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by Keyword: Bacteria

Witzdam, L, Garay-Sarmiento, M, Gagliardi, M, Meurer, YL, Rutsch, Y, Englert, J, Philipsen, S, Janem, A, Alsheghri, R, Jakob, F, Molin, DGM, Schwaneberg, U, van den Akker, NMS, Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C, (2024). Brush-Like Coatings Provide a Cloak of Invisibility to Titanium Implants Macromolecular Bioscience 24, e2300434

Orthopedic implants such as knee and hip implants are one of the most important types of medical devices. Currently, the surface of the most advanced implants consists of titanium or titanium-alloys with high porosity at the bone-contacting surface leading to superior mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility, and the capability of inducing osseointegration. However, the increased surface area of porous titanium provides a nidus for bacteria colonization leading to implant-related infections, one of the main reasons for implant failure. Here, two readily applicable titanium-coatings based on hydrophilic carboxybetaine polymers that turn the surface stealth thereby preventing bacterial adhesion and colonization are developed. These coatings are biocompatible, do not affect cell functionality, exhibit great antifouling properties, and do not cause additional inflammation during the healing process. In this way, the coatings can prevent implant-related infections, while at the same time being completely innocuous to its biological environment. Thus, these coating strategies are a promising route to enhance the biocompatibility of orthopedic implants and have a high potential for clinical use, while being easy to implement in the implant manufacturing process.© 2023 The Authors. Macromolecular Bioscience published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: bacteria repellency, biocompatibility, blood-plasma, brushes, stealth coatings, surface, titanium implants, Antifouling surfaces, Bacteria repellency, Biocompatibility, Brushes, Polymer brushes, Stealth coatings, Titanium implants


Alambiaga-Caravaca, Adrian M, Chou, Yu Fu, Moreno, Daniel, Aparicio, Conrado, Lopez-Castellano, Alicia, Feitosa, Victor Pinheiro, Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu, Sauro, Salvatore, (2024). Characterisation of experimental flowable composites containing fluoride-doped calcium phosphates as promising remineralising materials Journal Of Dentistry 143, 104906

Objective: Remineralising composites with antibacterial properties may seal the cavity and prevent secondary caries. This study aimed at developing experimental flowable composites containing different concentrations of fluoride-doped calcium phosphate fillers and evaluating their remineralising and antibacterial properties. Methods: Experimental resin-based composites containing different concentrations (0-20 %) of fluoride-doped calcium phosphate fillers (VS10/VS20) were formulated. The release of calcium (Ca), phosphate (PO) and fluoride (F) ions was assessed for 30 days. Remineralisation properties were evaluated through ATR-FTIR and SEM/EDX after storage in simulated body fluid (SBF). The metabolic activity and viability of Streptococcus gordonii was also evaluated through ATP, CFU and live/dead confocal microscopy. The evaluation of specific monomer elution from the experimental composites was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: The composites containing VS10 showed the highest release of Ca, those containing VS20 released more F over time (p < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in terms of PO ions release between the groups (p > 0.05). A quick 7-day mineral precipitation was observed in the tested composites containing VS10 or VS20 at 10 %; these materials also showed the greatest antibacterial activity (p < 0.05). Moreover, the tested composites containing VS10 presented the lowest elution of monomers (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Innovative composites were developed with low monomers elution, evident antibacterial activity against S. gordonii and important remineralisation properties due to specific ions release.

JTD Keywords: Antibacterial, Apatite, Apatite, bacterial, caries, demineralization, dentistry, monomers, adhesion, elution, enamel, tissu, Calcium phosphate, Ion-release, Remineralisation, Remineralisation, ion -release, antibacterial, calcium phosphate, resin composite, apatit, Resin composite


Pankratov, Dmitrii, Martinez, Silvia Hidalgo, Karman, Cheryl, Gerzhik, Anastasia, Gomila, Gabriel, Trashin, Stanislav, Boschker, Henricus T S, Geelhoed, Jeanine S, Mayer, Dirk, De Wael, Karolien, Meysman, Filip J R, (2024). The organo-metal-like nature of long-range conduction in cable bacteria Bioelectrochemistry 157, 108675

Cable bacteria are filamentous, multicellular microorganisms that display an exceptional form of biological electron transport across centimeter-scale distances. Currents are guided through a network of nickel-containing protein fibers within the cell envelope. Still, the mechanism of long-range conduction remains unresolved. Here, we characterize the conductance of the fiber network under dry and wet, physiologically relevant, conditions. Our data reveal that the fiber conductivity is high (median value: 27 S cm-1; range: 2 to 564 S cm-1), does not show any redox signature, has a low thermal activation energy (Ea = 69 +/- 23 meV), and is not affected by humidity or the presence of ions. These features set the nickel-based conduction mechanism in cable bacteria apart from other known forms of biological electron transport. As such, conduction resembles that of an organic semi-metal with a high charge carrier density. Our observation that biochemistry can synthesize an organometal-like structure opens the way for novel bio-based electronic technologies.

JTD Keywords: 'current, Activation energy, Bacteria, Bioelectronic, Bioelectronics, Cable bacteria, Cable bacteria, long -distance electron transport, protein conductivity, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, bioelectronic, Cables, Centimeter-scale, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Electrochemical-impedance spectroscopies, Electron transport, Electron transport properties, Electron-transport, microbial nanowires, proteins, sulfu, Long-distance electron transport, Nickel, Nickel containing, Protein conductivity, Protein fibers, Proteins


Blanco-Cabra, Nuria, Alcacer-Almansa, Julia, Admella, Joana, Arevalo-Jaimes, Betsy Veronica, Torrents, Eduard, (2024). Nanomedicine against biofilm infections: A roadmap of challenges and limitations Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews-Nanomedicine And Nanobiotechnology 16, e1944

Microbial biofilms are complex three-dimensional structures where sessile microbes are embedded in a polymeric extracellular matrix. Their resistance toward the host immune system as well as to a diverse range of antimicrobial treatments poses a serious health and development threat, being in the top 10 global public health threats declared by the World Health Organization. In an effort to combat biofilm-related microbial infections, several strategies have been developed to independently eliminate biofilms or to complement conventional antibiotic therapies. However, their limitations leave room for other treatment alternatives, where the application of nanotechnology to biofilm eradication has gained significant relevance in recent years. Their small size, penetration efficiency, and the design flexibility that they present makes them a promising alternative for biofilm infection treatment, although they also present set-backs. This review aims to describe the main possibilities and limitations of nanomedicine against biofilms, while covering the main aspects of biofilm formation and study, and the current therapies for biofilm treatment. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Toxicology of Nanomaterials Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Regulatory and Policy Issues in Nanomedicine.

JTD Keywords: Anti-bacterial agents, Anti-infective agents, Antiinfective agent, Antimicrobial, Antimicrobials, Antimicrobials,bacteria,biofilm,infectious diseases,microorganism, Bacteria, Biofilm, Biofilm infections, Biofilms, Complex three dimensional structures, Diseases, Diverse range, Drug-delivery systems,in-vitro,cellular toxicity,nanoparticles,penetration,model,biocompatibility,perspectives,hyperthermia,diagnosi, Extracellular matrices, Global public health, Health risks, Infectious disease, Infectious diseases, Medical nanotechnology, Microbial biofilm, Microorganisms, Nanomedicine, Polymer, Polymers, Regulatory issues, Roadmap


Garcia-de-Albeniz, N, Ginebra, MP, Jimenez-Piqué, E, Roa, JJ, Mas-Moruno, C, (2024). Influence of nanosecond laser surface patterning on dental 3Y-TZP: Effects on the topography, hydrothermal degradation and cell response Dental Materials 40, 139-150

Laser surface micropatterning of dental-grade zirconia (3Y-TZP) was explored with the objective of providing defined linear patterns capable of guiding bone-cell response.A nanosecond (ns-) laser was employed to fabricate microgrooves on the surface of 3Y-TZP discs, yielding three different groove periodicities (i.e., 30, 50 and 100 µm). The resulting topography and surface damage were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy techniques were employed to assess the hydrothermal degradation resistance of the modified topographies. Preliminary biological studies were conducted to evaluate adhesion (6 h) of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) to the patterns in terms of cell number and morphology. Finally, Staphylococcus aureus adhesion (4 h) to the microgrooves was investigated.The surface analysis showed grooves of approximately 1.8 µm height that exhibited surface damage in the form of pile-up at the edge of the microgrooves, microcracks and cavities. Accelerated aging tests revealed a slight decrease of the hydrothermal degradation resistance after laser patterning, and the Raman mapping showed the presence of monoclinic phase heterogeneously distributed along the patterned surfaces. An increase of the hMSC area was identified on all the microgrooved surfaces, although only the 50 µm periodicity, which is closer to the cell size, significantly favored cell elongation and alignment along the grooves. A decrease in Staphylococcus aureus adhesion was observed on the investigated micropatterns.The study suggests that linear microgrooves of 50 µm periodicity may help in promoting hMSC adhesion and alignment, while reducing bacterial cell attachment.Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: abutment material, alumina toughened zirconia, antibacterial, bacterial adhesion, biofilm growth, cell adhesion, dental implants, hydrothermal degradation, implant surfaces, in-vitro, laser patterning, osseointegration, osteogenic differentiation, part 1, surface topography, y-tzp ceramics, Antibacterial, Antibacterials, Bacteria, Bone, Cell adhesion, Cell culture, Cells adhesion, Ceramics, Chemistry, Degradation resistance, Dental implants, Dental material, Dental materials, Dental prostheses, Human, Human mesenchymal stem cells, Humans, Hydrothermal degradation, Laser patterning, Laser surface, Lasers, Low-temperature degradation, Materials testing, Microscopy, electron, scanning, Nanosecond lasers, Osseointegration, Piles, Scanning electron microscopy, Staphylococcus aureus, Stem cells, Surface analysis, Surface damages, Surface properties, Surface property, Surface topography, Topography, Yttrium, Zirconia, Zirconium


Gómez, SG, Guillem-Marti, J, Martín-Gómez, H, Mas-Moruno, C, Ginebra, MP, Gil, FJ, Barraquer, RI, Manero, JM, (2023). Titanium Boston keratoprosthesis with corneal cell adhesive and bactericidal dual coating Biomaterials Advances 154, 213654

