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by Keyword: iron

Arnau M, Sans J, Gallego E, Perales JF, Turon P, Alemán C, (2024). Polarized hydroxyapatite, a ceramic nanocatalyst to convert automotive carbon emissions into ethanol Journal Of Environmental Chemical Engineering 12, 112255

This paper is aimed to develop ultrananoporous polarized hydroxyapatite (HAp) catalyst and evaluate its performance in transforming CO2 into useable ethanol considering three different scenarios: 1) a batch reaction using a mixture of CO2 and CH4 as feeding gas; 2) a batch reaction using as reactant exhaust gases captured from the fumes of diesel vehicles; and 3) a continuous flow reaction using pure CO2 as feeding gas. Ultrananoporous HAp scaffolds were prepared using a four-step process: 1) as prepared HAp powder was mixed with 60% wt. of a commercial hydrogel at low-temperature; 2) the resulting paste was shaped at low temperature to reduce the adhesion between the metallic tools and the mixture, enhancing the homogeneity of the sample; 3) the shaped paste was calcined in air by applying 1000 ºC during 2 h to eliminate the hydrogel; and 4) an external DC electric field of 3 kV/cm was imposed at 1000 ºC during 1 h to the calcined scaffold. The resulting polarized scaffolds both ultrananoporosity and catalytic activation. Thus, the mass: volume ratio of the ultrananoporous catalyst was much lower than that of conventional HAp catalyst (718 vs 5093 g/L. Furthermore, the ethanol yield was much higher (up to a factor of ×21.4) for the ultrananoporous catalyst than for the compact one, allowing us to conclude that ultrananoporous polarized HAp catalyst is a promising technology for transforming CO2 into valuable chemical products from highly polluted gases, especially those coming from road, sea and air transport. © 2024 Elsevier Ltd

JTD Keywords: A: ceramics, Air pollution, Automotives, Batch reactions, Calcination, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Co2 fixation, Electric fields, Environmental process, Ethanol, Exhaust gases, Feeding gas, Fumes, Hydrogels, Hydroxyapatite, Lows-temperatures, Nano-catalyst, Nanocatalysts, Polarized catalyst, Scaffolds, Temperature, ]+ catalyst


Chen, SQ, Prado-Morales, C, Sánchez-deAlcázar, D, Sánchez, S, (2024). Enzymatic micro/nanomotors in biomedicine: from single motors to swarms Journal Of Materials Chemistry b 12,

Micro/nanomotors (MNMs) have evolved from single self-propelled entities to versatile systems capable of performing one or multiple biomedical tasks. When single MNMs self-assemble into coordinated swarms, either under external control or triggered by chemical reactions, they offer advantages that individual MNMs cannot achieve. These benefits include intelligent multitasking and adaptability to changes in the surrounding environment. Here, we provide our perspective on the evolution of MNMs, beginning with the development of enzymatic MNMs since the first theoretical model was proposed in 2005. These enzymatic MNMs hold immense promise in biomedicine due to their advantages in biocompatibility and fuel availability. Subsequently, we introduce the design and application of single motors in biomedicine, followed by the control of MNM swarms and their biomedical applications. In the end, we propose viable solutions for advancing the development of MNM swarms and anticipate valuable insights into the creation of more intelligent and controllable MNM swarms for biomedical applications.; Micro/nanomotor swarms propelled by diverse mechanisms.

JTD Keywords: Active particles, Actuation, Behaviors, Biocompatibility, Biomedical applications, Coordination reactions, Design and application, Diffusion, External control, Medical applications, Micromotors, Motion, Nanomotors, Powered nanomotors, Propulsion, Self-assemble, Surrounding environment, Theoretical modeling, Versatile system, Viable solutions


Pahuja, A, Corredera, IG, Moya-Rull, D, Garreta, E, Montserrat, N, (2024). Engineering physiological environments to advance kidney organoid models from human pluripotent stem cells Current Opinion In Cell Biology 86, 102306

During embryogenesis, the mammalian kidney arises because of reciprocal interactions between the ureteric bud (UB) and the metanephric mesenchyme (MM), driving UB branching and nephron induction. These morphogenetic processes involve a series of cellular rearrangements that are tightly controlled by gene regulatory networks and signaling cascades. Here, we discuss how kidney developmental studies have informed the definition of procedures to obtain kidney organoids from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Moreover, bioengineering techniques have emerged as potential solutions to externally impose controlled microenvironments for organoid generation from hPSCs. Next, we summarize some of these advances with major focus On recent works merging hPSC-derived kidney organoids (hPSC-kidney organoids) with organ-on-chip to develop robust models for drug discovery and disease modeling applications. We foresee that, in the near future, coupling of different organoid models through bioengineering approaches will help advancing to recreate organ-to-organ crosstalk to increase our understanding on kidney disease progression in the human context and search for new therapeutics.Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: Animal, Animals, Bioengineering, Cell differentiation, Embryo development, Embryology, Embryonic structures, Gene regulatory network, Human, Humans, Kidney, Kidney development, Kidney mesenchyme cell, Kidney organoid, Mammal, Mammals, Mesenchyme, Metanephric mesenchyme, Microenvironment, Nephron, Nephrons, Organoid, Organoids, Physiology, Pluripotent stem cell, Pluripotent stem cells, Review, Signal transduction, Ureteric bud


Piñera-Avellaneda, D, Buxadera-Palomero, J, Ginebra, MP, Rupérez, E, Manero, JM, (2023). Gallium-doped thermochemically treated titanium reduces osteoclastogenesis and improves osteodifferentiation Frontiers In Bioengineering And Biotechnology 11, 1303313

Excessive bone resorption is one of the main causes of bone homeostasis alterations, resulting in an imbalance in the natural remodeling cycle. This imbalance can cause diseases such as osteoporosis, or it can be exacerbated in bone cancer processes. In such cases, there is an increased risk of fractures requiring a prosthesis. In the present study, a titanium implant subjected to gallium (Ga)-doped thermochemical treatment was evaluated as a strategy to reduce bone resorption and improve osteodifferentiation. The suitability of the material to reduce bone resorption was proven by inducing macrophages (RAW 264.7) to differentiate to osteoclasts on Ga-containing surfaces. In addition, the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied in terms of cell adhesion, morphology, proliferation, and differentiation. The results proved that the Ga-containing calcium titanate layer is capable of inhibiting osteoclastogenesis, hypothetically by inducing ferroptosis. Furthermore, Ga-containing surfaces promote the differentiation of hMSCs into osteoblasts. Therefore, Ga-containing calcium titanate may be a promising strategy for patients with fractures resulting from an excessive bone resorption disease.Copyright © 2023 Piñera-Avellaneda, Buxadera-Palomero, Ginebra, Rupérez and Manero.

JTD Keywords: biology, bone metastasis, differentiation, ferroptosis, gallium, iron, mouse, osteoclast, osteoporosis, Bone metastasis, Ferroptosis, Gallium, Osteoclast, Osteoporosis, Ti metal, Titanium implant


Gallo, J, Villasante, A, (2023). Recent Advances in Biomimetic Nanocarrier-Based Photothermal Therapy for Cancer Treatment International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 24, 15484

Nanomedicine presents innovative solutions for cancer treatment, including photothermal therapy (PTT). PTT centers on the design of photoactivatable nanoparticles capable of absorbing non-toxic near-infrared light, generating heat within target cells to induce cell death. The successful transition from benchside to bedside application of PTT critically depends on the core properties of nanoparticles responsible for converting light into heat and the surface properties for precise cell-specific targeting. Precisely targeting the intended cells remains a primary challenge in PTT. In recent years, a groundbreaking approach has emerged to address this challenge by functionalizing nanocarriers and enhancing cell targeting. This strategy involves the creation of biomimetic nanoparticles that combine desired biocompatibility properties with the immune evasion mechanisms of natural materials. This review comprehensively outlines various strategies for designing biomimetic photoactivatable nanocarriers for PTT, with a primary focus on its application in cancer therapy. Additionally, we shed light on the hurdles involved in translating PTT from research to clinical practice, along with an overview of current clinical applications.

JTD Keywords: biomimetic nanoparticles, cancer treatment, diagnosis, drug-delivery, erythrocyte-membrane, facile synthesis, iron-oxide nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles, metastatic breast-cancer, size, stem-cells, Biomimetic nanoparticles, Cancer treatment, Membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles, Photothermal therapy


Macedo, MH, Torras, N, García-Díaz, M, Barrias, C, Sarmento, B, Martínez, E, (2023). The shape of our gut: Dissecting its impact on drug absorption in a 3D bioprinted intestinal model Biomaterials Advances 153, 213564

The small intestine is a complex organ with a characteristic architecture and a major site for drug and nutrient absorption. The three-dimensional (3D) topography organized in finger-like protrusions called villi increases surface area remarkably, granting a more efficient absorption process. The intestinal mucosa, where this process occurs, is a multilayered and multicell-type tissue barrier. In vitro intestinal models are routinely used to study different physiological and pathological processes in the gut, including compound absorption. Still, standard models are typically two-dimensional (2D) and represent only the epithelial barrier, lacking the cues offered by the 3D architecture and the stromal components present in vivo, often leading to inaccurate results. In this work, we studied the impact of the 3D architecture of the gut on drug transport using a bioprinted 3D model of the intestinal mucosa containing both the epithelial and the stromal compartments. Human intestinal fibroblasts were embedded in a previously optimized hydrogel bioink, and enterocytes and goblet cells were seeded on top to mimic the intestinal mucosa. The embedded fibroblasts thrived inside the hydrogel, remodeling the surrounding extracellular matrix. The epithelial cells fully covered the hydrogel scaffolds and formed a uniform cell layer with barrier properties close to in vivo. In particular, the villus-like model revealed overall increased permeability compared to a flat counterpart composed by the same hydrogel and cells. In addition, the efflux activity of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter was significantly reduced in the villus-like scaffold compared to a flat model, and the genetic expression of other drugs transporters was, in general, more relevant in the villus-like model. Globally, this study corroborates that the presence of the 3D architecture promotes a more physiological differentiation of the epithelial barrier, providing more accurate data on drug absorbance measurements.Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier B.V.

