel the mechanisms of dNTP synthesis by P. aeruginosa during biofilm growth, which appear to depend on the bacterial strain (laboratory-type or clinical isolate).

JTD Keywords: Vitamin B12, Adenosylcobalamin, Ribonucleotide Reductases, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, NrdJ, Bacterial growth, Biofilm,Anaerobiosis


Marques, J., Valle-Delgado, J. J., Urbán, P., Baró, E., Prohens, R., Mayor, A., Cisteró, P., Delves, M., Sinden, R. E., Grandfils, C., de Paz, J. L., García-Salcedo, J. A., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., (2017). Adaptation of targeted nanocarriers to changing requirements in antimalarial drug delivery Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 13, (2), 515-525

The adaptation of existing antimalarial nanocarriers to new Plasmodium stages, drugs, targeting molecules, or encapsulating structures is a strategy that can provide new nanotechnology-based, cost-efficient therapies against malaria. We have explored the modification of different liposome prototypes that had been developed in our group for the targeted delivery of antimalarial drugs to Plasmodium-infected red blood cells (pRBCs). These new models include: (i) immunoliposome-mediated release of new lipid-based antimalarials; (ii) liposomes targeted to pRBCs with covalently linked heparin to reduce anticoagulation risks; (iii) adaptation of heparin to pRBC targeting of chitosan nanoparticles; (iv) use of heparin for the targeting of Plasmodium stages in the mosquito vector; and (v) use of the non-anticoagulant glycosaminoglycan chondroitin 4-sulfate as a heparin surrogate for pRBC targeting. The results presented indicate that the tuning of existing nanovessels to new malaria-related targets is a valid low-cost alternative to the de novo development of targeted nanosystems.

JTD Keywords: Glycosaminoglycans, Malaria, Nanomedicine, Plasmodium, Targeted drug delivery


Canal, C., Fontelo, R., Hamouda, I., Guillem-Marti, J., Cvelbar, U., Ginebra, M. P., (2017). Plasma-induced selectivity in bone cancer cells death Free Radical Biology and Medicine , 110, 72-80

Background: Current therapies for bone cancers - either primary or metastatic – are difficult to implement and unfortunately not completely effective. An alternative therapy could be found in cold plasmas generated at atmospheric pressure which have already demonstrated selective anti-tumor action in a number of carcinomas and in more relatively rare brain tumors. However, its effects on bone cancer are still unknown. Methods: Herein, we employed an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) to validate its selectivity towards osteosarcoma cell line vs. osteoblasts & human mesenchymal stem cells. Results: Cytotoxicity following direct interaction of APPJ with cells is comparable to indirect interaction when only liquid medium is treated and subsequently added to the cells, especially on the long-term (72 h of cell culture). Moreover, following contact of the APPJ treated medium with cells, delayed effects are observed which lead to 100% bone cancer cell death through apoptosis (decreased cell viability with incubation time in contact with APPJ treated medium from 24 h to 72 h), while healthy cells remain fully viable and unaffected by the treatment. Conclusions: The high efficiency of the indirect treatment indicates that an important role is played by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the gaseous plasma stage and then transmitted to the liquid phase, which overall lead to lethal and selective action towards osteosarcoma cells. These findings open new pathways for treatment of metastatic bone disease with a minimally invasive approach.

JTD Keywords: Atmospheric pressure plasma jet, Bone cancer, hMSC, HOb, Liquids, Osteoblasts, Osteosarcoma, SaOS-2


Caddeo, C., Pons, R., Carbone, C., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., Cardia, M. C., Maccioni, A. M., Fadda, A. M., Manconi, M., (2017). Physico-chemical characterization of succinyl chitosan-stabilized liposomes for the oral co-delivery of quercetin and resveratrol Carbohydrate Polymers , 157, 1853-1861

In the present work, quercetin and resveratrol, natural polyphenols with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, were co-loaded in polymer-associated liposomes conceived for oral delivery, by exploiting the potential of pH-sensitive succinyl-chitosan. Chitosan was succinylated, characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and Gel Permeation Chromatography, and used to form a protective shell on the surface of liposomes. The physico-chemical properties of the succinyl-chitosan liposomes were assessed by light scattering, zeta potential, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, and small angle X-ray scattering. Small, spherical, uni- and bilamellar vesicles were produced. The succinyl-chitosan shell increased not only the physical stability of the vesicular system, as demonstrated by accelerated stability tests, but also the release of the polyphenols to a greater extent at pH 7.0, mimicking the intestinal environment. The proposed approach based on polyphenol vesicular formulations may be of value in the treatment of pre-cancerous/cancerous intestinal conditions associated with inflammation and oxidative stress.