The Boston keratoprosthesis (BKPro) is a medical device used to restore vision in complicated cases of corneal blindness. This device is composed by a front plate of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and a backplate usually made of titanium (Ti). Ti is an excellent biomaterial with numerous applications, although there are not many studies that address its interaction with ocular cells. In this regard, despite the good retention rates of the BKPro, two main complications compromise patients' vision and the viability of the prosthesis: imperfect adhesion of the corneal tissue to the upside of the backplate and infections. Thus, in this work, two topographies (smooth and rough) were generated on Ti samples and tested with or without functionalization with a dual peptide platform. This molecule consists of a branched structure that links two peptide moieties to address the main complications associated with BKPro: the well-known RGD peptide in its cyclic version (cRGD) as cell pro-adherent motif and the first 11 residues of lactoferrin (LF1-11) as antibacterial motif. Samples were physicochemically characterized, and their biological response was evaluated in vitro with human corneal keratocytes (HCKs) and against the gram-negative bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The physicochemical characterization allowed to verify the functionalization in a qualitative and quantitative manner. A higher amount of peptide was anchored to the rough surfaces. The studies performed using HCKs showed increased long-term proliferation on the functionalized samples. Gene expression was affected by topography and peptide functionalization. Roughness promoted α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) overexpression, and the coating notably increased the expression of extracellular matrix components (ECM). Such changes may favour the development of unwanted fibrosis, and thus, corneal haze. In contrast, the combination of the coating with a rough topography decreased the expression of α-SMA and ECM components, which would be desirable for the long-term success of the prosthesis. Regarding the antibacterial activity, the functionalized smooth and rough surfaces promoted the death of bacteria, as well as a perturbation in their wall definition and cellular morphology. Bacterial killing values were 58 % for smooth functionalised and 68 % for rough functionalised samples. In summary, this study suggests that the use of the dual peptide platform with cRGD and LF1-11 could be a good strategy to improve the in vitro and in vivo performance of the rough topography used in the commercial BKPro.Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: binding, corneal blindness, differentiation, dual coating, iii collagen, in-vitro, infectious endophthalmitis, keratocyte, myofibroblast, peptide platform, proliferation, surface-roughness, titanium implant, Boston keratoprostheses, Corneal blindness, Dual coating, Gram-negative bacteria, Peptide platform, Titanium implant


Malandain, N, Sanz-Fraile, H, Farre, R, Otero, J, Roig, A, Laromaine, A, (2023). Cell-Laden 3D Hydrogels of Type I Collagen Incorporating Bacterial Nanocellulose Fibers Acs Applied Bio Materials 6, 3638-3647

There is a growing interest in developing natural hydrogel-based scaffolds to culture cells in a three-dimensional (3D) millieu that better mimics the in vivo cells' microenvironment. A promising approach is to use hydrogels from animal tissues, such as decellularized extracellular matrices; however, they usually exhibit suboptimal mechanical properties compared to native tissue and their composition with hundreds of different protein complicates to elucidate which stimulus triggers cell's responses. As simpler scaffolds, type I collagen hydrogels are used to study cell behavior in mechanobiology even though they are also softer than native tissues. In this work, type I collagen is mixed with bacterial nanocellulose fibers (BCf) to develop reinforced scaffolds with mechanical properties suitable for 3D cell culture. BCf were produced from blended pellicles biosynthesized from Komagataeibacter xylinus. Then, BCf were mixed with concentrated collagen from rat-tail tendons to form composite hydrogels. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the homogeneous macro- and microdistribution of both natural polymers. Porosity analysis confirmed that BCf do not disrupt the scaffold structure. Tensile strength and rheology measurements demonstrated the reinforcement action of BCf (43% increased stiffness) compared to the collagen hydrogel while maintaining the same viscoelastic response. Additionally, this reinforcement of collagen hydrogels with BCf offers the possibility to mix cells before gelation and then proceed to the culture of the 3D cell scaffolds. We obtained scaffolds with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells or human fibroblasts within the composite hydrogels, allowing a homogeneous 3D viable culture for at least 7 days. A smaller surface shrinkage in the reinforced hydrogels compared to type I collagen hydrogels confirmed the strengthening of the composite hydrogels. These collagen hydrogels reinforced with BCf might emerge as a promising platform for 3D in vitro organ modeling, tissue-engineering applications, and suitable to conduct fundamental mechanobiology studies.

JTD Keywords: 3d cell culture, bacterial cellulose, collagen, composite hydrogels, 3d cell culture, Bacterial cellulose, Cellulose/collagen composite, Collagen, Composite hydrogels, Contraction, Cross-linking, Cytocompatibility, Fibroblasts, Matrix, Mechanical-properties, Reinforcement, Stiffness, Tissue engineering


Admella J, Torrents E, (2023). Investigating bacterial infections in Galleria mellonella larvae: Insights into pathogen dissemination and behavior Journal Of Invertebrate Pathology 200, 107975

The insect Galleria mellonella is an alternative animal model widely used for studying bacterial infections. It presents a wide range of advantages, including its low cost, easy maintenance and lack of ethical constraints. Among other features, their innate immune system is very similar to that of mammals. In this study, we dissected several larvae infected with important human pathogens: Mycobacterium abscessus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By observing the fat body, gut, trachea, and hemolymph under the microscope, we were able to describe where bacteria tend to disseminate. We also quantified the number of bacteria in the hemolymph throughout the infection course and found significant differences between the different pathogens. With this work, we aimed to better understand the behavior and dissemination of bacteria in the infected larvae.Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: Bacteria, Dissection, Galleria mellonella, Infection


Alcàcer-Almansa, J, Arévalo-Jaimes, BV, Blanco-Cabra, N, Torrents, E, (2023). Methods for studying biofilms: Microfluidics and translation in the clinical context Methods In Microbiology 53, 195-233

Srinivasan, SY, Cler, M, Zapata-Arteaga, O, Dorling, B, Campoy-Quiles, M, Martinez, E, Engel, E, Perez-Amodio, S, Laromaine, A, (2023). Conductive Bacterial Nanocellulose-Polypyrrole Patches Promote Cardiomyocyte Differentiation Acs Applied Bio Materials 6, 2860-2874

The low endogenous regenerative capacity of the heart,added tothe prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, triggered the advent ofcardiac tissue engineering in the last decades. The myocardial nicheplays a critical role in directing the function and fate of cardiomyocytes;therefore, engineering a biomimetic scaffold holds excellent promise.We produced an electroconductive cardiac patch of bacterial nanocellulose(BC) with polypyrrole nanoparticles (Ppy NPs) to mimic the naturalmyocardial microenvironment. BC offers a 3D interconnected fiber structurewith high flexibility, which is ideal for hosting Ppy nanoparticles.BC-Ppy composites were produced by decorating the network of BC fibers(65 & PLUSMN; 12 nm) with conductive Ppy nanoparticles (83 & PLUSMN; 8 nm).Ppy NPs effectively augment the conductivity, surface roughness, andthickness of BC composites despite reducing scaffolds' transparency.BC-Ppy composites were flexible (up to 10 mM Ppy), maintained theirintricate 3D extracellular matrix-like mesh structure in all Ppy concentrationstested, and displayed electrical conductivities in the range of nativecardiac tissue. Furthermore, these materials exhibit tensile strength,surface roughness, and wettability values appropriate for their finaluse as cardiac patches. In vitro experiments withcardiac fibroblasts and H9c2 cells confirmed the exceptional biocompatibilityof BC-Ppy composites. BC-Ppy scaffolds improved cell viability andattachment, promoting a desirable cardiomyoblast morphology. Biochemicalanalyses revealed that H9c2 cells showed different cardiomyocyte phenotypesand distinct levels of maturity depending on the amount of Ppy inthe substrate used. Specifically, the employment of BC-Ppy compositesdrives partial H9c2 differentiation toward a cardiomyocyte-like phenotype.The scaffolds increase the expression of functional cardiac markersin H9c2 cells, indicative of a higher differentiation efficiency,which is not observed with plain BC. Our results highlight the remarkablepotential use of BC-Ppy scaffolds as a cardiac patch in tissue regenerativetherapies.

JTD Keywords: bacterial nanocellulose, cardiac patches, conducting polymers, polypyrrole, Arrhythmias, Bacterial nanocellulose, Biomaterials, Cardiac patches, Cell therapy, Cellulose, Conductingpolymers, H9c2, In-vitro, Polymer, Polypyrrole, Scaffolds, Tissue, Tissue engineering, Viability


Moreno, D, Buxadera-Palomero, J, Ginebra, MP, Manero, JM, Martin-Gómez, H, Mas-Moruno, C, Rodríguez, D, (2023). Comparison of the Antibacterial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles and a Multifunctional Antimicrobial Peptide on Titanium Surface International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 24, 9739

Titanium implantation success may be compromised by Staphylococcus aureus surface colonization and posterior infection. To avoid this issue, different strategies have been investigated to promote an antibacterial character to titanium. In this work, two antibacterial agents (silver nanoparticles and a multifunctional antimicrobial peptide) were used to coat titanium surfaces. The modulation of the nanoparticle (≈32.1 ± 9.4 nm) density on titanium could be optimized, and a sequential functionalization with both agents was achieved through a two-step functionalization method by means of surface silanization. The antibacterial character of the coating agents was assessed individually as well as combined. The results have shown that a reduction in bacteria after 4 h of incubation can be achieved on all the coated surfaces. After 24 h of incubation, however, the individual antimicrobial peptide coating was more effective than the silver nanoparticles or their combination against Staphylococcus aureus. All tested coatings were non-cytotoxic for eukaryotic cells.

JTD Keywords: antimicrobial peptide, biomaterials, bone, coatings, performance, ph, resistance, silanization, silver nanoparticles, staphylococcus aureus, Antimicrobial peptide, Reduces bacterial adhesion, Silanization, Silver nanoparticles, Staphylococcus aureus, Titanium functionalization


Rodríguez-Contreras, A, Torres, D, Piñera-Avellaneda, D, Pérez-Palou, L, Ortiz-Hernández, M, Ginebra, MP, Calero, JA, Manero, JM, Rupérez, E, (2023). Dual-Action Effect of Gallium and Silver Providing Osseointegration and Antibacterial Properties to Calcium Titanate Coatings on Porous Titanium Implants International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 24, 8762

Previously, functional coatings on 3D-printed titanium implants were developed to improve their biointegration by separately incorporating Ga and Ag on the biomaterial surface. Now, a thermochemical treatment modification is proposed to study the effect of their simultaneous incorporation. Different concentrations of AgNO3 and Ga(NO3)3 are evaluated, and the obtained surfaces are completely characterized. Ion release, cytotoxicity, and bioactivity studies complement the characterization. The provided antibacterial effect of the surfaces is analyzed, and cell response is assessed by the study of SaOS-2 cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The Ti surface doping is confirmed by the formation of Ga-containing Ca titanates and nanoparticles of metallic Ag within the titanate coating. The surfaces generated with all combinations of AgNO3 and Ga(NO3)3 concentrations show bioactivity. The bacterial assay confirms a strong bactericidal impact achieved by the effect of both Ga and Ag present on the surface, especially for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the main pathogens involved in orthopedic implant failures. SaOS-2 cells adhere and proliferate on the Ga/Ag-doped Ti surfaces, and the presence of gallium favors cell differentiation. The dual effect of both metallic agents doping the titanium surface provides bioactivity while protecting the biomaterial from the most frequent pathogens in implantology.