JTD Keywords: 3d architecture, alkaline-phosphatase, caco-2 cells, culture, drug development, efflux proteins, gene-expression, human-colon, intestinal absorption, intestinal models, microenvironment, paracellular transport, permeability, photopolymerization, villi, 3d architecture, 3d bioprinting, Drug development, In-vitro, Intestinal absorption, Intestinal models, Photopolymerization, Villi


Almici, E, Arshakyan, M, Carrasco, JL, Martinez, A, Ramirez, J, Enguita, AB, Monso, E, Montero, J, Samitier, J, Alcaraz, J, (2023). Quantitative Image Analysis of Fibrillar Collagens Reveals Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers and Histotype-Dependent Aberrant Mechanobiology in Lung Cancer Modern Pathology 36, 100155

Fibrillar collagens are the most abundant extracellular matrix components in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the potential of collagen fiber descriptors as a source of clinically relevant biomarkers in NSCLC is largely unknown. Similarly, our understanding of the aberrant collagen organization and associated tumor-promoting effects is very scarce. To address these limitations, we identified a digital pathology approach that can be easily implemented in pa-thology units based on CT-FIRE software (version 2; https://loci.wisc.edu/software/ctfire) analysis of Picrosirius red (PSR) stains of fibrillar collagens imaged with polarized light (PL). CT-FIRE set-tings were pre-optimized to assess a panel of collagen fiber descriptors in PSR-PL images of tissue microarrays from surgical NSCLC patients (106 adenocarcinomas [ADC] and 89 squamous cell carcinomas [SCC]). Using this approach, we identified straightness as the single high-accuracy diagnostic collagen fiber descriptor (average area under the curve 1/4 0.92) and fiber density as the single descriptor consistently associated with a poor prognosis in both ADC and SCC inde-pendently of the gold standard based on the TNM staging (hazard ratio, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.55-4.66; P < .001). Moreover, we found that collagen fibers were markedly straighter, longer, and more aligned in tumor samples compared to paired samples from uninvolved pulmonary tissue, particularly in ADC, which is indicative of increased tumor stiffening. Consistently, we observed an increase in a panel of stiffness-associated processes in the high collagen fiber density patient group selectively in ADC, including venous/lymphatic invasion, fibroblast activation (a-smooth muscle actin), and immune evasion (programmed death-ligand 1). Similarly, a transcriptional correlation analysis supported the potential involvement of the major YAP/TAZ pathway in ADC. Our results provide a proof-of-principle to use CT-FIRE analysis of PSR-PL images to assess new collagen fiber-based diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in pathology units, which may improve the clinical management of patients with surgical NSCLC. Our findings also unveil an aberrant stiff micro -environment in lung ADC that may foster immune evasion and dissemination, encouraging future work to identify therapeutic opportunities. (c) 2023 THE AUTHORS. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the United States & Canadian Academy of Pathology. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommo ns.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

JTD Keywords: biomarkers, collagen, ct-fire, lung cancer, mechanobiology, Adenocarcinoma, Association, Biomarkers, Collagen, Ct-fire, Differentiation, Expression, Extracellular-matrix, I collagen, Invasion, Lung cancer, Mechanobiology, Microenvironment, Signature, Survival, Tumor microenvironment


Miñana, AF, De Chiara, F, Azcón, JR, (2023). Human three-dimensional multicellular liver platform for drug screening Tissue Engineering Part a 29, OP‐311

Cler, M, Amodio, SP, Martínez, E, Engel, E, Terracciano, CM, (2023). Exogenous lactate improves cardiac function of living myocardial slices Tissue Engineering Part a 29, OP-062

Fernandez, BB, Vinolas, SR, Bagci, G, Amodio, SP, Concheiro, A, Lorenzo, CA, Engel, E, (2023). A 3D in vitro model of breast cancer model using decellularized mammary glands bioinks Tissue Engineering Part a 29, PP-387

González-Callejo, P, Gener, P, Díaz-Riascos, Z, Conti, S, Cámara-Sánchez, P, Riera, R, Mancilla, S, García-Gabilondo, M, Peg, V, Arango, D, Rosell, A, Labernadie, A, Trepat, X, Albertazzi, L, Schwartz, S Jr, Seras-Franzoso, J, Abasolo, I, (2023). Extracellular vesicles secreted by triple-negative breast cancer stem cells trigger premetastatic niche remodeling and metastatic growth in the lungs International Journal Of Cancer 152, 2153-2165

Tumor secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) are potent intercellular signaling platforms. They are responsible for the accommodation of the premetastatic niche (PMN) to support cancer cell engraftment and metastatic growth. However, complex cancer cell composition within the tumor increases also the heterogeneity among cancer secreted EVs subsets, a functional diversity that has been poorly explored. This phenomenon is particularly relevant in highly plastic and heterogenous triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), in which a significant representation of malignant cancer stem cells (CSCs) is displayed. Herein, we selectively isolated and characterized EVs from CSC or differentiated cancer cells (DCC; EVsCSC and EVsDCC , respectively) from the MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell line. Our results showed that EVsCSC and EVsDCC contain distinct bioactive cargos and therefore elicit a differential effect on stromal cells in the TME. Specifically, EVsDCC activated secretory cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), triggering IL-6/IL-8 signaling and sustaining CSC phenotype maintenance. Complementarily, EVsCSC promoted the activation of α-SMA+ myofibroblastic CAFs subpopulations and increased the endothelial remodeling, enhancing the invasive potential of TNBC cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, solely the EVsCSC mediated signaling prompted the transformation of healthy lungs into receptive niches able to support metastatic growth of breast cancer cells.© 2023 The Authors. International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

JTD Keywords: chemoresistance, dormancy, drives, extracellular vesicles, invasion, plasticity, premetastatic niche, triple-negative breast cancer, tumor microenvironment, Cancer cell plasticity, Extracellular vesicles, Fibroblasts, Premetastatic niche, Triple-negative breast cancer, Tumor microenvironment


Blanco-Fernandez, B, Ibanez-Fonesca, A, Orbanic, D, Ximenes-Carballo, C, Perez-Amodio, S, Rodriguez-Cabello, JC, Engel, E, (2023). Elastin-like Recombinamer Hydrogels as Platforms for Breast Cancer Modeling Biomacromolecules 24, 4408-4418

The involvement of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in tumor progression has motivated the development of biomaterials mimicking the tumor ECM to develop more predictive cancer models. Particularly, polypeptides based on elastin could be an interesting approach to mimic the ECM due to their tunable properties. Here, we demonstrated that elastin-like recombinamer (ELR) hydrogels can be suitable biomaterials to develop breast cancer models. This hydrogel was formed by two ELR polypeptides, one containing sequences biodegradable by matrix metalloproteinase and cyclooctyne and the other carrying arginylglycylaspartic acid and azide groups to allow cell adhesion, biodegradability, and suitable stiffness through "click-chemistry" cross-linking. Our findings show that breast cancer or nontumorigenic breast cells showed high viability and cell proliferation for up to 7 days. MCF7 and MCF10A formed spheroids whereas MDA-MB-231 formed cell networks, with the expression of ECM and high drug resistance in all cases, evidencing that ELR hydrogels are a promising biomaterial for breast cancer modeling.

JTD Keywords: clinical-trials, collagen i, discovery, mcf-7 cells, phenotype, progression, spheroids, translation, tumor microenvironment, Extracellular-matrix


Guallar-Garrido, S, Campo-Perez, V, Perez-Trujillo, M, Cabrera, C, Senserrich, J, Sanchez-Chardi, A, Rabanal, RM, Gomez-Mora, E, Noguera-Ortega, E, Luquin, M, Julian, E, (2022). Mycobacterial surface characters remodeled by growth conditions drive different tumor-infiltrating cells and systemic IFN-gamma/IL-17 release in bladder cancer treatment Oncoimmunology 11, 2051845

The mechanism of action of intravesical Mycobacterium bovis BCG immunotherapy treatment for bladder cancer is not completely known, leading to misinterpretation of BCG-unresponsive patients, who have scarce further therapeutic options. BCG is grown under diverse culture conditions worldwide, which can impact the antitumor effect of BCG strains and could be a key parameter of treatment success. Here, BCG and the nonpathogenic Mycobacterium brumae were grown in four culture media currently used by research laboratories and BCG manufacturers: Sauton-A60, -G15 and -G60 and Middlebrook 7H10, and used as therapies in the orthotopic murine BC model. Our data reveal that each mycobacterium requires specific culture conditions to induce an effective antitumor response. since higher survival rates of tumor-bearing mice were achieved using M. brumae-A60 and BCG-G15 than the rest of the treatments. M. brumae-A60 was the most efficacious among all tested treatments in terms of mouse survival, cytotoxic activity of splenocytes against tumor cells, higher systemic production of IL-17 and IFN-gamma, and bladder infiltration of selected immune cells such as ILCs and CD4(TEM). BCG-G15 triggered an antitumor activity based on a massive infiltration of immune cells, mainly CD3(+) (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) T cells, together with high systemic IFN-gamma release. Finally, a reduced variety of lipids was strikingly observed in the outermost layer of M. brumae-A60 and BCG-G15 compared to the rest of the cultures, suggesting an influence on the antitumor immune response triggered. These findings contribute to understand how mycobacteria create an adequate niche to help the host subvert immunosuppressive tumor actions.