JTD Keywords: Antioxidant, Liposome, Oral delivery, Quercetin, Resveratrol, Succinyl-chitosan


Mattotti, M., Alvarez, Z., Delgado, L., Mateos-Timoneda, M. A., Aparicio, C., Planell, J. A., Alcántara, S., Engel, E., (2017). Differential neuronal and glial behavior on flat and micro patterned chitosan films Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 158, 569-577

Chitosan is a biodegradable natural polysaccharide that has been widely studied for regenerative purposes in the central nervous system. In this study we assessed the in vitro glial and neuronal cells response to chitosan either flat or patterned with grooves in the micrometric range. Chitosan demonstrated to be a good substrate for the attachment and growth of both neurons and glial cells. Chitosan micropatterns promoted glial cell maturation, suggesting astroglial activation. Nevertheless, those mature/reactive glial cells were permissive for axonal growth. Axons aligned and organized along the patterned grooves and the size of the linear topographic patterns is also affecting neurite and cell response. Patterns with 10 μm width induced fasciculation of axons, which can be useful for CNS tissue engineering substrates when precise orientation of the axonal outgrowth is desired.

JTD Keywords: Brain, Chitosan, Glia, Micropattern, Neuron


Giannotti, M. I., Abasolo, Ibane, Oliva, Mireia, Andrade, Fernanda, García-Aranda, Natalia, Melgarejo, Marta, Pulido, Daniel, Corchero, José Luis, Fernández, Yolanda, Villaverde, Antonio, Royo, Miriam, Garcia-Parajo, Maria F., Sanz, Fausto, Schwartz Jr, Simó, (2016). Highly versatile polyelectrolyte complexes for improving the enzyme replacement therapy of lysosomal storage disorders ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8, (39), 25741–25752

Lysosomal storage disorders are currently treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) through the direct administration of the unprotected recombinant protein to the patients. Herein we present an ionically cross-linked polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) composed of trimethyl chitosan (TMC) and α-galactosidase A (GLA), the defective enzyme in Fabry disease, with the capability of directly targeting endothelial cells by incorporating peptide ligands containing the RGD sequence. We assessed the physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, and hemocompatibility of RGD-targeted and untargeted PECs, the uptake by endothelial cells and the intracellular activity of PECs in cell culture models of Fabry disease. Moreover, we also explored the effect of different freeze-drying procedures in the overall activity of the PECs. Our results indicate that the use of integrin-binding RGD moiety within the PEC increases their uptake and the efficacy of the GLA enzyme, while the freeze-drying allows the activity of the therapeutic protein to remain intact. Overall, these results highlight the potential of TMC-based PECs as a highly versatile and feasible drug delivery system for improving the ERT of lysosomal storage disorders.

JTD Keywords: Enzyme replacement therapy, Fabry disease, Lysosomal delivery, Nanomedicine, Polyelectrolyte complexes, Trimethyl chitosan, α-galactosidase A


Zhao, M., Altankov, G., Grabiec, U., Bennett, M., Salmeron-Sanchez, M., Dehghani, F., Groth, T., (2016). Molecular composition of GAG-collagen I multilayers affects remodeling of terminal layers and osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells Acta Biomaterialia 41, 86-99