JTD Keywords: 3d-printing, agent, antibacterial activity, bioactive ti, biomaterials, coatings, competition, cu, gallium, glasses, ions, metal, porous structures, promote osseointegration, silver, titanium implants, In-vitro, Porous structures, Titanium implants


Fontana-Escartín, A, El Hauadi, K, Lanzalaco, S, Pérez-Madrigal, MM, Armelin, E, Turon, P, Alemán, C, (2023). Smart Design of Sensor-Coated Surgical Sutures for Bacterial Infection Monitoring Macromolecular Bioscience 23, 2300024

Virtually, all implantable medical devices are susceptible to infection. As the main healthcare issue concerning implantable devices is the elevated risk of infection, different strategies based on the coating or functionalization of biomedical devices with antiseptic agents or antibiotics are proposed. In this work, an alternative approach is presented, which consists of the functionalization of implantable medical devices with sensors capable of detecting infection at very early stages through continuous monitoring of the bacteria metabolism. This approach, which is implemented in surgical sutures as a representative case of implantable devices susceptible to bacteria colonization, is expected to minimize the risk of worsening the patient's clinical condition. More specifically, non-absorbable polypropylene/polyethylene (PP/PE) surgical sutures are functionalized with conducting polymers using a combination of low-pressure oxygen plasma, chemical oxidative polymerization, and anodic polymerization, to detect metabolites coming from bacteria respiration. Functionalized suture yarns are used for real-time monitoring of bacteria growth, demonstrating the potential of this strategy to fight against infections.© 2023 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: adhesion, biofilm, conducting polymers, contamination, derivatives, detections, functionalized sutures, nadh, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), Bacteria growth, Conducting polymers, Detections, Functionalized sutures, Monofilament, Nadh


Castrejón-Comas, V, Alemán, C, Pérez-Madrigal, MM, (2023). Multifunctional conductive hyaluronic acid hydrogels for wound care and skin regeneration Biomaterials Science 11, 2266-2276

Conductive and interactive hydrogels based on hyaluronic acid are engineered as wound dressings that enhance skin tissue regeneration either through electrical stimulation or by displaying multifunctional performance and, ultimately, interactivity.

JTD Keywords: antibacterial, fields, Injectable hydrogels


Escartín, A, El Hauadi, K, Lanzalaco, S, Perez-Madrigal, MM, Armelin, E, Turon, P, Alemán, C, (2023). Preparation and Characterization of Functionalized Surgical Meshes for Early Detection of Bacterial Infections Acs Biomaterials Science & Engineering 9, 1104-1115

Isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) nonabsorbable surgical meshes are modified by incorporating a conducting polymer (CP) layer to detect the adhesion and growth of bacteria by sensing the oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), a metabolite produced by the respiration reactions of such microorganisms, to NAD+. A three-step process is used for such incorporation: (1) treat pristine meshes with low-pressure O2 plasma; (2) functionalize the surface with CP nanoparticles; and (3) coat with a homogeneous layer of electropolymerized CP using the nanoparticles introduced in (2) as polymerization nuclei. The modified meshes are stable and easy to handle and also show good electrochemical response. The detection by cyclic voltammetry of NADH within the interval of concentrations reported for bacterial cultures is demonstrated for the two modified meshes. Furthermore, Staphylococcus aureus and both biofilm-positive (B+) and biofilm-negative (B-) Escherichia coli cultures are used to prove real-time monitoring of NADH coming from aerobic respiration reactions. The proposed strategy, which offers a simple and innovative process for incorporating a sensor for the electrochemical detection of bacteria metabolism to currently existing surgical meshes, holds considerable promise for the future development of a new generation of smart biomedical devices to fight against post-operative bacterial infections.

JTD Keywords: adhesion, bacteria metabolism, behavior, biocompatibility, conducting polymer, electrochemical sensor, hernia repair, in-vivo, liquid, nadh detection, plasma treatment, prevention, reinforcement, sensor, smart meshes, Bacteria metabolism, Polypropylene mesh, Smart meshes


Renau-Mínguez, C, Herrero-Abadía, P, Ruiz-Rodriguez, P, Sentandreu, V, Torrents, E, Chiner-Oms, A, Torres-Puente, M, Comas, I, Julián, E, Coscolla, M, (2023). Genomic analysis of Mycobacterium brumae sustains its nonpathogenic and immunogenic phenotype Frontiers In Microbiology 13, 982679

Mycobacterium brumae is a rapid-growing, non-pathogenic Mycobacterium species, originally isolated from environmental and human samples in Barcelona, Spain. Mycobacterium brumae is not pathogenic and it's in vitro phenotype and immunogenic properties have been well characterized. However, the knowledge of its underlying genetic composition is still incomplete. In this study, we first describe the 4 Mb genome of the M. brumae type strain ATCC 51384T assembling PacBio reads, and second, we assess the low intraspecies variability by comparing the type strain with Illumina reads from three additional strains. Mycobacterium brumae genome is composed of a circular chromosome with a high GC content of 69.2% and containing 3,791 CDSs, 97 pseudogenes, one prophage and no CRISPR loci. Mycobacterium brumae has shown no pathogenic potential in in vivo experiments, and our genomic analysis confirms its phylogenetic position with other non-pathogenic and rapid growing mycobacteria. Accordingly, we determined the absence of virulence-related genes, such as ESX-1 locus and most PE/PPE genes, among others. Although the immunogenic potential of M. brumae was proved to be as high as Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the only mycobacteria licensed to treat cancer, the genomic content of M. tuberculosis T cell and B cell antigens in M. brumae genome is considerably lower than those antigens present in M. bovis BCG genome. Overall, this work provides relevant genomic data on one of the species of the mycobacterial genus with high therapeutic potential.Copyright © 2023 Renau-Mínguez, Herrero-Abadía, Ruiz-Rodriguez, Sentandreu, Torrents, Chiner-Oms, Torres-Puente, Comas, Julián and Coscolla.

JTD Keywords: antimicrobial susceptibility, bcg, identification, immunogenic, non-pathogenic, nontuberculous mycobacteria, resistance mechanisms, strain, therapeutic, Diversity, Immunogenic, Non-pathogenic, Nontuberculous mycobacteria, Therapeutic


Moussa, DG, Sharma, AK, Mansour, TA, Witthuhn, B, Perdigao, J, Rudney, JD, Aparicio, C, Gomez, A, (2022). Functional signatures of ex-vivo dental caries onset Journal Of Oral Microbiology 14, 2123624

The etiology of dental caries remains poorly understood. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, a number of studies have focused on the microbial ecology of the disease. However, taxonomic associations with caries have not been consistent. Researchers have also pursued function-centric studies of the caries microbial communities aiming to identify consistently conserved functional pathways. A major question is whether changes in microbiome are a cause or a consequence of the disease. Thus, there is a critical need to define conserved functional signatures at the onset of dental caries.Since it is unethical to induce carious lesions clinically, we developed an innovative longitudinal ex-vivo model integrated with the advanced non-invasive multiphoton second harmonic generation bioimaging to spot the very early signs of dental caries, combined with 16S rRNA short amplicon sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomics.For the first time, we induced longitudinally monitored caries lesions validated with the scanning electron microscope. Consequently, we spotted the caries onset and, associated with it, distinguished five differentiating metabolites - Lactate, Pyruvate, Dihydroxyacetone phosphate, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (upregulated) and Fumarate (downregulated). Those metabolites co-occurred with certain bacterial taxa; Streptococcus, Veillonella, Actinomyces, Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, and Granulicatella, regardless of the abundance of other taxa.These findings are crucial for understanding the etiology and dynamics of dental caries, and devising targeted interventions to prevent disease progression.© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

JTD Keywords: bacteria, biofilms, children, dental caries, generation, genomics, longitudinal model, metabolism, metabolomics, microscopy, non-invasive bioimaging, oral microbiome, plaque, restorations, signatures, Dental caries, Field-emission sem, Signatures


Middelhoek, KINA, Magdanz, V, Abelmann, L, Khalil, ISM, (2022). Drug-Loaded IRONSperm clusters: modeling, wireless actuation, and ultrasound imaging Biomedical Materials 17, 65001

Individual biohybrid microrobots have the potential to perform biomedical in vivo tasks such as remote-controlled drug and cell delivery and minimally invasive surgery. This work demonstrates the formation of biohybrid sperm-templated clusters under the influence of an external magnetic field and essential functionalities for wireless actuation and drug delivery. Ferromagnetic nanoparticles are electrostatically assembled around dead sperm cells, and the resulting nanoparticle-coated cells are magnetically assembled into three-dimensional biohybrid clusters. The aim of this clustering is threefold: First, to enable rolling locomotion on a nearby solid boundary using a rotating magnetic field; second, to allow for noninvasive localization; third, to load the cells inside the cluster with drugs for targeted therapy. A magneto-hydrodynamic model captures the rotational response of the clusters in a viscous fluid, and predicts an upper bound for their step-out frequency, which is independent of their volume or aspect ratio. Below the step-out frequency, the rolling velocity of the clusters increases nonlinearly with their perimeter and actuation frequency. During rolling locomotion, the clusters are localized using ultrasound images at a relatively large distance, which makes these biohybrid clusters promising for deep-tissue applications. Finally, we show that the estimated drug load scales with the number of cells in the cluster and can be retained for more than 10 h. The aggregation of microrobots enables them to collectively roll in a predictable way in response to an external rotating magnetic field, and enhances ultrasound detectability and drug loading capacity compared to the individual microrobots. The favorable features of biohybrid microrobot clusters place emphasis on the importance of the investigation and development of collective microrobots and their potential for in vivo applications.

JTD Keywords: drug delivery, magnetic actuation, microrobot aggregation, sperm, Driven, Drug delivery, Magnetic actuation, Magnetotactic bacteria, Microrobot aggregation, Microrobots, Motion, Movement, Propulsion, Sperm, Sphere, Ultrasound, Wall


Admella, J, Torrents, E, (2022). A Straightforward Method for the Isolation and Cultivation of Galleria mellonella Hemocytes International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 13483

Galleria mellonella is an alternative animal model of infection. The use of this species presents a wide range of advantages, as its maintenance and rearing are both easy and inexpensive. Moreover, its use is considered to be more ethically acceptable than other models, it is conveniently sized for manipulation, and its immune system has multiple similarities with mammalian immune systems. Hemocytes are immune cells that help encapsulate and eliminate pathogens and foreign particles. All of these reasons make this insect a promising animal model. However, cultivating G. mellonella hemocytes in vitro is not straightforward and it has many difficult challenges. Here, we present a methodologically optimized protocol to establish and maintain a G. mellonella hemocyte primary culture. These improvements open the door to easily and quickly study the toxicity of nanoparticles and the interactions of particles and materials in an in vitro environment.