JTD Keywords: bcg, innate immune response, innate-lymphoid cells, lipid, non-muscle invasive, Bcg, Calmette-guerin bcg, Glycerol, Identification, Immune-response, Innate immune response, Innate-lymphoid cells, Lipid, Lipids, Mycolic acids, Neutral-red, Non-muscle invasive, Phenolic glycolipids, Tuberculosis, Tumor microenvironment, Virulence


Arnau, M, Sans, J, Turon, P, Alemán, C, (2022). Decarbonization of Polluted Air by SolarDriven CO2 Conversion into Ethanol Using Polarized Animal Solid Waste as Catalyst Advanced Sustainable Systems 6, 2200283

Wang, L, Huang, Y, Xu, H, Chen, S, Chen, H, Lin, Y, Wang, X, Liu, X, Sanchez, S, Huang, X, (2022). Contaminants-fueled laccase-powered Fe3O4@SiO2 nanomotors for synergistical degradation of multiple pollutants Materials Today Chemistry 26, 101059

Although an increasing number of micro/nanomotors have been designed for environmental remediation in the past decade, the construction of contaminants-fueled nanomotors for synergistically degrading multiple pollutants simultaneously remains a challenge. Herein, laccase-powered Fe3O4@silica nanomotors are fabricated, assisted with lipase enzyme for the enhanced degradation of multiple contaminants using the contaminants themselves as fuels. Notably, we demonstrate that representative industrial phenols and polycyclic aromatic pollutants possess the ability of triggering the enhanced Brownian motion of laccase nanomotors (De of 1.16 mu m(2)/s in 220 mu M biphenol A (BPA), 1.40 mu m(2)/s in 375 mu M Congo red (CR)). Additionally, the k(cat) value of lipase-assisted laccase-powered nanomotors increased over 1.4 times, enhancing their Brownian motion, while leading to the efficient degradation of multiple contaminants such as BPA, CR, and triacetin droplets within 40 min, simultaneously. Ultimately, the lipase-assisted laccase nanomotors exhibit great advantages over free laccase, free lipase, lipase nanomotors, or laccase nanomotors in K-m, k(cat), catalytic stability, recycling property, and the degradation efficiency of contaminants. Therefore, our work further broadens the library of enzyme-powered nanomotors and provides deep insights in synergistical enzymatic catalysis, thus paving avenues for environmental remediation based on enzyme-powered micro/nanomotors. (C) 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: core, dye, environmental remediation, enzyme catalysis, hybrid, light, microspheres, motors, pollutants removal, propulsion, removal, self-propulsion, shell, Core, Dye, Environmental remediation, Enzyme catalysis, Hybrid, Light, Micro/nanomotors, Micromotors, Microspheres, Motors, Pollutants removal, Propulsion, Removal, Self-propulsion, Shell


Burgués, J, Doñate, S, Esclapez, MD, Saúco, L, Marco, S, (2022). Characterization of odour emissions in a wastewater treatment plant using a drone-based chemical sensor system Science Of The Total Environment 846, 157290

Conventionally, odours emitted by different sources present in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are measured by dynamic olfactometry, where a human panel sniffs and analyzes air bags collected from the plant. Although the method is considered the gold standard, the process is costly, slow, and infrequent, which does not allow operators to quickly identify and respond to problems. To better monitor and map WWTP odour emissions, here we propose a small rotary-wing drone equipped with a lightweight (1.3-kg) electronic nose. The "sniffing drone" sucks in air via a ten-meter (33-foot) tube and delivers it to a sensor chamber where it is analyzed in real-time by an array of 21 gas sensors. From the sensor signals, machine learning (ML) algorithms predict the odour concentration that a human panel using the EN13725 methodology would report. To calibrate and validate the predictive models, the drone also carries a remotely controlled sampling device (compliant with EN13725:2022) to collect sample air in bags for post-flight dynamic olfactometry. The feasibility of the proposed system is assessed in a WWTP in Spain through several measurement campaigns covering diverse operating regimes of the plant and meteorological conditions. We demonstrate that training the ML algorithms with dynamic (transient) sensor signals measured in flight conditions leads to better performance than the traditional approach of using steady-state signals measured in the lab via controlled exposures to odour bags. The comparison of the electronic nose predictions with dynamic olfactometry measurements indicates a negligible bias between the two measurement techniques and 95 % limits of agreement within a factor of four. This apparently large disagreement, partly caused by the high uncertainty of olfactometric measurements (typically a factor of two), is more than offset by the immediacy of the predictions and the practical advantages of using a drone-based system.Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier B.V.

JTD Keywords: calibration, chemical sensors, drone, dynamic olfactometry, electronic nose, odourquantification, olfaction, volatile organic-compounds, wwtp, Calibration, Chemical sensors, Drone, Dynamic olfactometry, Electronic nose, Environmental monitoring, Odour quantification, Olfaction, Variable selection methods, Wwtp


Sans, J, Arnau, M, Sanz, V, Turon, P, Aleman, C, (2022). Fine-tuning of polarized hydroxyapatite for the catalytic conversion of dinitrogen to ammonium under mild conditions Chemical Engineering Journal 446, 137440

Polarized hydroxyapatite (p-HAp), a calcium phosphate catalyst obtained at high temperature under intense electric field, has been used for the synthesis of ammonium starting from N2 and liquid water at low pressure (<6 bar) and temperatures below 120 C. The success of the nitrogen fixation process has been demonstrated by isotope labelling experiments using 15N2. Considering the optimal reaction conditions for the production of ammonium, the yield is as high as 154.6 +/- 25.8 mu mol/g of catalyst. The proposed synthesis exhibits three important advantages for its utilization in green chemistry environmental processes related to the recycling of polluted air. These are: i) the catalysts converts CO2 into valuable chemical products in addition of transforming N2 in ammonium; ii) the final energy balance is very favorable since no external electrical field is necessary to promote nitrogen and carbon fixation reactions; and iii) products are easily transferred to water favoring their extraction and avoiding the saturation of the catalyst.

JTD Keywords: Adsorbed nitrogen, Air pollution, Amino-acids, Electrophotosynthesis, Environmental process, Facile synthesis, Fixation, Functionalization, Hydroxyapatite, Nitride, Nitrogen reduction, Polarized catalyst


Fernandez-Vazquez, J, Cabrer-Panes, JD, Aberg, A, Juarez, A, Madrid, C, Gaviria-Cantin, T, Fernandez-Coll, L, Vargas-Sinisterra, AF, Jimenez, CJ, Balsalobre, C, (2022). ppGpp, the General Stress Response Alarmone, Is Required for the Expression of the alpha-Hemolysin Toxin in the Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolate, J96 International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 12256

ppGpp is an intracellular sensor that, in response to different types of stress, coordinates the rearrangement of the gene expression pattern of bacteria to promote adaptation and survival to new environmental conditions. First described to modulate metabolic adaptive responses, ppGpp modulates the expression of genes belonging to very diverse functional categories. In Escherichia coli, ppGpp regulates the expression of cellular factors that are important during urinary tract infections. Here, we characterize the role of this alarmone in the regulation of the hlyCABD(II) operon of the UPEC isolate J96, encoding the toxin alpha-hemolysin that induces cytotoxicity during infection of bladder epithelial cells. ppGpp is required for the expression of the alpha-hemolysin encoded in hlyCABD(II) by stimulating its transcriptional expression. Prototrophy suppressor mutations in a ppGpp-deficient strain restore the alpha-hemolysin expression from this operon to wild-type levels, confirming the requirement of ppGpp for its expression. ppGpp stimulates hlyCABD(II) expression independently of RpoS, RfaH, Zur, and H-NS. The expression of hlyCABD(II) is promoted at 37 degrees C and at low osmolarity. ppGpp is required for the thermoregulation but not for the osmoregulation of the hlyCABD(II) operon. Studies in both commensal and UPEC isolates demonstrate that no UPEC specific factor is strictly required for the ppGpp-mediated regulation described. Our data further support the role of ppGpp participating in the coordinated regulation of the expression of bacterial factors required during infection.