The effect of molecular composition of multilayers, by pairing type I collagen (Col I) with either hyaluronic acid (HA) or chondroitin sulfate (CS) was studied regarding the osteogenic differentiation of adhering human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) formation was based primarily on ion pairing and on additional intrinsic cross-linking through imine bond formation with Col I replacing native by oxidized HA (oHA) or CS (oCS). Significant amounts of Col I fibrils were found on both native and oxidized CS-based PEMs, resulting in higher water contact angles and surface potential under physiological condition, while much less organized Col I was detected in either HA-based multilayers, which were more hydrophilic and negatively charged. An important finding was that hADSCs remodeled Col I at the terminal layers of PEMs by mechanical reorganization and pericellular proteolytic degradation, being more pronounced on CS-based PEMs. This was in accordance with the higher quantity of Col I deposition in this system, accompanied by more cell spreading, focal adhesions (FA) formation and significant α2β1 integrin recruitment compared to HA-based PEMs. Both CS-based PEMs caused also an increased fibronectin (FN) secretion and cell growth. Furthermore, significant calcium phosphate deposition, enhanced ALP, Col I and Runx2 expression were observed in hADSCs on CS-based PEMs, particularly on oCS-containing one. Overall, multilayer composition can be used to direct cell-matrix interactions, and hence stem cell fates showing for the first time that PEMs made of biogenic polyelectrolytes undergo significant remodeling of terminal protein layers, which seems to enable cells to form a more adequate extracellular matrix-like environment. Statement of Significance: Natural polymer derived polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) have been recently applied to adjust biomaterials to meet specific tissue demands. However, the effect of molecular composition of multilayers on both surface properties and cellular response, especially the fate of human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) upon osteogenic differentiation has not been studied extensively, yet. In addition, no studies exist that investigate a potential cell-dependent remodeling of PEMs made of extracellular matrix (ECM) components like collagens and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Furthermore, there is no knowledge whether the ability of cells to remodel PEM components may provide an added value regarding cell growth and differentiation. Finally, it has not been explored yet, how intrinsic cross-linking of ECM derived polyelectrolytes that improve the stability of PEMs will affect the differentiation potential of hADSCs. The current work aims to address these questions and found that the type of GAG has a strong effect on properties of multilayers and osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs. Additionally, we also show for the first time that PEMs made of biogenic polyelectrolytes undergo significant remodeling of terminal layers as completely new finding, which allows cells to form an ECM-like environment supporting differentiation upon osteogenic lineage. The finding of this work may open new avenues of application of PEM systems made by layer by layer (LbL) technique in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

JTD Keywords: Collagen reorganization, Glycosaminoglycans, Layer-by-layer technique, Mesenchymal stem cells, Osteogenic differentiation


Crespo, Anna, Pedraz, Lucas, Astola, Josep, Torrents, Eduard, (2016). Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits deficient biofilm formation in the absence of class II and III ribonucleotide reductases due to hindered anaerobic growth Frontiers in Microbiology 7, Article 688

Chronic lung infections by the ubiquitous and extremely adaptable opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa correlate with the formation of a biofilm, where bacteria grow in association with an extracellular matrix and display a wide range of changes in gene expression and metabolism. This leads to increased resistance to physical stress and antibiotic therapies, while enhancing cell-to-cell communication. Oxygen diffusion through the complex biofilm structure generates an oxygen concentration gradient, leading to the appearance of anaerobic microenvironments. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are a family of highly sophisticated enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the deoxyribonucleotides, and they constitute the only de novo pathway for the formation of the building blocks needed for DNA synthesis and repair. P. aeruginosa is one of the few bacteria encoding all three known RNR classes (Ia, II, and III). Class Ia RNRs are oxygen dependent, class II are oxygen independent, and class III are oxygen sensitive. A tight control of RNR activity is essential for anaerobic growth and therefore for biofilm development. In this work we explored the role of the different RNR classes in biofilm formation under aerobic and anaerobic initial conditions and using static and continuous-flow biofilm models. We demonstrated the importance of class II and III RNR for proper cell division in biofilm development and maturation. We also determined that these classes are transcriptionally induced during biofilm formation and under anaerobic conditions. The molecular mechanism of their anaerobic regulation was also studied, finding that the Anr/Dnr system is responsible for class II RNR induction. These data can be integrated with previous knowledge about biofilms in a model where these structures are understood as a set of layers determined by oxygen concentration and contain cells with different RNR expression profiles, bringing us a step closer to the understanding of this complex growth pattern, essential for P. aeruginosa chronic infections.

JTD Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ribonucleotide Reductases, Vitamin B 12, Anaerobic metabolism, Biofilm formation, DNA Synthesis, Oxygen diffusion, nrd genes.


Baelo, Aida, Levato, Riccardo, Julián, Esther, Crespo, Anna, Astola, José, Gavaldà, Joan, Engel, Elisabeth, Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel Angel, Torrents, Eduard, (2015). Disassembling bacterial extracellular matrix with DNase-coated nanoparticles to enhance antibiotic delivery in biofilm infections Journal of Controlled Release 209, 150-158