JTD Keywords: cell culture, galleria mellonella, infection, nanoparticle, Bacteria, Cell culture, Galleria mellonella, Hemolin, Infection, Insect hemocytes, Larvae, Lepidoptera, Nanoparticle, Phagocytosis, Prophenoloxidase, Suspension, Systems


Campo-Perez, V, Guallar-Garrido, S, Luquin, M, Sanchez-Chardi, A, Julian, E, (2022). The High Plasticity of Nonpathogenic Mycobacterium brumae Induces Rapid Changes in Its Lipid Profile during Pellicle Maturation: The Potential of This Bacterium as a Versatile Cell Factory for Lipid Compounds of Therapeutic Interest International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 13609

The immunomodulatory potential of mycobacteria to be used for therapeutic purposes varies by species and culture conditions and is closely related to mycobacterial lipid composition. Although the lipids present in the mycobacterial cell wall are relevant, lipids are mainly stored in intracellular lipid inclusions (ILIs), which have emerged as a crucial structure in understanding mycobacteria-host interaction. Little is known about ILI ultrastructure, production, and composition in nonpathogenic species. In this study, we compared the lipid profiles of the nonpathogenic immunomodulatory agent Mycobacterium brumae during pellicle maturation under different culture conditions with qualitative and quantitative approaches by using high-resolution imaging and biochemical and composition analyses to understand ILI dynamics. The results showed wax esters, mainly in early stages of development, and acylglycerols in mature ILI composition, revealing changes in dynamics, amount, and morphometry, depending on pellicle maturation and the culture media used. Low-glycerol cultures induced ILIs with lower molecular weights which were smaller in size in comparison with the ILIs produced in glycerol-enriched media. The data also indicate the simple metabolic plasticity of lipid synthesis in M. brumae, as well as its high versatility in generating different lipid profiles. These findings provide an interesting way to enhance the production of key lipid structures via the simple modulation of cell culture conditions.

JTD Keywords: cell wall, electron microscopy, intrabacterial, lipid inclusions, mycobacterium, Bodies, Cell wall, Electron microscopy, Growth, In-vitro, Intrabacterial, Lipid inclusions, Mycobacterium, Prokaryotes, Triacylglycerol, Tuberculosis, Ultrastructural imaging, Virulence, Wax esters


Fernandez-Vazquez, J, Cabrer-Panes, JD, Aberg, A, Juarez, A, Madrid, C, Gaviria-Cantin, T, Fernandez-Coll, L, Vargas-Sinisterra, AF, Jimenez, CJ, Balsalobre, C, (2022). ppGpp, the General Stress Response Alarmone, Is Required for the Expression of the alpha-Hemolysin Toxin in the Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolate, J96 International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 12256

ppGpp is an intracellular sensor that, in response to different types of stress, coordinates the rearrangement of the gene expression pattern of bacteria to promote adaptation and survival to new environmental conditions. First described to modulate metabolic adaptive responses, ppGpp modulates the expression of genes belonging to very diverse functional categories. In Escherichia coli, ppGpp regulates the expression of cellular factors that are important during urinary tract infections. Here, we characterize the role of this alarmone in the regulation of the hlyCABD(II) operon of the UPEC isolate J96, encoding the toxin alpha-hemolysin that induces cytotoxicity during infection of bladder epithelial cells. ppGpp is required for the expression of the alpha-hemolysin encoded in hlyCABD(II) by stimulating its transcriptional expression. Prototrophy suppressor mutations in a ppGpp-deficient strain restore the alpha-hemolysin expression from this operon to wild-type levels, confirming the requirement of ppGpp for its expression. ppGpp stimulates hlyCABD(II) expression independently of RpoS, RfaH, Zur, and H-NS. The expression of hlyCABD(II) is promoted at 37 degrees C and at low osmolarity. ppGpp is required for the thermoregulation but not for the osmoregulation of the hlyCABD(II) operon. Studies in both commensal and UPEC isolates demonstrate that no UPEC specific factor is strictly required for the ppGpp-mediated regulation described. Our data further support the role of ppGpp participating in the coordinated regulation of the expression of bacterial factors required during infection.

JTD Keywords: gene regulation, ppgpp, upec, Alpha-hemolysin, Bacterial signal molecule, Determinants, Environmental-regulation, Gene regulation, H-ns, Ppgpp, Protein, Regulator, Rfah, Secretion, Transcription, Upec, Virulence, Α-hemolysin


Hodásová, L, Morena, AG, Tzanov, T, Fargas, G, Llanes, L, Alemán, C, Armelin, E, (2022). 3D-Printed Polymer-Infiltrated Ceramic Network with Antibacterial Biobased Silver Nanoparticles Acs Applied Bio Materials 5, 4803-4813

This work aimed at the antimicrobial functionalization of 3D-printed polymer-infiltrated biomimetic ceramic networks (PICN). The anti-microbial properties of the polymer-ceramic composites were achieved by coating them with human-and environmentally safe silver nanoparticles trapped in a phenolated lignin matrix (Ag@PL NPs). Lignin was enzymatically phenolated and used as a biobased reducing agent to obtain stable Ag@PL NPs, which were then formulated in a silane (gamma-MPS) solution and deposited to the PICN surface. The presence of the NPs and their proper attachment to the surface were analyzed with spectroscopic methods (FTIR and Raman) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Homogeneous distribution of 13.4 +/- 3.2 nm NPs was observed in the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The functionalized samples were tested against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, validating their antimicrobial efficiency in 24 h. The bacterial reduction of S. aureus was 90% in comparison with the pristine surface of PICN. To confirm that the Ag-functionalized PICN scaffold is a safe material to be used in the biomedical field, its biocompatibility was demonstrated with human fibroblast (BJ-5ta) and keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells, which was higher than 80% in both cell lines.

JTD Keywords: accuracy, antibacterial activity, disease, facile, laccase enzyme, lignin, polyacrylates, polymer-infiltrated ceramic network, silver nanoparticles, zirconia, Mechanical-properties, Mechanical-properties,zirconia,lignin,accuracy,disease,facil, Polymer-infiltrated ceramic network, Polymer-infiltrated ceramic network,polyacrylates,lignin,laccase enzyme,silver nanoparticles,antibacterial activit, Silver nanoparticles


Perra, M, Manca, ML, Tuberoso, CIG, Caddeo, C, Marongiu, F, Peris, JE, Orru, G, Ibba, A, Fernandez-Busquets, X, Fattouch, S, Bacchetta, G, Manconi, M, (2022). A green and cost-effective approach for the efficient conversion of grape byproducts into innovative delivery systems tailored to ensure intestinal protection and gut microbiota fortification Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 80, 103103

According to circular economy, wine-making by-products represent a fascinating biomass, which can be used for the sustainable exploitation of polyphenols and the development of new nanotechnological health-promoting products. In this study, polyphenols contained in the grape pomace were extracted by maceration with ethanol in an easy and low dissipative way. The obtained extract, rich in malvidin-3-glucoside, quercetin, pro-cyanidin B2 and gallic acid, was incorporated into phospholipid vesicles tailored for intestinal delivery. To improve their performances, vesicles were enriched with gelatine or a maltodextrin (Nutriose (R)), or their com-bination (gelatine-liposomes, nutriosomes and gelatine-nutriosomes). The small (-147 nm) and negatively charged (--50mV) vesicles were stable at different pH values mimicking saliva (6.75), gastric (1.20) and intestinal (7.00) environments. Vesicles effectively protected intestinal cells (Caco-2) from the oxidative stress and promoted the biofilm formation by probiotic bacteria. A preliminary evaluation of the vesicle feasibility at industrial levels was also performed, analysing the economic and energetic costs needed for their production.

JTD Keywords: Adhesion, Antioxidant activity, Caco-2 cells, Dextrin, Grape pomace extract, Lactobacillus-reuteri, Manufacturing costs, Oxidative stress, Ph, Phospholipid vesicles, Polyphenols, Probiotic bacteria, Protein


Wagner, AM, Eto, H, Joseph, A, Kohyama, S, Haraszti, T, Zamora, RA, Vorobii, M, Giannotti, MI, Schwille, P, Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C, (2022). Dendrimersome Synthetic Cells Harbor Cell Division Machinery of Bacteria Advanced Materials 34, 2202364

The integration of active cell machinery with synthetic building blocks is the bridge toward developing synthetic cells with biological functions and beyond. Self-replication is one of the most important tasks of living systems, and various complex machineries exist to execute it. In Escherichia coli, a contractile division ring is positioned to mid-cell by concentration oscillations of self-organizing proteins (MinCDE), where it severs membrane and cell wall. So far, the reconstitution of any cell division machinery has exclusively been tied to liposomes. Here, the reconstitution of a rudimentary bacterial divisome in fully synthetic bicomponent dendrimersomes is shown. By tuning the membrane composition, the interaction of biological machinery with synthetic membranes can be tailored to reproduce its dynamic behavior. This constitutes an important breakthrough in the assembly of synthetic cells with biological elements, as tuning of membrane-divisome interactions is the key to engineering emergent biological behavior from the bottom-up.

JTD Keywords: bacterial cell division, bottom-up synthetic biology, dendrimersomes, dynamic min patterns, ftsz assembly, Bacterial cell division, Bottom-up synthetic biology, Dendrimersomes, Dynamic min patterns, Dynamics, Ftsz assembly, Ftsz filaments, Mind, Organization, Pole oscillation, Polymersome membranes, Proteins, Rapid pole, Synthetic cells, Vesicles


Arque, X, Torres, MDT, Patino, T, Boaro, A, Sanchez, S, de la Fuente-Nunez, C, (2022). Autonomous Treatment of Bacterial Infections in Vivo Using Antimicrobial Micro- and Nanomotors Acs Nano 16, 7547-7558

The increasing resistance of bacteria to existing antibiotics constitutes a major public health threat globally. Most current antibiotic treatments are hindered by poor delivery to the infection site, leading to undesired off-target effects and drug resistance development and spread. Here, we describe micro- and nanomotors that effectively and autonomously deliver antibiotic payloads to the target area. The active motion and antimicrobial activity of the silica-based robots are driven by catalysis of the enzyme urease and antimicrobial peptides, respectively. These antimicrobial motors show micromolar bactericidal activity in vitro against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacterial strains and act by rapidly depolarizing their membrane. Finally, they demonstrated autonomous anti-infective efficacy in vivo in a clinically relevant abscess infection mouse model. In summary, our motors combine navigation, catalytic conversion, and bactericidal capacity to deliver antimicrobial payloads to specific infection sites. This technology represents a much-needed tool to direct therapeutics to their target to help combat drug-resistant infections.