JTD Keywords: gene regulation, ppgpp, upec, Alpha-hemolysin, Bacterial signal molecule, Determinants, Environmental-regulation, Gene regulation, H-ns, Ppgpp, Protein, Regulator, Rfah, Secretion, Transcription, Upec, Virulence, Α-hemolysin


Arque, X, Patino, T, Sanchez, S, (2022). Enzyme-powered micro- and nano-motors: key parameters for an application-oriented design Chemical Science 13, 9128-9146

Nature has inspired the creation of artificial micro- and nanomotors that self-propel converting chemical energy into mechanical action. These tiny machines have appeared as promising biomedical tools for treatment and diagnosis and have also been used for environmental, antimicrobial or sensing applications. Among the possible catalytic engines, enzymes have emerged as an alternative to inorganic catalysts due to their biocompatibility and the variety and bioavailability of fuels. Although the field of enzyme-powered micro- and nano-motors has a trajectory of more than a decade, a comprehensive framework on how to rationally design, control and optimize their motion is still missing. With this purpose, herein we performed a thorough bibliographic study on the key parameters governing the propulsion of these enzyme-powered devices, namely the chassis shape, the material composition, the motor size, the enzyme type, the method used to incorporate enzymes, the distribution of the product released, the motion mechanism, the motion media and the technique used for motion detection. In conclusion, from the library of options that each parameter offers there needs to be a rational selection and intelligent design of enzymatic motors based on the specific application envisioned.

JTD Keywords: Catalase, Hydrogen-peroxide, Micro/nanomotors, Micromotors, Movement, Nanomotors, Propulsion, Surfactants, Therapy, Tumor microenvironment


Ordoño, J, Pérez-Amodio, S, Ball, K, Aguirre, A, Engel, E, (2022). The generation of a lactate-rich environment stimulates cell cycle progression and modulates gene expression on neonatal and hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes Biomaterials Advances 139, 213035

In situ tissue engineering strategies are a promising approach to activate the endogenous regenerative potential of the cardiac tissue helping the heart to heal itself after an injury. However, the current use of complex reprogramming vectors for the activation of reparative pathways challenges the easy translation of these therapies into the clinic. Here, we evaluated the response of mouse neonatal and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes to the presence of exogenous lactate, thus mimicking the metabolic environment of the fetal heart. An increase in cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity was observed in the presence of lactate, as determined through Ki67 and Aurora-B kinase. Gene expression and RNA-sequencing data revealed that cardiomyocytes incubated with lactate showed upregulation of BMP10, LIN28 or TCIM in tandem with downregulation of GRIK1 or DGKK among others. Lactate also demonstrated a capability to modulate the production of inflammatory cytokines on cardiac fibroblasts, reducing the production of Fas, Fraktalkine or IL-12p40, while stimulating IL-13 and SDF1a. In addition, the generation of a lactate-rich environment improved ex vivo neonatal heart culture, by affecting the contractile activity and sarcomeric structures and inhibiting epicardial cell spreading. Our results also suggested a common link between the effect of lactate and the activation of hypoxia signaling pathways. These findings support a novel use of lactate in cardiac tissue engineering, modulating the metabolic environment of the heart and thus paving the way to the development of lactate-releasing platforms for in situ cardiac regeneration.Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: cardiac regeneration, cardiac tissue engineering, cell cycle, failure, growth, heart regeneration, induced pluripotent stem cells, ischemia, lactate, metabolic environment, metabolism, mouse, proliferation, repair, Bone morphogenetic protein-10, Cardiac tissue engineering, Cardiomyocytes, Cell cycle, Induced pluripotent stem cells, Lactate, Metabolic environment


Duch, P, Diaz-Valdivia, N, Ikemori, R, Gabasa, M, Radisky, ES, Arshakyan, M, Gea-Sorli, S, Mateu-Bosch, A, Bragado, P, Carrasco, JL, Mori, H, Ramirez, J, Teixido, C, Reguart, N, Fillat, C, Radisky, DC, Alcaraz, J, (2022). Aberrant TIMP-1 overexpression in tumor-associated fibroblasts drives tumor progression through CD63 in lung adenocarcinoma Matrix Biology 111, 207-225

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is an important regulator of extracellular matrix turnover that has been traditionally regarded as a potential tumor suppressor owing to its inhibitory effects of matrix metal-loproteinases. Intriguingly, this interpretation has been challenged by the consistent observation that increased expression of TIMP-1 is associated with poor prognosis in virtually all cancer types including lung cancer, supporting a tumor-promoting function. However, how TIMP-1 is dysregulated within the tumor micro-environment and how it drives tumor progression in lung cancer is poorly understood. We analyzed the expression of TIMP-1 and its cell surface receptor CD63 in two major lung cancer subtypes: lung adenocarci-noma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and defined the tumor-promoting effects of their interac-tion. We found that TIMP-1 is aberrantly overexpressed in tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) in ADC compared to SCC. Mechanistically, TIMP-1 overexpression was mediated by the selective hyperactivity of the pro-fibrotic TGF-61/SMAD3 pathway in ADC-TAFs. Likewise, CD63 was upregulated in ADC compared to SCC cells. Genetic analyses revealed that TIMP-1 secreted by TGF-61-activated ADC-TAFs is both nec-essary and sufficient to enhance growth and invasion of ADC cancer cells in culture, and that tumor cell expression of CD63 was required for these effects. Consistently, in vivo analyses revealed that ADC cells co-injected with fibroblasts with reduced SMAD3 or TIMP-1 expression into immunocompromised mice attenu-ated tumor aggressiveness compared to tumors bearing parental fibroblasts. We also found that high TIMP1 and CD63 mRNA levels combined define a stronger prognostic biomarker than TIMP1 alone. Our results identify an excessive stromal TIMP-1 within the tumor microenvironment selectively in lung ADC, and implicate it in a novel tumor-promoting TAF-carcinoma crosstalk, thereby pointing to TIMP-1/CD63 interaction as a novel therapeutic target in lung cancer. (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

JTD Keywords: cancer-associated fibroblast, cd63, fibrosis, smad3, tgf-β1, timp-1, Angiogenesis, Cancer cells, Cancer-associated fibroblast, Cd63, Expression, Fibrosis, Hepatocellular-carcinoma, Metalloproteinases, Nintedanib, Prognostic-significance, Protein, Smad3, Squamous-cell carcinoma, Tgf-? 1, Tgf-β1, Timp-1, Tissue inhibitor, Tumor microenvironment


Aydin, O, Passaro, AP, Raman, R, Spellicy, SE, Weinberg, RP, Kamm, RD, Sample, M, Truskey, GA, Zartman, J, Dar, RD, Palacios, S, Wang, J, Tordoff, J, Montserrat, N, Bashir, R, Saif, MTA, Weiss, R, (2022). Principles for the design of multicellular engineered living systems Apl Bioengineering 6, 10903

Remarkable progress in bioengineering over the past two decades has enabled the formulation of fundamental design principles for a variety of medical and non-medical applications. These advancements have laid the foundation for building multicellular engineered living systems (M-CELS) from biological parts, forming functional modules integrated into living machines. These cognizant design principles for living systems encompass novel genetic circuit manipulation, self-assembly, cell–cell/matrix communication, and artificial tissues/organs enabled through systems biology, bioinformatics, computational biology, genetic engineering, and microfluidics. Here, we introduce design principles and a blueprint for forward production of robust and standardized M-CELS, which may undergo variable reiterations through the classic design-build-test-debug cycle. This Review provides practical and theoretical frameworks to forward-design, control, and optimize novel M-CELS. Potential applications include biopharmaceuticals, bioreactor factories, biofuels, environmental bioremediation, cellular computing, biohybrid digital technology, and experimental investigations into mechanisms of multicellular organisms normally hidden inside the “black box” of living cells.

JTD Keywords: cell-fate specification, endothelial-cells, escherichia-coli, extracellular-matrix, gene-expression noise, nuclear hormone-receptors, pluripotent stem-cells, primitive endoderm, transcription factors, Artificial tissues, Assembly cells, Biological parts, Biological systems, Bioremediation, Blood-brain-barrier, Cell engineering, Cell/matrix communication, Design principles, Environmental technology, Functional modules, Fundamental design, Genetic circuits, Genetic engineering, Living machines, Living systems, Medical applications, Molecular biology, Synthetic biology


Dhiman, S, Andrian, T, Gonzalez, BS, Tholen, MME, Wang, YY, Albertazzi, L, (2022). Can super-resolution microscopy become a standard characterization technique for materials chemistry? Chemical Science 13, 2152-2166

The characterization of newly synthesized materials is a cornerstone of all chemistry and nanotechnology laboratories. For this purpose, a wide array of analytical techniques have been standardized and are used routinely by laboratories across the globe. With these methods we can understand the structure, dynamics and function of novel molecular architectures and their relations with the desired performance, guiding the development of the next generation of materials. Moreover, one of the challenges in materials chemistry is the lack of reproducibility due to improper publishing of the sample preparation protocol. In this context, the recent adoption of the reporting standard MIRIBEL (Minimum Information Reporting in Bio–Nano Experimental Literature) for material characterization and details of experimental protocols aims to provide complete, reproducible and reliable sample preparation for the scientific community. Thus, MIRIBEL should be immediately adopted in publications by scientific journals to overcome this challenge. Besides current standard spectroscopy and microscopy techniques, there is a constant development of novel technologies that aim to help chemists unveil the structure of complex materials. Among them super-resolution microscopy (SRM), an optical technique that bypasses the diffraction limit of light, has facilitated the study of synthetic materials with multicolor ability and minimal invasiveness at nanometric resolution. Although still in its infancy, the potential of SRM to unveil the structure, dynamics and function of complex synthetic architectures has been highlighted in pioneering reports during the last few years. Currently, SRM is a sophisticated technique with many challenges in sample preparation, data analysis, environmental control and automation, and moreover the instrumentation is still expensive. Therefore, SRM is currently limited to expert users and is not implemented in characterization routines. This perspective discusses the potential of SRM to transition from a niche technique to a standard routine method for material characterization. We propose a roadmap for the necessary developments required for this purpose based on a collaborative effort from scientists and engineers across disciplines.