Abstract Infections caused by biofilm-forming bacteria are a major threat to hospitalized patients and the main cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. There is an urgent necessity for novel therapeutic approaches, since current antibiotic delivery fails to eliminate biofilm-protected bacteria. In this study, ciprofloxacin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles, which were functionalized with DNase I, were fabricated using a green-solvent based method and their antibiofilm activity was assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Such nanoparticles constitute a paradigm shift in biofilm treatment, since, besides releasing ciprofloxacin in a controlled fashion, they are able to target and disassemble the biofilm by degrading the extracellular DNA that stabilize the biofilm matrix. These carriers were compared with free-soluble ciprofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin encapsulated in untreated and poly(lysine)-coated nanoparticles. DNase I-activated nanoparticles were not only able to prevent biofilm formation from planktonic bacteria, but they also successfully reduced established biofilm mass, size and living cell density, as observed in a dynamic environment in a flow cell biofilm assay. Moreover, repeated administration over three days of DNase I-coated nanoparticles encapsulating ciprofloxacin was able to reduce by 95% and then eradicate more than 99.8% of established biofilm, outperforming all the other nanoparticle formulations and the free-drug tested in this study. These promising results, together with minimal cytotoxicity as tested on J774 macrophages, allow obtaining novel antimicrobial nanoparticles, as well as provide clues to design the next generation of drug delivery devices to treat persistent bacterial infections.

JTD Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Biofilm, Ciprofloxacin, DNase I, Nanoparticles


Castangia, I., Nácher, A., Caddeo, C., Merino, V., Díez-Sales, O., Catalán-Latorre, A., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., Fadda, A. M., Manconi, M., (2015). Therapeutic efficacy of quercetin enzyme-responsive nanovesicles for the treatment of experimental colitis in rats Acta Biomaterialia 13, 216-227

Biocompatible quercetin nanovesicles were developed by coating polyethylene glycol-containing vesicles with chitosan and nutriose, aimed at targeting the colon. Uncoated and coated vesicles were prepared using hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine and quercetin, a potent natural anti-inflammatory and antioxidant drug. Physicochemical characterization was carried out by light scattering, cryogenic microscopy and X-ray scattering, the results showing that vesicles were predominantly multilamellar and around 130 nm in size. The in vitro release of quercetin was investigated under different pH conditions simulating the environment of the gastrointestinal tract, and confirmed that the chitosan/nutriose coating improved the gastric resistance of vesicles, making them a potential carrier system for colon delivery. The preferential localization of fluorescent vesicles in the intestine was demonstrated using the In Vivo FX PRO Imaging System. Above all, a marked amelioration of symptoms of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis was observed in animals treated with quercetin-loaded coated vesicles, favoring the restoration of physiological conditions. Therefore, quercetin-loaded chitosan/nutriose-coated vesicles can represent a valuable therapeutic tool for the treatment of chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases, and presumably a preventive system, due to the synergic action of antioxidant quercetin and beneficial prebiotic effects of the chitosan/nutriose complex.

JTD Keywords: Chitosan/nutriose complex, Colon targeting, Phospholipid vesicles, Quercetin, Rat colitis


Fernàndez-Busquets, X., (2013). Amyloid fibrils in neurodegenerative diseases: villains or heroes? Future Medicinal Chemistry 5, (16), 1903-1906

Fernàndez-Busquets, X., (2013). Heparin-functionalized nanocapsules: Enabling targeted delivery of antimalarial drugs Future Medicinal Chemistry 5, (7), 737-739

Almendros, I., Montserrat, J. M., Torres, M., Dalmases, M., Cabañas, M. L., Campos-Rodríguez, F., Navajas, D., Farré, R., (2013). Intermittent hypoxia increases melanoma metastasis to the lung in a mouse model of sleep apnea Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology , 186, (3), 303-307

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has recently been associated with an increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality in humans. Experimental data in mice have also shown that intermittent hypoxia similar to that observed in OSA patients enhances tumor growth. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that intermittent hypoxia mimicking OSA enhances lung metastasis. A total of 75 C57BL/6J male mice (10-week-old) were subjected to either spontaneous or induced melanoma lung metastasis. Normoxic animals breathed room air and intermittent hypoxic animals were subjected to cycles of 20s of 5% O2 followed by 40s of room air for 6h/day. Spontaneous and induced lung metastases were studied after subcutaneous and intravenous injection of B16F10 melanoma cells, respectively. Compared with normoxia, intermittent hypoxia induced a significant increase in melanoma lung metastasis. These animal model results suggest that intermittent hypoxia could contribute to cancer metastasis in patients with OSA.