JTD Keywords: antibiotic-resistance, antimicrobial peptides, autonomous treatment, bacterial infection, delivery, ll-37, nanomotors, nanoparticles, peptide, self-propulsion, tissue, vitro, wasp venom, Antibiotic-resistance, Antimicrobial peptides, Autonomous treatment, Bacterial infection, Delivery, Ll-37, Mesoporous silica nanoparticles, Nanomotors, Nanoparticles, Peptide, Self-propulsion, Tissue, Vitro, Wasp venom


Iglesias-Fernandez, M, Buxadera-Palomero, J, Sadowska, JM, Espanol, M, Ginebra, MP, (2022). Implementation of bactericidal topographies on biomimetic calcium phosphates and the potential effect of its reactivity Biomaterials Advances 136, 212797

Since the discovery that nanostructured surfaces were able to kill bacteria, many works have been published focusing on the design of nanopatterned surfaces with antimicrobial properties. Synthetic bone grafts, based on calcium phosphate (CaP) formulations, can greatly benefit from this discovery if adequate nanotopographies can be developed. However, CaP are reactive materials and experience ionic exchanges when placed into aqueous solutions which may in turn affect cell behaviour and complicate the interpretation of the bactericidal results. The present study explores the bactericidal potential of two nanopillared CaP prepared by hydrolysis of two different sizes of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) powders under biomimetic or hydrothermal conditions. A more lethal bactericidal response toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa (similar to 75% killing efficiency of adhered bacteria) was obtained from the hydrothermally treated CaP which consisted in a more irregular topography in terms of pillar size (radius: 20-60 nm), interpillar distances (100-1500 nm) and pillar distribution (pillar groups forming bouquets) than the biomimetically treated one (radius: 20-40 nm and interpillar distances: 50-200 nm with a homogeneous pillar distribution). The material reactivity was greatly influenced by the type of medium (nutrient-rich versus nutrient-free) and the presence or not of bacteria. A lower reactivity and superior bacterial attachment were observed in the nutrient-free medium while a lower attachment was observed for the nutrient rich medium which was explained by a superior reactivity of the material paired with the lower tendency of planktonic bacteria to adhere on surfaces in the presence of nutrients. Importantly, the ionic exchanges produced by the presence of materials were not toxic to planktonic cells. Thus, we can conclude that topography was the main contributor to mortality in the bacterial adhesion tests.

JTD Keywords: bactericidal, calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphates, nanopillars, pseudomonas aeruginosa, reactivity, Adhesion, Antibacterial, Bactericidal, Biomaterials, Calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, Calcium phosphates, Hydroxyapatite, In-vitro, Infections, Nanopillars, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas-aeruginosa, Reactivity, Recent progress, Silver, Topography, Transmission


Trebicka, J, (2022). Role of albumin in the treatment of decompensated liver cirrhosis Current Opinion In Gastroenterology 38, 200-205

Albumin has been used primarily as a plasma expander, since it leads to an increase in the circulating blood volume. Current generally recommended indications for albumin therapy in cirrhotic patients are the prevention of circulatory dysfunction after large-volume paracentesis, the prevention of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), and the management of HRS in combination with vasoconstrictors. Yet, new indications for albumin have been tested in the recent years and are outlined in this short review.New data show that albumin both supports the circulation and reduces systemic inflammation. In addition, to its oncotic function, it acts as an antioxidant, radical scavenger, and immune modulator. These nononcotic properties explain why long-term albumin administration in patients with decompensated cirrhosis may be useful in the prevention of associated complications (acute-on-chronic liver failure, infections). New data show that long-term albumin therapy in patients with cirrhosis and ascites improves survival, prevents complications, simplifies ascites management, and lowers hospitalization rates. The so-called disease-modifying effects of long-term albumin therapy may have a favorable effect on the course of the disease. Nevertheless, the optimal dosage and administration intervals have not yet been finally defined.Albumin therapy is effective in the indications already recommended by the guidelines. A possible extension of the indication for albumin administration in non-SBP infections and as long-term therapy is promising, but should be confirmed by further studies.Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: ascites, failure, hepatorenal syndrome, hospitalized-patients, hypothesis, infections, portal hypertension, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, systemic inflammation, Acute-on-chronic liver failure, Human serum-albumin


Hüttener, M, Hergueta, J, Bernabeu, M, Prieto, A, Aznar, S, Merino, S, Tomás, J, Juárez, A, (2022). Roles of Proteins Containing Immunoglobulin-Like Domains in the Conjugation of Bacterial Plasmids Msphere 7, e00978-21

Transmission of a plasmid from one bacterial cell to another, in several instances, underlies the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes. The process requires well-characterized enzymatic machinery that facilitates cell-to-cell contact and the transfer of the plasmid.

JTD Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, bacterial ig-like proteins, bacterial lg-like proteins, chromosomal genes, identification, inca/c, mutational analysis, plasmid conjugation, products, r-factors, resistance plasmids, salmonella-enterica, sequence, Antimicrobial resistance, Bacterial ig-like proteins, Escherichia-coli, Plasmid conjugation


de Oliveira, LF, Mallafré-Muro, C, Giner, J, Perea, L, Sibila, O, Pardo, A, Marco, S, (2022). Breath analysis using electronic nose and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: A pilot study on bronchial infections in bronchiectasis Clinica Chimica Acta 526, 6-13

Background and aims: In this work, breath samples from clinically stable bronchiectasis patients with and without bronchial infections by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa- PA) were collected and chemically analysed to determine if they have clinical value in the monitoring of these patients. Materials and methods: A cohort was recruited inviting bronchiectasis patients (25) and controls (9). Among the former group, 12 members were suffering PA infection. Breath samples were collected in Tedlar bags and analyzed by e-nose and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The obtained data were analyzed by chemometric methods to determine their discriminant power in regards to their health condition. Results were evaluated with blind samples. Results: Breath analysis by electronic nose successfully separated the three groups with an overall classification rate of 84% for the three-class classification problem. The best discrimination was obtained between control and bronchiectasis with PA infection samples 100% (CI95%: 84–100%) on external validation and the results were confirmed by permutation tests. The discrimination analysis by GC-MS provided good results but did not reach proper statistical significance after a permutation test. Conclusions: Breath sample analysis by electronic nose followed by proper predictive models successfully differentiated between control, Bronchiectasis and Bronchiectasis PA samples. © 2021 The Author(s)

JTD Keywords: biomarkers, breath analysis, bronchiectasis, diagnosis, e-nose, fingerprints, gc-ms, identification, lung-cancer, partial least-squares, pseudomonas-aeruginosa, signal processing, validation, volatile organic-compounds, Airway bacterial-colonization, Breath analysis, Bronchiectasis, E-nose, Gc-ms, Signal processing


Guallar-Garrido, S, Almiñana-Rapún, F, Campo-Pérez, V, Torrents, E, Luquin, M, Julián, E, (2022). BCG Substrains Change Their Outermost Surface as a Function of Growth Media Vaccines 10, 40

Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) efficacy as an immunotherapy tool can be influenced by the genetic background or immune status of the treated population and by the BCG substrain used. BCG comprises several substrains with genetic differences that elicit diverse phenotypic characteristics. Moreover, modifications of phenotypic characteristics can be influenced by culture conditions. However, several culture media formulations are used worldwide to produce BCG. To elucidate the influence of growth conditions on BCG characteristics, five different substrains were grown on two culture media, and the lipidic profile and physico-chemical properties were evaluated. Our results show that each BCG substrain displays a variety of lipidic profiles on the outermost surface depending on the growth conditions. These modifications lead to a breadth of hydrophobicity patterns and a different ability to reduce neutral red dye within the same BCG substrain, suggesting the influence of BCG growth conditions on the interaction between BCG cells and host cells.

JTD Keywords: cell wall, efficacy, glycerol, hydrophobicity, lipid, neutral red, pdim, pgl, protein, strains, viability, virulence, Acylglycerol, Albumin, Article, Asparagine, Bacterial cell wall, Bacterial gene, Bacterium culture, Bcg vaccine, Catalase, Cell wall, Chloroform, Controlled study, Escherichia coli, Gene expression, Genomic dna, Glycerol, Glycerol monomycolate, Hexadecane, Housekeeping gene, Hydrophobicity, Immune response, Immunogenicity, Immunotherapy, Lipid, Lipid fingerprinting, Magnesium sulfate, Mercaptoethanol, Methanol, Methylglyoxal, Molybdatophosphoric acid, Mycobacterium bovis bcg, Neutral red, Nonhuman, Pdim, Petroleum ether, Pgl, Phenotype, Physical chemistry, Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Rna 16s, Rna extraction, Rv0577, Staining, Thin layer chromatography, Unclassified drug


Lozano, H, Millan-Solsona, R, Blanco-Cabra, N, Fabregas, R, Torrents, E, Gomila, G, (2021). Electrical properties of outer membrane extensions from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Nanoscale 13, 18754-18762

Outer membrane extensions from the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 show an insulating behavior in dry air environment as measured by scanning dielectric microscopy.

JTD Keywords: constant, dielectric polarization, microbial nanowires, nanoscale, transport, Air environment, Bacteria, Bacterial cells, Bacterial nanowires, Dry air, Metal-reducing bacteria, Outer membrane, Phase-minerals, Proteins, Shewanella oneidensis mr-1, Solid phasis, Solid-phase, Space division multiple access, Tubulars


Rodríguez-Contreras, A, Torres, D, Rafik, B, Ortiz-Hernandez, M, Ginebra, MP, Calero, JA, Manero, JM, Ruperez, E, (2021). Bioactivity and antibacterial properties of calcium- and silver-doped coatings on 3D printed titanium scaffolds Surface & Coatings Technology 421, 127476

One of the major problems faced by metallic implants is the high probability of bacterial infections, with significant consequences for the patient. In this work, a thermochemical treatment is proposed to obtain silver-doped calcium titanate coatings on the Ti surface to improve the bioactivity of porous 3D-printed Ti structures and simultaneously provide them with antibacterial properties. A complete characterization of the new coating, the study of the ion release and the analysis of its cytotoxicity were carried out together with evaluation of the natural apatite forming in simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the antibacterial properties of the coatings were assessed against Pseudomona aeruginosa and Escherichia coli as gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis as gram-positive bacterial strains. Ag ions were integrated into the Ca titanate layer and Ag nanoparticles were formed within the entire 3D Ti surface. Ca and Ag ions were released from both porous and solid samples into the Hanks' solution for 48 h. The treated surfaces showed no cytotoxicity and an apatite layer precipitated on the entire porous surface when the samples were immersed in SBF. The release of Ag from the surface had a strong antibacterial effect and prevented bacterial adhesion and proliferation on the surface. Moreover, the nanostructured topography of the coating resulted also in a reduction of bacterial adhesion and proliferation, even in absence of Ag. In conclusion, the cost-effective approach here reported provided protection against the most predominant bacterial colonizers to the Ti porous implants, while maintaining their bioactivity.