JTD Keywords: blinking, fluorophore, intramolecular spirocyclization, localization, nanoparticles, resolution limit, reveals, single-molecule fluorescence, stimulated-emission, Characterization techniques, Diffraction, Distributed computer systems, Environmental management, Information reporting, Material chemistry, Materials characterization, Minimum information, Optical reconstruction microscopy, Optical resolving power, Sample preparation, Structure dynamics, Structure functions, Super-resolution microscopy, Synthesized materials


Murar, M, Albertazzi, L, Pujals, S, (2022). Advanced Optical Imaging-Guided Nanotheranostics toward Personalized Cancer Drug Delivery Nanomaterials 12, 399

Nanomedicine involves the use of nanotechnology for clinical applications and holds promise to improve treatments. Recent developments offer new hope for cancer detection, prevention and treatment; however, being a heterogenous disorder, cancer calls for a more targeted treatment approach. Personalized Medicine (PM) aims to revolutionize cancer therapy by matching the most effective treatment to individual patients. Nanotheranostics comprise a combination of therapy and diagnostic imaging incorporated in a nanosystem and are developed to fulfill the promise of PM by helping in the selection of treatments, the objective monitoring of response and the planning of follow-up therapy. Although well-established imaging techniques, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), are primarily used in the development of theranostics, Optical Imaging (OI) offers some advantages, such as high sensitivity, spatial and temporal resolution and less invasiveness. Additionally, it allows for multiplexing, using multi-color imaging and DNA barcoding, which further aids in the development of personalized treatments. Recent advances have also given rise to techniques permitting better penetration, opening new doors for OI-guided nanotheranostics. In this review, we describe in detail these recent advances that may be used to design and develop efficient and specific nanotheranostics for personalized cancer drug delivery. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: 5-aminolevulinic acid, cancer, contrast agents, in-vivo, malignant gliomas, multifunctional nanoparticles, nanomedicine, optical imaging, ovarian-cancer, personalized medicine, quantum dots, silica nanoparticles, targeted probes, theranostics, Cancer, Nanomedicine, Optical imaging, Personalized medicine, Superparamagnetic iron-oxide, Theranostics


Burgués, J, Esclapez, MD, Doñate, S, Marco, S, (2021). RHINOS: A lightweight portable electronic nose for real-time odor quantification in wastewater treatment plants Iscience 24, 103371

Quantification of odor emissions in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is key to minimize odor impact to surrounding communities. Odor measurements in WWTPs are usually performed via either expensive and discontinuous olfactometry hydrogen sulfide detectors or via fixed electronic noses. We propose a portable lightweight electronic nose specially designed for real-time odor monitoring in WWTPs using small drones. The so-called RHINOS e-nose allows odor measurements with high spatial resolution, and its accuracy is only slightly worse than that of dynamic olfactometry. The device has been calibrated using odor samples collected in a WWTP in Spain over a period of six months and validated in the same WWTP three weeks after calibration. The promising results obtained support the suitability of the proposed instrument to identify the odor sources having the highest emissions, which may give a useful indication to the plant managers as regards odor control and abatement.© 2021 The Author(s).

JTD Keywords: biofiltration, calibration transfer, chemical sensor arrays, chemistry, drift compensation, engineering, environmental chemical engineering, h2s, model, oxide gas sensors, removal, sensor, system, Chemistry, Engineering, Environmental chemical engineering, Sensor, Sensor system, Variable selection methods


Farre, R, Rodriguez-Lazaro, MA, Dinh-Xuan, AT, Pons-Odena, M, Navajas, D, Gozal, D, (2021). A low-cost, easy-to-assemble device to prevent infant hyperthermia under conditions of high thermal stress International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health 18, 13382

High ambient temperature and humidity greatly increase the risk of hyperthermia and mortality, particularly in infants, who are especially prone to dehydration. World areas at high risk of heat stress include many of the low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) where most of their inhabitants have no access to air conditioning. This study aimed to design, evaluate, and test a novel low-cost and easy-to-assemble device aimed at preventing the risk of infant hyperthermia in LMICs. The device is based on optimizing negative heat transfer from a small amount of ice and transferring it directly to the infant by airflow of refrigerated air. As a proof of concept, a device was assembled mainly using recycled materials, and its performance was assessed under laboratory-controlled conditions in a climatic chamber mimicking realistic stress conditions of high temperature and humidity. The device, which can be assembled by any layperson using easily available materials, provided sufficient refrigerating capacity for several hours from just 1–2 kg of ice obtained from a domestic freezer. Thus, application of this novel device may serve to attenuate the adverse effects of heat stress in infants, particularly in the context of the evolving climatic change trends. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: air conditioning, ambient-temperature, death, heat, heat index, heat shock, heatwave, high ambient temperature, hyperthermia, low-cost refrigeration, low-middle income countries, mortality, negative heat transfer, Air conditioning, Algorithm, Article, Climate change, Cost benefit analysis, Environmental temperature, Heat index, Heat shock, Heat stress, Heat transfer, Heating, Heatwave, High ambient temperature, High temperature, Humidity, Hyperthermia, Low income country, Low-cost refrigeration, Low-middle income countries, Middle income country, Middle-income countries, Negative heat transfer, Prevention study, Refrigeration, Temperature stress, Thawing


Lozano, H, Millan-Solsona, R, Blanco-Cabra, N, Fabregas, R, Torrents, E, Gomila, G, (2021). Electrical properties of outer membrane extensions from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Nanoscale 13, 18754-18762

Outer membrane extensions from the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 show an insulating behavior in dry air environment as measured by scanning dielectric microscopy.

JTD Keywords: constant, dielectric polarization, microbial nanowires, nanoscale, transport, Air environment, Bacteria, Bacterial cells, Bacterial nanowires, Dry air, Metal-reducing bacteria, Outer membrane, Phase-minerals, Proteins, Shewanella oneidensis mr-1, Solid phasis, Solid-phase, Space division multiple access, Tubulars


Rubí-Sans, G, Nyga, A, Rebollo, E, Pérez-Amodio, S, Otero, J, Navajas, D, Mateos-Timoneda, MA, Engel, E, (2021). Development of Cell-Derived Matrices for Three-Dimensional in Vitro Cancer Cell Models Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces 13, 44108-44123

Most morphogenetic and pathological processes are driven by cells responding to the surrounding matrix, such as its composition, architecture, and mechanical properties. Despite increasing evidence for the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) in tissue and disease development, many in vitro substitutes still fail to effectively mimic the native microenvironment. We established a novel method to produce macroscale (>1 cm) mesenchymal cell-derived matrices (CDMs) aimed to mimic the fibrotic tumor microenvironment surrounding epithelial cancer cells. CDMs are produced by human adipose mesenchymal stem cells cultured in sacrificial 3D scaffold templates of fibronectin-coated poly-lactic acid microcarriers (MCs) in the presence of macromolecular crowders. We showed that decellularized CDMs closely mimic the fibrillar protein composition, architecture, and mechanical properties of human fibrotic ECM from cancer masses. CDMs had highly reproducible composition made of collagen types I and III and fibronectin ECM with tunable mechanical properties. Moreover, decellularized and MC-free CDMs were successfully repopulated with cancer cells throughout their 3D structure, and following chemotherapeutic treatment, cancer cells showed greater doxorubicin resistance compared to 3D culture in collagen hydrogels. Collectively, these results support the use of CDMs as a reproducible and tunable tool for developing 3D in vitro cancer models.

JTD Keywords: 3d cell-derived matrices, adipose mesenchymal stem cells, collagen matrix, colorectal adenocarcinoma, cytotoxicity assay, deposition, expansion, extracellular microenvironment, extracellular-matrix, fibronectin, growth, macromolecular crowders, microcarriers, scaffolds, tissue, 3d cell-derived matrices, Adipose mesenchymal stem cells, Cytotoxicity assay, Extracellular microenvironment, Macromolecular crowders, Mesenchymal stem-cells, Microcarriers


Falcones, B, Sanz-Fraile, H, Marhuenda, E, Mendizábal, I, Cabrera-Aguilera, I, Malandain, N, Uriarte, JJ, Almendros, I, Navajas, D, Weiss, DJ, Farré, R, Otero, J, (2021). Bioprintable lung extracellular matrix hydrogel scaffolds for 3d culture of mesenchymal stromal cells Polymers 13, 2350

Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based cell therapy in acute respiratory diseases is based on MSC secretion of paracrine factors. Several strategies have proposed to improve this are being explored including pre-conditioning the MSCs prior to administration. We here propose a strategy for improving the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs based on cell preconditioning by growing them in native extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from the lung. To this end, a bioink with tunable stiffness based on decellularized porcine lung ECM hydrogels was developed and characterized. The bioink was suitable for 3D culturing of lung-resident MSCs without the need for additional chemical or physical crosslinking. MSCs showed good viability, and contraction assays showed the existence of cell–matrix interactions in the bioprinted scaffolds. Adhesion capacity and length of the focal adhesions formed were increased for the cells cultured within the lung hydrogel scaffolds. Also, there was more than a 20-fold increase of the expression of the CXCR4 receptor in the 3D-cultured cells compared to the cells cultured in plastic. Secretion of cytokines when cultured in an in vitro model of lung injury showed a decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators for the cells cultured in the 3D scaffolds. Moreover, the morphology of the harvested cells was markedly different with respect to conventionally (2D) cultured MSCs. In conclusion, the developed bioink can be used to bioprint structures aimed to improve preconditioning MSCs for therapeutic purposes.