JTD Keywords: Intermittent hypoxia, Melanoma, Metastasis, OSA


Fiz, J. A., Jané, R., (2012). Snoring Analysis. A Complex Question Journal of Sleep Disorders: Treatment & Care , 1, (1), 1-3

The snore is a breathing sound that originates during sleep, either nocturnal or diurnal. Many procedures have been used for its analysis, from simple interrogation, going through acoustic methods that have been developed thanks to the advance of biomedical techniques in recent years. So far a procedure homologated by different laboratories for its study doesn’t exist. The present editorial describes the current state of the art in the snoring analysis procedures.

JTD Keywords: Snoring, Sleep apnea, OSAS


Fernandez, Javier G., Samitier, Josep, Mills, Christopher A., (2011). Simultaneous biochemical and topographical patterning on curved surfaces using biocompatible sacrificial molds Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A , 98A, (2), 229-234

A method for the simultaneous (bio)chemical and topographical patterning of enclosed structures in poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) is presented. The simultaneous chemical and topography transference uses a water-soluble chitosan sacrificial mold to impart a predefined pattern with micrometric accuracy to a PDMS replica. The method is compared to conventional soft-lithography techniques on planar surfaces. Its functionality is demonstrated by the transference of streptavidin directly to the surface of the three-dimensional PDMS structures as well as indirectly using streptavidin-loaded latex nanoparticles. The streptavidin immobilized on the PDMS is tested for bioactivity by coupling with fluorescently labeled biotin. This proves that the streptavidin is immobilized on the PDMS surface, not in the bulk of the polymer, and is therefore accessible for use as signaling/binding element in micro and bioengineering. The use of a biocompatible polymer and processes enables the technique to be used for the chemical patterning of tissue constructions.

JTD Keywords: Biotechnology, Chitosan, Microfabrication, MEMs, Soft lithography


Fernàndez-Busquets, X., Ponce, J., Bravo, R., Arimon, M., Martianez, T., Gella, A., Cladera, J., Durany, N., (2010). Modulation of amyloid beta peptide(1-42) cytotoxicity and aggregation in vitro by glucose and chondroitin sulfate Current Alzheimer Research , 7, (5), 428-438

One mechanism leading to neurodegeneration during Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is amyloid beta peptide (A beta)-induced neurotoxicity. Among the factors proposed to potentiate A beta toxicity is its covalent modification through carbohydrate-derived advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). Other experimental evidence, though, indicates that certain polymeric carbohydrates like the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains found in proteoglycan molecules attenuate the neurotoxic effect of A beta in primary neuronal cultures. Pretreatment of the 42-residue A beta fragment (A beta(1-42)) with the ubiquitous brain carbohydrates, glucose, fructose, and the GAG chondroitin sulfate B (CSB) inhibits A beta beta(1-42)-induced apoptosis and reduces the peptide neurotoxicity on neuroblastoma cells, a cytoprotective effect that is partially reverted by AGE inhibitors such as pyridoxamine and L-carnosine. Thioflavin T fluorescence measurements indicate that at concentrations close to physiological, only CSB promotes the formation of A beta amyloid fibril structure. Atomic force microscopy imaging and Western blot analysis suggest that glucose favours the formation of globular oligomeric structures derived from aggregated species. Our data suggest that at short times carbohydrates reduce A beta(1-42) toxicity through different mechanisms both dependent and independent of AGE formation.

JTD Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, Advanced glycation endproducts, Amyloid fibrils, Amyloid beta peptide, Apoptosis, Carbohydrates, Glycosaminoglycans


Harder, A., Walhorn, V., Dierks, T., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., Anselmetti, D., (2010). Single-molecule force spectroscopy of cartilage aggrecan self-adhesion Biophysical Journal , 99, (10), 3498-3504

We investigated self-adhesion between highly negatively charged aggrecan macromolecules extracted from bovine cartilage extracellular matrix by performing atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) in saline solutions. By controlling the density of aggrecan molecules on both the gold substrate and the gold-coated tip surface at submonolayer densities, we were able to detect and quantify the Ca2+-dependent homodimeric interaction between individual aggrecan molecules at the single-molecule level. We found a typical nonlinear sawtooth profile in the AFM force-versus-distance curves with a molecular persistence length of I-p = 0.31 +/- 0.04 nm. This is attributed to the stepwise dissociation of individual glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains in aggrecans, which is very similar to the known force fingerprints of other cell adhesion proteoglycan systems. After studying the GAG-GAG dissociation in a dynamic, loading-rate-dependent manner (dynamic SMFS) and analyzing the data according to the stochastic Bell-Evans model for a thermally activated decay of a metastable state under an external force, we estimated for the single glycan interaction a mean lifetime of tau = 7.9 +/- 4.9 s and a reaction bond length of x(beta) = 0.31 +/- 0.08 nm. Whereas the x(beta)-value compares well with values from other cell adhesion carbohydrate recognition motifs in evolutionary distant marine sponge proteoglycans, the rather short GAG interaction lifetime reflects high intermolecular dynamics within aggrecan complexes, which may be relevant for the viscoelastic properties of cartilage tissue.