JTD Keywords: 3d-printing, alkaline, antibacterial activity, arthroplasty, bacterial adhesion, biomaterials, generation, ions, nanoparticles, osseointegration, silver, surface-layer, titanium implants, toxicity, 3d-printing, Antibacterial activity, Biomaterials, Porous structures, Silver, Ti metal, Titanium implants


Mestre, R, Patiño, T, Sánchez, S, (2021). Biohybrid robotics: From the nanoscale to the macroscale Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews-Nanomedicine And Nanobiotechnology 13, e01703

© 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Biohybrid robotics is a field in which biological entities are combined with artificial materials in order to obtain improved performance or features that are difficult to mimic with hand-made materials. Three main level of integration can be envisioned depending on the complexity of the biological entity, ranging from the nanoscale to the macroscale. At the nanoscale, enzymes that catalyze biocompatible reactions can be used as power sources for self-propelled nanoparticles of different geometries and compositions, obtaining rather interesting active matter systems that acquire importance in the biomedical field as drug delivery systems. At the microscale, single enzymes are substituted by complete cells, such as bacteria or spermatozoa, whose self-propelling capabilities can be used to transport cargo and can also be used as drug delivery systems, for in vitro fertilization practices or for biofilm removal. Finally, at the macroscale, the combinations of millions of cells forming tissues can be used to power biorobotic devices or bioactuators by using muscle cells. Both cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue have been part of remarkable examples of untethered biorobots that can crawl or swim due to the contractions of the tissue and current developments aim at the integration of several types of tissue to obtain more realistic biomimetic devices, which could lead to the next generation of hybrid robotics. Tethered bioactuators, however, result in excellent candidates for tissue models for drug screening purposes or the study of muscle myopathies due to their three-dimensional architecture. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology.

JTD Keywords: bacteria-bots, based biorobots, biorobots, bots, enzymatic nanomotors, hybrid robotics, muscle‐, Bacteria‐, Bacteria-bots, Biorobots, Enzymatic nanomotors, Hybrid robotics, Muscle-based biorobots


Cendra, MD, Torrents, E, (2021). Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and their partners in crime Biotechnology Advances 49, 107734

Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and the capacity of the bacterium to coexist and interact with a broad range of microorganisms have a substantial clinical impact. This review focuses on the main traits of P. aeruginosa biofilms, such as the structural composition and regulatory networks involved, placing particular emphasis on the clinical challenges they represent in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility and biofilm infection clearance. Furthermore, the ability of P. aeruginosa to grow together with other microorganisms is a significant pathogenic attribute with clinical relevance; hence, the main microbial interactions of Pseudomonas are especially highlighted and detailed throughout this review. This article also explores the infections caused by single and polymicrobial biofilms of P. aeruginosa and the current models used to recreate them under laboratory conditions. Finally, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm strategies developed against P. aeruginosa mono and multispecies biofilms are detailed at the end of this review.

JTD Keywords: aeruginosa models, antibiotic-resistance, antimicrobials, bacterial biofilms, biofilms, c-di-gmp, chronic infections, enterococcus-faecalis, extracellular dna, in-vitro, lectin pa-iil, p, p. aeruginosa models, polymicrobial, polymicrobial interactions, staphylococcus-aureus, Antimicrobials, Biofilms, Chronic infections, P. aeruginosa models, Polymicrobial, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Urinary-tract-infection


Campo-Pérez, V, Cendra, MD, Julián, E, Torrents, E, (2021). Easily applicable modifications to electroporation conditions improve the transformation efficiency rates for rough morphotypes of fast-growing mycobacteria New Biotechnology 63, 10-18

© 2021 Elsevier B.V. Electroporation is the most widely used and efficient method to transform mycobacteria. Through this technique, fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria with smooth and rough morphotypes have been successfully transformed. However, transformation efficiencies differ widely between species and strains. In this study, the smooth and rough morphotypes of Mycobacteroides abscessus and Mycolicibacterium brumae were used to improve current electroporation procedures for fast-growing rough mycobacteria. The focus was on minimizing three well-known and challenging limitations: the mycobacterial restriction-modification systems, which degrade foreign DNA; clump formation of electrocompetent cells before electroporation; and electrical discharges during pulse delivery, which were reduced by using salt-free DNA solution. Herein, different strategies are presented that successfully address these three limitations and clearly improve the electroporation efficiencies over the current procedures. The results demonstrated that combining the developed strategies during electroporation is highly recommended for the transformation of fast-growing rough mycobacteria.

JTD Keywords: clump, desalted dna, electroporation, mycobacteria, mycobacteroides abscessus, mycolicibacterium brumae, Clump, Desalted dna, Electroporation, Mycobacteria, Mycobacteroides abscessus, Mycolicibacterium brumae


Molina, BG, Valle, LJ, Casanovas, J, Lanzalaco, S, Pérez-Madrigal, MM, Turon, P, Armelin, E, Alemán, C, (2021). Plasma-Functionalized Isotactic Polypropylene Assembled with Conducting Polymers for Bacterial Quantification by NADH Sensing Advanced Healthcare Materials 10, 2100425

Rapid detection of bacterial presence on implantable medical devices is essential to prevent biofilm formation, which consists of densely packed bacteria colonies able to withstand antibiotic-mediated killing. In this work, a smart approach is presented to integrate electrochemical sensors for detecting bacterial infections in biomedical implants made of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) using chemical assembly. The electrochemical detection is based on the capacity of conducting polymers (CPs) to detect extracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) released from cellular respiration of bacteria, which allows distinguishing prokaryotic from eukaryotic cells. Oxygen plasma-functionalized free-standing i-PP, coated with a layer (≈1.1 µm in thickness) of CP nanoparticles obtained by oxidative polymerization, is used as working electrode for the anodic polymerization of a second CP layer (≈8.2 µm in thickness), which provides very high electrochemical activity and stability. The resulting layered material, i-PP /CP , detects the electro-oxidation of NADH in physiological media with a sensitivity 417 µA cm and a detection limit up to 0.14 × 10 m, which is below the concentration of extracellular NADH found for bacterial cultures of biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative strains. f 2 −2 −3

JTD Keywords: bacteria respiration, bacteria sensors, biomedical implants, flexible sensors, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), Bacteria respiration, Bacteria sensors, Biomedical implants, Flexible sensors, Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)


Boschker, HTS, Cook, PLM, Polerecky, L, Eachambadi, RT, Lozano, H, Hidalgo-Martinez, S, Khalenkow, D, Spampinato, V, Claes, N, Kundu, P, Wang, D, Bals, S, Sand, KK, Cavezza, F, Hauffman, T, Bjerg, JT, Skirtach, AG, Kochan, K, McKee, M, Wood, B, Bedolla, D, Gianoncelli, A, Geerlings, NMJ, Van Gerven, N, Remaut, H, Geelhoed, JS, Millan-Solsona, R, Fumagalli, L, Nielsen, LP, Franquet, A, Manca, JV, Gomila, G, Meysman, FJR, (2021). Efficient long-range conduction in cable bacteria through nickel protein wires Nature Communications 12, 3996

Filamentous cable bacteria display long-range electron transport, generating electrical currents over centimeter distances through a highly ordered network of fibers embedded in their cell envelope. The conductivity of these periplasmic wires is exceptionally high for a biological material, but their chemical structure and underlying electron transport mechanism remain unresolved. Here, we combine high-resolution microscopy, spectroscopy, and chemical imaging on individual cable bacterium filaments to demonstrate that the periplasmic wires consist of a conductive protein core surrounded by an insulating protein shell layer. The core proteins contain a sulfur-ligated nickel cofactor, and conductivity decreases when nickel is oxidized or selectively removed. The involvement of nickel as the active metal in biological conduction is remarkable, and suggests a hitherto unknown form of electron transport that enables efficient conduction in centimeter-long protein structures. Filamentous cable bacteria conduct electrical currents over centimeter distances through fibers embedded in their cell envelope. Here, Boschker et al. show that the fibers consist of a conductive core containing nickel proteins that is surrounded by an insulating protein shell.

JTD Keywords: Bacteria (microorganisms), Bacterial protein, Bacterial proteins, Bacterium, Chemistry, Deltaproteobacteria, Electric conductivity, Electricity, Electron, Electron transport, Metabolism, Microscopy, Nanowires, Nickel, Physiology, Protein, Resonance raman, Spectroscopy, Transport electrons


Tornin, J, Labay, C, Tampieri, F, Ginebra, MP, Canal, C, (2021). Evaluation of the effects of cold atmospheric plasma and plasma-treated liquids in cancer cell cultures Nature Protocols 16, 2826-2850

Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a potential anticancer therapy. CAP has cytotoxic effects when applied either directly to cancer cell cultures or indirectly through plasma-conditioned liquids. This protocol describes how to treat adherent cultures of human cancer cell lines with CAP or plasma-conditioned medium and determine cell viability following treatment. The protocol also includes details on how to quantify the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species present in medium following CAP treatment, using chemical probes using UV-visible or fluorescence spectroscopy. CAP treatment takes ~30 min, and 3 h are required to complete quantification of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. By providing a standardized protocol for evaluation of the effects of CAP and plasma-conditioned medium, we hope to facilitate the comparison and interpretation of results seen across different laboratories. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

JTD Keywords: bacteria, decontamination, jet, skin, surface, Physical plasma


Torp, N, Israelsen, M, Madsen, B, Lutz, P, Jansen, C, Strassburg, C, Mortensen, C, Knudsen, AW, Sorensen, GL, Holmskov, U, Schlosser, A, Thiele, M, Trebicka, J, Krag, A, (2021). Level of MFAP4 in ascites independently predicts 1-year transplant-free survival in patients with cirrhosis Jhep Rep 3, 100287