JTD Keywords: 3d bioprinting, acute lung injury, adhesion, collagen, differentiation, dimension, elastic properties, extracellular matrix, hydrogels, in-vitro, mechanical-properties, mesenchymal stromal cells, microenvironment, potentiate, tissue engineering, 3d bioprinting, Acute lung injury, Extracellular matrix, Hydrogels, Mesenchymal stromal cells, Stem-cells, Tissue engineering


Burgués, J, Esclapez, MD, Doñate, S, Pastor, L, Marco, S, (2021). Aerial mapping of odorous gases in a wastewater treatment plant using a small drone Remote Sensing 13, 1757

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are sources of greenhouse gases, hazardous air pollutants and offensive odors. These emissions can have negative repercussions in and around the plant, degrading the quality of life of surrounding neighborhoods, damaging the environment, and reducing employee’s overall job satisfaction. Current monitoring methodologies based on fixed gas detectors and sporadic olfactometric measurements (human panels) do not allow for an accurate spatial representation of such emissions. In this paper we use a small drone equipped with an array of electrochemical and metal oxide (MOX) sensors for mapping odorous gases in a mid-sized WWTP. An innovative sampling system based on two (10 m long) flexible tubes hanging from the drone allowed near-source sampling from a safe distance with negligible influence from the downwash of the drone’s propellers. The proposed platform is very convenient for monitoring hard-toreach emission sources, such as the plant’s deodorization chimney, which turned out to be responsible for the strongest odor emissions. The geo-localized measurements visualized in the form of a two-dimensional (2D) gas concentration map revealed the main emission hotspots where abatement solutions were needed. A principal component analysis (PCA) of the multivariate sensor signals suggests that the proposed system can also be used to trace which emission source is responsible for a certain measurement.

JTD Keywords: air pollution, environmental monitoring, gas sensors, industrial emissions, mapping, odour, uav, Air pollution, Drone, Environmental monitoring, Gas sensors, Industrial emissions, Mapping, Odour, Sensors, Uav


Mateu-Sanz, M, Tornin, J, Ginebra, MP, Canal, C, (2021). Cold Atmospheric Plasma: A New Strategy Based Primarily on Oxidative Stress for Osteosarcoma Therapy Journal Of Clinical Medicine 10, 893

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor, and its first line of treatment presents a high failure rate. The 5-year survival for children and teenagers with osteosarcoma is 70% (if diagnosed before it has metastasized) or 20% (if spread at the time of diagnosis), stressing the need for novel therapies. Recently, cold atmospheric plasmas (ionized gases consisting of UV-Vis radiation, electromagnetic fields and a great variety of reactive species) and plasma-treated liquids have been shown to have the potential to selectively eliminate cancer cells in different tumors through an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. In this work, we review the current state of the art in cold plasma therapy for osteosarcoma. Specifically, we emphasize the mechanisms unveiled thus far regarding the action of plasmas on osteosarcoma. Finally, we review current and potential future approaches, emphasizing the most critical challenges for the development of osteosarcoma therapies based on this emerging technique.

JTD Keywords: cancer stem cells, cold atmospheric plasma, osteosarcoma, oxidative stress, plasma treated liquids, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, Antineoplastic activity, Antineoplastic agent, Cancer chemotherapy, Cancer stem cell, Cancer stem cells, Cancer surgery, Cancer survival, Cell therapy, Cold atmospheric plasma, Cold atmospheric plasma therapy, Electromagnetism, Human, In vitro study, Intracellular signaling, Oncogene, Osteosarcoma, Oxidative stress, Plasma treated liquids, Reactive nitrogen species, Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, Reactive oxygen metabolite, Review, Tumor microenvironment


Burgués, Javier, Marco, Santiago, (2020). Environmental chemical sensing using small drones: A review Science of The Total Environment 748, 141172

Recent advances in miniaturization of chemical instrumentation and in low-cost small drones are catalyzing exponential growth in the use of such platforms for environmental chemical sensing applications. The versatility of chemically sensitive drones is reflected by their rapid adoption in scientific, industrial, and regulatory domains, such as in atmospheric research studies, industrial emission monitoring, and in enforcement of environmental regulations. As a result of this interdisciplinarity, progress to date has been reported across a broad spread of scientific and non-scientific databases, including scientific journals, press releases, company websites, and field reports. The aim of this paper is to assemble all of these pieces of information into a comprehensive, structured and updated review of the field of chemical sensing using small drones. We exhaustively review current and emerging applications of this technology, as well as sensing platforms and algorithms developed by research groups and companies for tasks such as gas concentration mapping, source localization, and flux estimation. We conclude with a discussion of the most pressing technological and regulatory limitations in current practice, and how these could be addressed by future research.

JTD Keywords: Unmanned aircraft systems, Remotely piloted aircraft systems, Chemical sensors, Gas sensors, Environmental monitoring, Industrial emission monitoring


Almici, Enrico, Caballero, David, Montero, Joan, Samitier, Josep, (2020). 3D neuroblastoma in vitro models using engineered cell-derived matrices Biomaterials for 3D Tumor Modeling (ed. Kundu, Subhas C., Reis, Rui L.), Elsevier (Amsterdam, Netherlands) , 107-130

Neuroblastoma (NB) is a malignant tumor that affects the peripheral nervous system and represents one of the most frequent cancers in infants. Its prognosis is poor in older patients and the presence of genetic abnormalities. Metastasis is often present at the time of diagnosis, making treatment more intensive and unsuccessful. Poor prognosis and variable treatment efficacy require a better understanding of the underlying biology. Evidence has shown that the tumor microenvironment is the characteristic of tumor malignancy and progression. A more highly differentiated tissue phenotype represents a positive prognostic marker, while the tumoral tissue is characterized by a distinct composition and morphology of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this chapter, we discuss the application of decellularized cell-derived matrices (CDMs) to model in vitro the morphology of the ECM encountered in histological hallmarks of NB patients. This technique allows for the in vitro reproduction of the fine structure and composition of native microenvironments. Because of recent advances in culture systems and decellularization techniques, it is possible to engineer CDM composition and microarchitecture to produce differentiated models of tissue niches. The final goal is to repopulate the “scaffold” with malignant NB cells for drug screening and target discovery applications, studying the impact of patient-inspired tissues on signaling, migration, and tissue remodeling.

JTD Keywords: Neuroblastoma, Cancer, Bioengineering, Tumor microenvironment, Cell-derived matrices, Decellularization


Muro, Silvia, (2018). Alterations in cellular processes involving vesicular trafficking and implications in drug delivery Biomimetics 3, (3), 19

Endocytosis and vesicular trafficking are cellular processes that regulate numerous functions required to sustain life. From a translational perspective, they offer avenues to improve the access of therapeutic drugs across cellular barriers that separate body compartments and into diseased cells. However, the fact that many factors have the potential to alter these routes, impacting our ability to effectively exploit them, is often overlooked. Altered vesicular transport may arise from the molecular defects underlying the pathological syndrome which we aim to treat, the activity of the drugs being used, or side effects derived from the drug carriers employed. In addition, most cellular models currently available do not properly reflect key physiological parameters of the biological environment in the body, hindering translational progress. This article offers a critical overview of these topics, discussing current achievements, limitations and future perspectives on the use of vesicular transport for drug delivery applications.

JTD Keywords: Cellular vesicles, Vesicle fusion, Fission and intracellular trafficking, Drug delivery systems and nanomedicines, Transcytosis and endocytosis of drugs carriers, Disease effects on vesicular trafficking, Drug effects on vesicular trafficking, Role of the biological environment


Villa, Katherine, Parmar, Jemish, Vilela, Diana, Sánchez, Samuel, (2018). Metal-oxide-based microjets for the simultaneous removal of organic pollutants and heavy metals ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 10, (24), 20478-20486

Water contamination from industrial and anthropogenic activities is nowadays a major issue in many countries worldwide. To address this problem, efficient water treatment technologies are required. Recent efforts have focused on the development of self-propelled micromotors that provide enhanced micromixing and mass transfer by the transportation of reactive species, resulting in higher decontamination rates. However, a real application of these micromotors is still limited due to the high cost associated to their fabrication process. Here, we present Fe2O3-decorated SiO2/MnO2 microjets for the simultaneous removal of industrial organic pollutants and heavy metals present in wastewater. These microjets were synthesized by low-cost and scalable methods. They exhibit an average speed of 485 ± 32 μm s–1 (∼28 body length per s) at 7% H2O2, which is the highest reported for MnO2-based tubular micromotors. Furthermore, the photocatalytic and adsorbent properties of the microjets enable the efficient degradation of organic pollutants, such as tetracycline and rhodamine B under visible light irradiation, as well as the removal of heavy metal ions, such as Cd2+ and Pb2+.