JTD Keywords: Bovine nasal cartilage, Articular-cartilage, Sinorhizobium-meliloti, Proteoglycan, Microscopy, DNA, Macromolecules, Binding, Protein, Glycosaminoglycans


Fernandez, Javier G., Mills, C. A., Samitier, J., (2009). Complex microstructured 3D surfaces using chitosan biopolymer Small 5, (5), 614-620

A technique for producing micrometer-scale structures over large, nonplanar chitosan surfaces is described. The technique makes use of the rheological characteristics (deformability) of the chitosan to create freestanding, three-dimensional scaffolds with controlled shapes, incorporating defined microtopography. The results of an investigation into the technical limits of molding different combinations of shapes and microtopographies are presented, highlighting the versatility of the technique when used irrespectively with inorganic or delicate organic moulds. The final, replicated scaffolds presented here are patterned with arrays of one-micrometer-tall microstructures over large areas. Structural integrity is characterized by the measurement of structural degradation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured on a tubular scaffold show that early cell growth is conditioned by the microtopography and indicate possible uses for the structures in biomedical applications. For those applications requiring improved chemical and mechanical resistance, the structures can be replicated in poly(dimethyl siloxane).

JTD Keywords: Biocompatible Materials/ chemistry, Cell Adhesion, Cell Culture Techniques/ methods, Cell Proliferation, Cells, Cultured, Chitosan/ chemistry, Crystallization/methods, Endothelial Cells/ cytology/ physiology, Humans, Materials Testing, Nanostructures/ chemistry/ ultrastructure, Nanotechnology/methods, Particle Size, Surface Properties, Tissue Engineering/methods


Kirchhof, K., Hristova, K., Krasteva, N., Altankov, G., Groth, T., (2009). Multilayer coatings on biomaterials for control of MG-63 osteoblast adhesion and growth Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine , 20, (4), 897-907

Here, the layer-by-layer technique (LbL) was used to modify glass as model biomaterial with multilayers of chitosan and heparin to control the interaction with MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. Different pH values during multilayer formation were applied to control their physico-chemical properties. In the absence of adhesive proteins like plasma fibronectin (pFN) both plain layers were rather cytophobic. Hence, the preadsorption of pFN was used to enhance cell adhesion which was strongly dependent on pH. Comparing the adhesion promoting effects of pFN with an engineered repeat of the FN III fragment and collagen I which both lack a heparin binding domain it was found that multilayers could bind pFN specifically because only this protein was capable of promoting cell adhesion. Multilayer surfaces that inhibited MG-63 adhesion did also cause a decreased cell growth in the presence of serum, while an enhanced adhesion of cells was connected to an improved cell growth.

JTD Keywords: Cell-adhesion, Polyelectrolyte multilayers, Substratum chemistry, Surface-properties, Fibroblast-growth, Fibronectin, Polymers, Chitosan, Polysaccharides, Wettability


Fernandez, Javier G., Mills, C. A., Martinez, E., Lopez-Bosque, M. J., Sisquella, X., Errachid, A., Samitier, J., (2008). Micro- and nanostructuring of freestanding, biodegradable, thin sheets of chitosan via soft lithography Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A , 85A, (1), 242-247

A technique for imparting micro- and nano-structured topography into the surface of freestanding thin sheets of chitosan is described. Both micro- and nanometric surface structures have been produced using soft lithography. The soft lithography method, based on solvent evaporation, has allowed structures similar to 60 nm tall and similar to 500 X 500 nm(2) to be produced on freestanding similar to 0.5 mm thick sheets of the polymer when cured at 293 K, and structures similar to 400 nm tall and 5 X 5 mu m(2) to be produced when cured at 283 K. Nonstructured chitosan thin sheets (similar to 200 mu m thick) show excellent optical transmission properties in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The structured sheets can be used for applications where optical microscopic analysis is required, such as cell interaction experiments and tissue engineering.

JTD Keywords: Chitin/chitosan, Microstructure, Nanotopography, Polymerization, Soft lithography