Background & Aims: Prognostic models of cirrhosis underestimate disease severity for patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is an extracellular matrix protein linked to hepatic neoangiogenesis and fibrogenesis. We investigated ascites MFAP4 as a predictor of transplant-free survival in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Methods: A dual-centre observational study of patients with cirrhosis and ascites recruited consecutively in relation to a paracentesis was carried out. Patients were followed up for 1 year, until death or liver transplantation (LTx). Ascites MFAP4 was tested with the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD-Na), CLIF Consortium Acute Decompensation (CLIF-C AD), and Child-Pugh score in Cox regression models. Results: Ninety-three patients requiring paracentesis were included. Median ascites MFAP4 was 29.7 U/L [22.3–41.3], and MELD-Na was 19 [16–23]. A low MELD-Na score (<20) was observed in 49 patients (53%). During follow-up, 20 patients died (22%), and 6 received LTx (6%). High ascites MFAP4 (>29.7 U/L) was associated with 1-year transplant-free survival (p = 0.002). In Cox regression, ascites MFAP4 and MELD-Na independently predicted 1-year transplant-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.97, p = 0.03, and HR = 1.08, p = 0.01, respectively). Ascites MFAP4 and CLIF-C AD also predicted survival independently (HR = 0.96, p = 0.02, and HR = 1.05, p = 0.03, respectively), whereas only ascites MFAP4 did, controlling for the Child-Pugh score (HR = 0.97, p = 0.03, and HR = 1.18, p = 0.16, respectively). For patients with MELD-Na <20, ascites MFAP4 but not ascites protein predicted 1-year transplant-free survival (HR 0.91, p = 0.02, and HR = 0.94, p = 0.17, respectively). Conclusions: Ascites MFAP4 predicts 1-year transplant-free survival in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. In patients with low MELD-Na scores, ascites MFAP4, but not total ascites protein, significantly predicted 1-year transplant-free survival. Lay summary: Patients with cirrhosis who have fluid in the abdomen, ascites, are at an increased risk of death and in need for liver transplantation. Our study identified patients with ascites and a poor prognosis by measuring microfibrillar associated protein 4 (MFAP4), a protein present in the abdominal fluid. Patients with low levels of the MFAP4 protein are at particularly increased risk of death or liver transplantation, suggesting that clinical care should be intensified in this group of patients. © 2021 The Authors

JTD Keywords: biomarker, clif-c ad, clif consortium acute decompensation, cps, child-pugh score, crp, c-reactive protein, ct, computed tomography, decompensated, ecm, extracellular matrix, fibrosis, fluid protein, gfr, glomerular filtration rate, hr, hazard ratio, inr, internationalised normal ratio, liver disease, liver-cirrhosis, ltx, liver transplantation, markers, meld-na, model for end-stage liver disease, mfap4, microfibrillar associated protein 4, mortality, nash, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, natural-history, prognosis, risk-factors, sbp, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, scores, stage, Biomarker, Decompensated, Egfr, estimated gfr, Fibrosis, Liver disease, Mortality, Prognosis, Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis


Enshaei, H, Puiggalí-Jou, A, del Valle, LJ, Turon, P, Saperas, N, Alemán, C, (2021). Nanotheranostic Interface Based on Antibiotic-Loaded Conducting Polymer Nanoparticles for Real-Time Monitoring of Bacterial Growth Inhibition Advanced Healthcare Materials 10, 2001636

© 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH Conducting polymers have been increasingly used as biologically interfacing electrodes for biomedical applications due to their excellent and fast electrochemical response, reversible doping–dedoping characteristics, high stability, easy processability, and biocompatibility. These advantageous properties can be used for the rapid detection and eradication of infections associated to bacterial growth since these are a tremendous burden for individual patients as well as the global healthcare system. Herein, a smart nanotheranostic electroresponsive platform, which consists of chloramphenicol (CAM)-loaded in poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene) nanoparticles (PEDOT/CAM NPs) for concurrent release of the antibiotic and real-time monitoring of bacterial growth is presented. PEDOT/CAM NPs, with an antibiotic loading content of 11.9 ± 1.3% w/w, are proved to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus sanguinis due to the antibiotic release by cyclic voltammetry. Furthermore, in situ monitoring of bacterial activity is achieved through the electrochemical detection of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a redox active specie produced by the microbial metabolism that diffuse to the extracellular medium. According to these results, the proposed nanotheranostic platform has great potential for real-time monitoring of the response of bacteria to the released antibiotic, contributing to the evolution of the personalized medicine.

JTD Keywords: bacterial detection, chloramphenicol, conducting polymers, drug, drug release, electrochemical sensors, electrochemistry, electrostimulated release, mechanism, peptide, polythiophene, sensor, sulfonate, Bacterial detection, Chloramphenicol, Conducting polymers, Controlled-release, Drug release, Electrochemical sensors, Electrostimulated release, Polythiophene


Trebicka, J, Bork, P, Krag, A, Arumugam, M, (2021). Utilizing the gut microbiome in decompensated cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 18, 167-180

© 2020, Springer Nature Limited. The human gut microbiome has emerged as a major player in human health and disease. The liver, as the first organ to encounter microbial products that cross the gut epithelial barrier, is affected by the gut microbiome in many ways. Thus, the gut microbiome might play a major part in the development of liver diseases. The common end stage of liver disease is decompensated cirrhosis and the further development towards acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). These conditions have high short-term mortality. There is evidence that translocation of components of the gut microbiota, facilitated by different pathogenic mechanisms such as increased gut epithelial permeability and portal hypertension, is an important driver of decompensation by induction of systemic inflammation, and thereby also ACLF. Elucidating the role of the gut microbiome in the aetiology of decompensated cirrhosis and ACLF deserves further investigation and improvement; and might be the basis for development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. In this Review, we focus on the possible pathogenic, diagnostic and therapeutic role of the gut microbiome in decompensation of cirrhosis and progression to ACLF.

JTD Keywords: albumin, decreases intestinal permeability, hepatic-encephalopathy, portal-vein thrombosis, rifaximin improves, secondary bile-acids, systemic inflammation, translocation, venous-pressure gradient, Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis


Ebrahimi, N, Bi, CH, Cappelleri, DJ, Ciuti, G, Conn, AT, Faivre, D, Habibi, N, Hosovsky, A, Iacovacci, V, Khalil, ISM, Magdanz, V, Misra, S, Pawashe, C, Rashidifar, R, Soto-Rodriguez, PED, Fekete, Z, Jafari, A, (2021). Magnetic Actuation Methods in Bio/Soft Robotics Advanced Functional Materials 31, 2005137

© 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH In recent years, magnetism has gained an enormous amount of interest among researchers for actuating different sizes and types of bio/soft robots, which can be via an electromagnetic-coil system, or a system of moving permanent magnets. Different actuation strategies are used in robots with magnetic actuation having a number of advantages in possible realization of microscale robots such as bioinspired microrobots, tetherless microrobots, cellular microrobots, or even normal size soft robots such as electromagnetic soft robots and medical robots. This review provides a summary of recent research in magnetically actuated bio/soft robots, discussing fabrication processes and actuation methods together with relevant applications in biomedical area and discusses future prospects of this way of actuation for possible improvements in performance of different types of bio/soft robots.

JTD Keywords: capsule endoscope, controlled propulsion, conventional gastroscopy, digital microfluidics, guided capsule, liquid-metal, magnetic drug delivery, magnetic microrobots, magnetically guided capsule endoscopy, magnetotactic bacteria, nanoscribe ip-dip, navigation system, Gallium-indium egain, Magnetic bioinspired micromanipulation, Magnetic drug delivery, Magnetic microrobots, Magnetically guided capsule endoscopy, Magnetotactic bacteria


Hodásová, L, Sans, J, Molina, BG, Alemán, C, Llanes, L, Fargas, G, Armelin, E, (2021). Polymer infiltrated ceramic networks with biocompatible adhesive and 3D-printed highly porous scaffolds Additive Manufacturing 39, 101850

© 2021 Elsevier B.V. Herein, for the first time is described the design of a novel porous zirconia scaffolds manufactured by using polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) and 3D-printing technologies. Cubic geometry of pieces was obtained by perpendicular layer-by-layer deposition of yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) and Pluronic® hydrogel ceramic paste. The specimens were prepared by robocasting assembly with 50% infill and 50% of pores, as feed setup. Bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and tri(ethylenglycol) dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) copolymer, a well-known biocompatible adhesive, which is widely used in dentistry field, was employed to reinforce the pores of the 3D-printed ceramic structure. The success of the acrylate polymer infiltration above the scaffold surface and among the 3Y-TZP filaments was achieved through previous ceramic functionalization with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (γ-MPS). The well infiltration of the material on pores was evaluated by gravimetry, obtaining a value of 87.5 ± 6.6% of pores covered by the adhesive. Such successful infiltration of methacrylate copolymer had also a positive effect on the mechanical properties of the scaffold material, being the PICN sample that one with the highest elongation resistance. The new system showed reduced bacteria proliferation, over 24 h of incubation with Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Streptococcus salivarius bacteria lines, when compared to the control.

JTD Keywords: acrylate polymer, bacteria colonization, yttrium stabilized zirconia, Acrylate polymer, Bacteria colonization, Robocasting, Yttrium stabilized zirconia


Vidal, E, Guillem-Marti, J, Ginebra, MP, Combes, C, Ruperez, E, Rodriguez, D, (2021). Multifunctional homogeneous calcium phosphate coatings: Toward antibacterial and cell adhesive titanium scaffolds Surface & Coatings Technology 405, 126557

Implants for orthopedic applications need to be biocompatible and bioactive, with mechanical properties similar to those of surrounding natural bone. Given this scenario titanium (Ti) scaffolds obtained by Direct Ink Writing technique offer the opportunity to manufacture customized structures with controlled porosity and mechanical properties. Considering that 3D Ti scaffolds have a significant surface area, it is necessary to develop strategies against the initial bacterial adhesion in order to prevent infection in the early stages of the implantation, while promoting cell adhesion to the scaffold. The challenge is not only achieving a balance between antibacterial activity and osseointegration, it is also to develop a homogeneous coating on the inner and outer surface of the scaffold. The purpose of this work was the development of a single-step electrodeposition process in order to uniformly cover Ti scaffolds with a layer of calcium phosphate (CaP) loaded with chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX). Scaffold characterization was assessed by scanning electron microscopy, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman microscopy and compressive strength tests. Results determined that the surface of scaffolds was covered by plate-like and whisker-like calcium phosphate crystals, which main phases were octacalcium phosphate and brushite. Biological tests showed that the as-coated scaffolds reduced bacteria adhesion (73 +/- 3% for Staphylococcus aureus and 70 +/- 2% for Escherichia coli). In vitro cell studies and confocal analysis revealed the adhesion and spreading of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 on coated surfaces. Therefore, the proposed strategy can be a potential candidate in bone replacing surgeries.