JTD Keywords: Micromotors, Photocatalytic, Water purification, Fenton, Magnetic control, Iron oxide, Manganese oxide


Caballero, D., Palacios, L., Freitas, P. P., Samitier, J., (2017). An interplay between matrix anisotropy and actomyosin contractility regulates 3D-directed cell migration Advanced Functional Materials 27, (35), 1702322

Directed cell migration is essential for many biological processes, such as embryonic development or cancer progression. Cell contractility and adhesion to the extracellular matrix are known to regulate cell locomotion machinery. However, the cross-talk between extrinsic and intrinsic factors at the molecular level on the biophysical mechanism of three dimensional (3D)-directed cell migration is still unclear. In this work, a novel physiologically relevant in vitro model of the extracellular microenvironment is used to reveal how the topological anisotropy of the extracellular matrix synergizes with actomyosin contractility to modulate directional cell migration morphodynamics. This study shows that cells seeded on polarized 3D matrices display asymmetric protrusion morphodynamics and in-vivo-like phenotypes. It is found that matrix anisotropy significantly enhances cell directionality, but strikingly, not the invasion distance of cells. In Rho-inhibited cells, matrix anisotropy counteracts the lack of actomyosin-driven forces to stabilize cell directionality suggesting a myosin-II-independent mechanism for cell guidance. Finally, this study shows that on isotropic 3D environments, cell directionality is independent of actomyosin contractility. Altogether, this study provides novel quantitative data on the biomechanical regulation of directional cell motion and shows the important regulatory role of matrix anisotropy and actomyosin forces to guide cell migration in 3D microenvironments.

JTD Keywords: Anisotropy, Directed cell migration, Extracellular matrices, Migration modes, Three dimensional microenvironments


López-Martínez, Montserrat, Artés, Juan Manuel, Sarasso, Veronica, Carminati, Marco, Díez-Pérez, Ismael, Sanz, Fausto, Gorostiza, Pau, (2017). Differential electrochemical conductance imaging at the nanoscale Small 13, (36), 1700958

Electron transfer in proteins is essential in crucial biological processes. Although the fundamental aspects of biological electron transfer are well characterized, currently there are no experimental tools to determine the atomic-scale electronic pathways in redox proteins, and thus to fully understand their outstanding efficiency and environmental adaptability. This knowledge is also required to design and optimize biomolecular electronic devices. In order to measure the local conductance of an electrode surface immersed in an electrolyte, this study builds upon the current–potential spectroscopic capacity of electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy, by adding an alternating current modulation technique. With this setup, spatially resolved, differential electrochemical conductance images under bipotentiostatic control are recorded. Differential electrochemical conductance imaging allows visualizing the reversible oxidation of an iron electrode in borate buffer and individual azurin proteins immobilized on atomically flat gold surfaces. In particular, this method reveals submolecular regions with high conductance within the protein. The direct observation of nanoscale conduction pathways in redox proteins and complexes enables important advances in biochemistry and bionanotechnology.

JTD Keywords: Differential electrochemical conductance, ECSTM, Electron transport pathway, Iron passivation, Redox metalloproteins


Bianchi, M. V., Awaja, F., Altankov, G., (2017). Dynamic adhesive environment alters the differentiation potential of young and ageing mesenchymal stem cells Materials Science and Engineering: C 78, 467-474

Engineering dynamic stem cell niche-like environment offers opportunity to obtain better control of the fate of stem cells. We identified, for the first time, that periodic changes in the adhesive environment of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) alters dramatically their asymmetric division but not their ability for symmetric renewal. Hereby, we used smart thermo-responsive polymer (PNIPAM) to create a dynamic adhesive environment for ADSCs by applying periodic temperature cycles to perturb adsorbed adhesive proteins to substratum interaction. Cumulative population doubling time (CPDT) curves showed insignificant decline in the symmetric cell growth studied for up to 13th passages accompanied with small changes in the overall cell morphology and moderately declined fibronectin (FN) matrix deposition probably as a functional consequence of ADSCs ageing. However, a substantial alteration in the differentiation potential of ADSCs from both early and late passages (3rd and 14th, respectively) was found when the cells were switched to osteogenic differentiation conditions. This behavior was evidenced by the significantly altered alkaline phosphatase activity and Ca deposition (Alizarin red) assayed at 3, 14 and 21 day in comparison to the control samples of regular TC polystyrene processed under same temperature settings.

JTD Keywords: Cell ageing, Dynamic adhesive environment, Extracellular matrix, Mesenchymal stem cells, PNIPAM, Stem cell niche, Symmetric and asymmetric cell growth, Thermo-cycling, Thermo-responsive polymer


Simmchen, Juliane, Baeza, Alejandro, Miguel-Lopez, Albert, Stanton, Morgan M., Vallet-Regi, Maria, Ruiz-Molina, Daniel, Sánchez, Samuel, (2017). Dynamics of novel photoactive AgCl microstars and their environmental applications ChemNanoMat 3, (1), 65-71

In the field of micromotors many efforts are taken to find a substitute for peroxide as fuel. While most approaches turn towards other toxic high energy chemicals such as hydrazine, we introduce an energy source that is widely used in nature: light. Light is an ideal source of energy and some materials, such as AgCl, have the inherent property to transform light energy for chemical processes, which can be used to achieve propulsion. In the case of silver chloride, one observed process after light exposure is surface modification which leads to the release of ions generating chemo-osmotic gradients. Here we present endeavours to use those processes to propel uniquely shaped micro objects of micro star morphology with a high surface to volume ratio, study their dynamics and present approaches to go towards real environmental applications.

JTD Keywords: Self-propellers, Silver chloride, Environmental applications, Photoactive colloids, Anti bacterial


Tahirbegi, I.B., Pardo, W.A., Alvira, M., Mir, M., Samitier, J., (2016). Amyloid Aβ 42, a promoter of magnetite nanoparticle formation in Alzheimer's disease Nanotechnology 27, (46), 465102

The accumulation of iron oxides - mainly magnetite - with amyloid peptide is a key process in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism for biogeneration of magnetite inside the brain of someone with AD is still unclear. The iron-storing protein ferritin has been identified as the main magnetite-storing molecule. However, accumulations of magnetite in AD are not correlated with an increase in ferritin, leaving this question unresolved. Here we demonstrate the key role of amyloid peptide Aβ 42, one of the main hallmarks of AD, in the generation of magnetite nanoparticles in the absence of ferritin. The capacity of amyloid peptide to bind and concentrate iron hydroxides, the basis for the formation of magnetite, benefits the spontaneous synthesis of these nanoparticles, even under unfavorable conditions for their formation. Using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and magnetic force microscopy we characterized the capacity of amyloid peptide Aβ 42 to promote magnetite formation.

JTD Keywords: Alzheimer disease (AD), amyloid peptide Ab42, magnetite nanoparticle, metallobiomolecule, iron oxide, neurodegenerative brain diseases


Fernández-Remolar, D. C., Santamaría, J., Amils, R., Parro, V., Gómez-Ortíz, D., Izawa, M. R. M., Banerjee, N. R., Pérez-Rodríguez', R., Rodríguez, N., López-Martínez, N., (2015). Formation of iron-rich shelled structures by microbial communities Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences , 120, (1), 147-168

In this paper, we describe the discovery and characterization of shelled structures that occur inside galleries of Pyrenees mines. The structures are formed by the mineralization of iron and zinc oxides, dominantly franklinite (ZnFe2O4) and poorly ordered goethite (α-FeO(OH)). Subsurface oxidation and hydration of polymetallic sulfide orebodies produce solutions rich in dissolved metal cations including Fe2+/3+ and Zn2+. The microbially precipitated shell-like structure grows by lateral or vertical stacking of thin laminae of iron oxide particles which are accreted mostly by fungal filaments. The resulting structures are composed of randomly oriented aggregates of needle-like, uniform-sized crystals, suggesting some biological control in the structure formation. Such structures are formed by the integration of two separated shells, following a complex process driven likely by different strategies of fungal microorganisms that produced the complex macrostructure.

JTD Keywords: Geobiology, Iron oxides, Microbial mineralization


Seo, K. D., Kwak, B. K., Sánchez, S., Kim, D. S., (2015). Microfluidic-assisted fabrication of flexible and location traceable organo-motor IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience , 14, (3), 298-304

In this paper, we fabricate a flexible and location traceable micromotor, called organo-motor, assisted by microfluidic devices and with high throughput. The organo-motors are composed of organic hydrogel material, poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), which can provide the flexibility of their structure. For spatial and temporal traceability of the organo-motors under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION; Fe3O4) were incorporated into the PEGDA microhydrogels. Furthermore, a thin layer of platinum (Pt) was deposited onto one side of the SPION-PEGDA microhydrogels providing geometrical asymmetry and catalytic propulsion in aqueous fluids containing hydrogen peroxide solution, H2O2. Furthermore, the motion of the organo-motor was controlled by a small external magnet enabled by the presence of SPION in the motor architecture.

JTD Keywords: Flexible, Hydrogel, Magnetic resonance imaging, Microfluidics, Micromotor, Microparticle, Organo-motor, Poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate, Self-propulsion, Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles


Palleja, T., Balsa, R., Tresanchez, M., Moreno, J., Teixido, M., Font, D., Marco, S., Pomareda, V., Palacin, J., (2014). Corridor gas-leak localization using a mobile Robot with a photo ionization detector sensor Sensor Letters , 12, (6-7), 974-977

The use of an autonomous mobile robot to locate gas-leaks and air quality monitoring in indoor environments are promising tasks that will avoid risky human operations. However, these are challenging tasks due to the chaotic gas profile propagation originated by uncontrolled air flows. This paper proposes the localization of an acetone gas-leak in a 44 m-length indoor corridor with a mobile robot equipped with a PID sensor. This paper assesses the influence of the mobile robot velocity and the relative height of the PID sensor in the profile of the measurements. The results show weak influence of the robot velocity and strong influence of the relative height of the PID sensor. An estimate of the gas-leak location is also performed by computing the center of mass of the highest gas concentrations.

JTD Keywords: Gas source detection, LIDAR sensor, Mobile robot, PID sensor, SLAM, Acetone, Air quality, Gases, Indoor air pollution, Mobile robots, Robots, Air quality monitoring, Autonomous Mobile Robot, Gas sources, Indoor environment, Leak localization, LIDAR sensors, Profile propagation, SLAM, Ionization of gases


Melo, E., Cárdenes, N., Garreta, E., Luque, T., Rojas, M., Navajas, D., Farré, R., (2014). Inhomogeneity of local stiffness in the extracellular matrix scaffold of fibrotic mouse lungs Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials , 37, 186-195

Lung disease models are useful to study how cell engraftment, proliferation and differentiation are modulated in lung bioengineering. The aim of this work was to characterize the local stiffness of decellularized lungs in aged and fibrotic mice. Mice (2- and 24-month old; 14 of each) with lung fibrosis (N=20) and healthy controls (N=8) were euthanized after 11 days of intratracheal bleomycin (fibrosis) or saline (controls) infusion. The lungs were excised, decellularized by a conventional detergent-based (sodium-dodecyl sulfate) procedure and slices of the acellular lungs were prepared to measure the local stiffness by means of atomic force microscopy. The local stiffness of the different sites in acellular fibrotic lungs was very inhomogeneous within the lung and increased according to the degree of the structural fibrotic lesion. Local stiffness of the acellular lungs did not show statistically significant differences caused by age. The group of mice most affected by fibrosis exhibited local stiffness that were ~2-fold higher than in the control mice: from 27.2±1.64 to 64.8±7.1. kPa in the alveolar septa, from 56.6±4.6 to 99.9±11.7. kPa in the visceral pleura, from 41.1±8.0 to 105.2±13.6. kPa in the tunica adventitia, and from 79.3±7.2 to 146.6±28.8. kPa in the tunica intima. Since acellular lungs from mice with bleomycin-induced fibrosis present considerable micromechanical inhomogeneity, this model can be a useful tool to better investigate how different degrees of extracellular matrix lesion modulate cell fate in the process of organ bioengineering from decellularized lungs.

JTD Keywords: Ageing, Atomic force microscopy, Decellularization, Lung fibrosis, Tissue engineering, Atomic force microscopy, Biological organs, Peptides, Sodium dodecyl sulfate, Sodium sulfate, Tissue engineering, Ageing, Decellularization, Extracellular matrices, Healthy controls, Inhomogeneities, Lung fibrosis, Micro-mechanical, Statistically significant difference, Mammals, bleomycin, adventitia, animal experiment, animal model, article, atomic force microscopy, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, cell fate, controlled study, extracellular matrix, female, intima, lung alveolus, lung fibrosis, lung mechanics, mechanical probe, microenvironment, mouse, nonhuman, pleura, priority journal, rigidity, tissue engineering


Bennetts, Victor, Schaffernicht, Erik, Pomareda, Victor, Lilienthal, Achim, Marco, Santiago, Trincavelli, Marco, (2014). Combining non selective gas sensors on a mobile robot for identification and mapping of multiple chemical compounds Sensors 14, (9), 17331-17352

In this paper, we address the task of gas distribution modeling in scenarios where multiple heterogeneous compounds are present. Gas distribution modeling is particularly useful in emission monitoring applications where spatial representations of the gaseous patches can be used to identify emission hot spots. In realistic environments, the presence of multiple chemicals is expected and therefore, gas discrimination has to be incorporated in the modeling process. The approach presented in this work addresses the task of gas distribution modeling by combining different non selective gas sensors. Gas discrimination is addressed with an open sampling system, composed by an array of metal oxide sensors and a probabilistic algorithm tailored to uncontrolled environments. For each of the identified compounds, the mapping algorithm generates a calibrated gas distribution model using the classification uncertainty and the concentration readings acquired with a photo ionization detector. The meta parameters of the proposed modeling algorithm are automatically learned from the data. The approach was validated with a gas sensitive robot patrolling outdoor and indoor scenarios, where two different chemicals were released simultaneously. The experimental results show that the generated multi compound maps can be used to accurately predict the location of emitting gas sources.

JTD Keywords: Environmental monitoring, Gas discrimination, Gas distribution mapping, Service robots, Open sampling systems, PID, Metal oxide sensors


Vinagre, M., Aranda, J., Casals, A., (2014). An interactive robotic system for human assistance in domestic environments Computers Helping People with Special Needs (ed. Miesenberger, K., Fels, D., Archambault, D., Pe, Zagler), Springer International Publishing 8548, 152-155

This work introduces an interactive robotic system for assistance, conceived to tackle some of the challenges that domestic environments impose. The system is organized into a network of heterogeneous components that share both physical and logical functions to perform complex tasks. It consists of several robots for object manipulation, an advanced vision system that supplies in-formation about objects in the scene and human activity, and a spatial augmented reality interface that constitutes a comfortable means for interacting with the system. A first analysis based on users' experiences confirms the importance of having a friendly user interface. The inclusion of context awareness from visual perception enriches this interface allowing the robotic system to become a flexible and proactive assistant.

JTD Keywords: Accessibility, Activity Recognition, Ambient Intelligence, Human-Robot Interaction, Robot Assistance, Augmented reality, Complex networks, Computer vision, User interfaces, Accessibility, Activity recognition, Ambient intelligence, Domestic environments, Heterogeneous component, Interactive robotics, Robot assistance, Spatial augmented realities, Human assistance, Robotics


Roca, Ignasi, Torrents, Eduard, Sahlin, Margareta, Gibert, Isidre, Sjoberg, Britt-Marie, (2008). NrdI essentiality for class Ib ribonucleotide reduction in streptococcus pyogenes Journal of Bacteriology , 190, (14), 4849-4858

The Streptococcus pyogenes genome harbors two clusters of class Ib ribonucleotide reductase genes, nrdHEF and nrdF*I*E*, and a second stand-alone nrdI gene, designated nrdI2. We show that both clusters are expressed simultaneously as two independent operons. The NrdEF enzyme is functionally active in vitro, while the NrdE*F* enzyme is not. The NrdF* protein lacks three of the six highly conserved iron-liganding side chains and cannot form a dinuclear iron site or a tyrosyl radical. In vivo, on the other hand, both operons are functional in heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli. The nrdF*I*E* operon requires the presence of the nrdI* gene, and the nrdHEF operon gained activity upon cotranscription of the heterologous nrdI gene from Streptococcus pneumoniae, while neither nrdI* nor nrdI2 from S. pyogenes rendered it active. Our results highlight the essential role of the flavodoxin NrdI protein in vivo, and we suggest that it is needed to reduce met-NrdF, thereby enabling the spontaneous reformation of the tyrosyl radical. The NrdI* flavodoxin may play a more direct role in ribonucleotide reduction by the NrdF*I*E* system. We discuss the possibility that the nrdF*I*E* operon has been horizontally transferred to S. pyogenes from Mycoplasma spp.

JTD Keywords: Group-a streptococcus, Bacillus-subtilis genes, Escherichia-coli, Corynebacterium-ammoniagenes, Mycobacterium-tuberculosis, Expression analysis, Genome sequence, Small-subunit, Salmonella-typhimurium, Iron center


Díez-Pérez, Ismael, Guell, Aleix Garcia, Sanz, Fausto, Gorostiza, Pau, (2006). Conductance maps by electrochemical tunneling spectroscopy to fingerprint the electrode electronic structure Analytical Chemistry , 78, (20), 7325-7329

We describe a methodology to perform reliable tunneling spectroscopy in electrochemical media. Sequential in situ tunneling spectra are recorded while the electrochemical potential of the electrode is scanned. Spectroscopic data are presented as conductance maps or conductograms that show the in situ electronic structure of an electrode surface while it undergoes an electrochemical reaction. The conductance map or conductogram represents the redox fingerprint of an electrode/liquid interface in a specific medium and can serve to predict its electrochemical behavior in a quantitative energy scale. The methodology is validated studying the reversible oxidation and passivity of an iron electrode in borate buffer, and we describe the main quantitative information that can be extracted concerning the semiconducting properties of the Fe passive film. This methodology is useful to study heterogeneous catalysis, electrochemical sensing and bioelectronic systems.

JTD Keywords: Passive film, Oxide-film, Stainless-steel, Iron, Microscope, Surfaces, STM, Probes