JTD Keywords: Antibacterial, Bacterial, Behavior, Biocompatibility, Calcium phosphate coating, Chlorhexidine, Chlorhexidine digluconate, Deposition, Electrodeposition, Hydroxyapatite coatings, Implants, One-step pulse electrodeposition, Plasma-spray, Release, Surface, Titanium scaffolds


Rodríguez-Contreras, A., Torres, D., Guillem-Marti, J., Sereno, P., Ginebra, M. P., Calero, J. A., Manero, J. M., Rupérez, E., (2020). Development of novel dual-action coatings with osteoinductive and antibacterial properties for 3D-printed titanium implants Surface and Coatings Technology 403, 126381

Gallium (Ga) has been recently proposed as a novel therapeutic agent, since it promotes bone formation and exhibits antibacterial properties. This work focuses on the optimization of a thermochemical treatment that incorporates Ga ions by the addition of the body-friendly Ga nitrate approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The objective was to simultaneously provide the inner and the outer surfaces of porous‑titanium surfaces obtained by 3D-printing with bioactivity and antibacterial properties. The apatite-forming ability of the coating, as well as the antibacterial activity and SaOS-2 cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and mineralization were evaluated and compared with untreated Ti surfaces. The characterization of the surfaces revealed the presence of a Ga-containing calcium titanate layer, which was non cytotoxic and in simulated body fluid produced a homogeneous apatite coating well adhered to the substrate. The formation of this apatite layer was accelerated with increasing Ga amounts present on the surface, resulting also in an increase in thickness. An initial quick release of Ga ion promoted the antibacterial effect against gram positive strains, especially for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the most frequent resistant pathogens in nosocomial infections. SaOS-2 cells adhered and proliferated on the Ga-doped Ti surfaces, its presence contributed to cell differentiation and to considerably increase the mineralization levels. Thus, the developed multifunctional coatings could provide bioactivity to the porous Ti implants while protecting them from the most frequent gram-negative pathogens.

JTD Keywords: 3D-printing, Antibacterial activity, Biomaterials, Gallium, Porous structures, Titanium implants


Sanchez-Herrero, J. F., Bernabeu, M., Prieto, A., Hüttener, M., Juárez, A., (2020). Gene duplications in the genomes of staphylococci and enterococci Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences 7, 160

Gene duplications are a feature of bacterial genomes. In the present work we analyze the extent of gene duplications in the genomes of three microorganisms that belong to the Firmicutes phylum and that are etiologic agents of several nosocomial infections: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis. In all three groups, there is an irregular distribution of duplications in the genomes of the strains analyzed. Whereas in some of the strains duplications are scarce, hundreds of duplications are present in others. In all three species, mobile DNA accounts for a large percentage of the duplicated genes: phage DNA in S. aureus, and plasmid DNA in the enterococci. Duplicates also include core genes. In all three species, a reduced group of genes is duplicated in all strains analyzed. Duplication of the deoC and rpmG genes is a hallmark of S. aureus genomes. Duplication of the gene encoding the PTS IIB subunit is detected in all enterococci genomes. In E. faecalis it is remarkable that the genomes of some strains encode duplicates of the prgB and prgU genes. They belong to the prgABCU cluster, which responds to the presence of the peptide pheromone cCF10 by expressing the surface adhesins PrgA, PrgB, and PrgC.

JTD Keywords: Bacterial genomics, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Gene duplication, Staphylococcus aureus


Bach-Griera, Marc, Campo-Pérez, Víctor, Barbosa, Sandra, Traserra, Sara, Guallar-Garrido, Sandra, Moya-Andérico, Laura, Herrero-Abadía, Paula, Luquin, Marina, Rabanal, Rosa Maria, Torrents, Eduard, Julián, Esther, (2020). Mycolicibacterium brumae is a safe and non-toxic immunomodulatory agent for cancer treatment Vaccines 8, (2), 198

Intravesical Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy remains the gold-standard treatment for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients, even though half of the patients develop adverse events to this therapy. On exploring BCG-alternative therapies, Mycolicibacterium brumae, a nontuberculous mycobacterium, has shown outstanding anti-tumor and immunomodulatory capabilities. As no infections due to M. brumae in humans, animals, or plants have been described, the safety and/or toxicity of this mycobacterium have not been previously addressed. In the present study, an analysis was made of M. brumae- and BCG-intravenously-infected severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, M. brumae-intravesically-treated BALB/c mice, and intrahemacoelic-infected-Galleria mellonella larvae. Organs from infected mice and the hemolymph from larvae were processed to count bacterial burden. Blood samples from mice were also taken, and a wide range of hematological and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Finally, histopathological alterations in mouse tissues were evaluated. Our results demonstrate the safety and non-toxic profile of M. brumae. Differences were observed in the biochemical, hematological and histopathological analysis between M. brumae and BCG-infected mice, as well as survival curves rates and colony forming units (CFU) counts in both animal models. M. brumae constitutes a safe therapeutic biological agent, overcoming the safety and toxicity disadvantages presented by BCG in both mice and G. mellonella animal models.

JTD Keywords: Bladder cancer, Nontuberculous mycobacteria, BCG, Safety, Galleria mellonella, Mice


Schierwagen, R., Uschner, F. E., Ortiz, C., Torres, S., Brol, M. J., Tyc, O., Gu, W., Grimm, C., Zeuzem, S., Plamper, A., Pfeifer, P., Zimmer, S., Welsch, C., Schaefer, L., Rheinwalt, K. P., Clària, J., Arroyo, V., Trebicka, J., Klein, S., (2020). The role of macrophage-inducible C-type lectin in different stages of chronic liver disease Frontiers in Immunology 11, 1352

The macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (mincle) is part of the innate immune system and acts as a pattern recognition receptor for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Ligand binding induces mincle activation which consequently interacts with the signaling adapter Fc receptor, SYK, and NF-kappa-B. There is also evidence that mincle expressed on macrophages promotes intestinal barrier integrity. However, little is known about the role of mincle in hepatic fibrosis, especially in more advanced disease stages. Mincle expression was measured in human liver samples from cirrhotic patients and donors collected at liver transplantation and in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Human results were confirmed in rodent models of cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). In these models, the role of mincle was investigated in liver samples as well as in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC), tissues from the kidney, spleen, small intestine, and heart. Additionally, mincle activation was stimulated in experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by treatment with mincle agonist trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB). In human NASH, mincle is upregulated with increased collagen production. In ApoE deficient mice fed high-fat western diet (NASH model), mincle activation significantly increases hepatic collagen production. In human cirrhosis, mincle expression is also significantly upregulated. Furthermore, mincle expression is associated with the stage of chronic liver disease. This could be confirmed in rat models of cirrhosis and ACLF. ACLF was induced by LPS injection in cirrhotic rats. While mincle expression and downstream signaling via FC receptor gamma, SYK, and NF-kappa-B are upregulated in the liver, they are downregulated in PBMCs of these rats. Although mincle expressed on macrophages might be beneficial for intestinal barrier integrity, it seems to contribute to inflammation and fibrosis once the intestinal barrier becomes leaky in advanced stages of chronic liver disease.

JTD Keywords: ACLF, Bacterial translocation, Fibrosis, Inflammation, NASH


Vukomanovic, M., Torrents, E., (2019). High time resolution and high signal-to-noise monitoring of the bacterial growth kinetics in the presence of plasmonic nanoparticles Journal of Nanobiotechnology 17, (1), 21

Background: Emerging concepts for designing innovative drugs (i.e., novel generations of antimicrobials) frequently include nanostructures, new materials, and nanoparticles (NPs). Along with numerous advantages, NPs bring limitations, partly because they can limit the analytical techniques used for their biological and in vivo validation. From that standpoint, designing innovative drug delivery systems requires advancements in the methods used for their testing and investigations. Considering the well-known ability of resazurin-based methods for rapid detection of bacterial metabolisms with very high sensitivity, in this work we report a novel optimization for tracking bacterial growth kinetics in the presence of NPs with specific characteristics, such as specific optical properties. Results: Arginine-functionalized gold composite (HAp/Au/arginine) NPs, used as the NP model for validation of the method, possess plasmonic properties and are characterized by intensive absorption in the UV/vis region with a surface plasmon resonance maximum at 540 nm. Due to the specific optical properties, the NP absorption intensively interferes with the light absorption measured during the evaluation of bacterial growth (optical density; OD600). The results confirm substantial nonspecific interference by NPs in the signal detected during a regular turbidity study used for tracking bacterial growth. Instead, during application of a resazurin-based method (Presto Blue), when a combination of absorption and fluorescence detection is applied, a substantial increase in the signal-to-noise ratio is obtained that leads to the improvement of the accuracy of the measurements as verified in three bacterial strains tested with different growth rates (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus). Conclusions: Here, we described a novel procedure that enables the kinetics of bacterial growth in the presence of NPs to be followed with high time resolution, high sensitivity, and without sampling during the kinetic study. We showed the applicability of the Presto Blue method for the case of HAp/Au/arginine NPs, which can be extended to various types of metallic NPs with similar characteristics. The method is a very easy, economical, and reliable option for testing NPs designed as novel antimicrobials.

JTD Keywords: Antimicrobial nanoparticles, Arginine-functionalized gold, Bacterial growth kinetics, Plasmonic nanoparticles, Presto Blue


De Matteis, Valeria, Rizzello, Loris, Ingrosso, Chiara, Liatsi-Douvitsa, Eva, De Giorgi, Maria Luisa, De Matteis, Giovanni, Rinaldi, Rosaria, (2019). Cultivar-dependent anticancer and antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using leaves of different Olea Europaea trees Nanomaterials 9, (11), 1544

The green synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) is currently under worldwide investigation as an eco-friendly alternative to traditional routes (NPs): the absence of toxic solvents and catalysts make it suitable in the design of promising nanomaterials for nanomedicine applications. In this work, we used the extracts collected from leaves of two cultivars (Leccino and Carolea) belonging to the species Olea Europaea, to synthesize silver NPs (AgNPs) in different pH conditions and low temperature. NPs underwent full morphological characterization with the aim to define a suitable protocol to obtain a monodispersed population of AgNPs. Afterwards, to validate the reproducibility of the mentioned synthetic procedure, we moved on to another Mediterranean plant, the Laurus Nobilis. Interestingly, the NPs obtained using the two olive cultivars produced NPs with different shape and size, strictly depending on the cultivar selected and pH. Furthermore, the potential ability to inhibit the growth of two woman cancer cells (breast adenocarcinoma cells, MCF-7 and human cervical epithelioid carcinoma, HeLa) were assessed for these AgNPs, as well as their capability to mitigate the bacteria concentration in samples of contaminated well water. Our results showed that toxicity was stronger when MCF-7 and Hela cells were exposed to AgNPs derived from Carolea obtained at pH 7 presenting irregular shape; on the other hand, greater antibacterial effect was revealed using AgNPs obtained at pH 8 (smaller and monodispersed) on well water, enriched with bacteria and coliforms.

JTD Keywords: Green synthesis, Silver nanoparticles, Olea Europaea, Leccino, Carolea, Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity, Antibacterial activity


Vidal, E., Buxadera-Palomero, J., Pierre, C., Manero, J. M., Ginebra, M. P., Cazalbou, S., Combes, C., Rupérez, E., Rodríguez, D., (2019). Single-step pulsed electrodeposition of calcium phosphate coatings on titanium for drug delivery Surface and Coatings Technology 358, 266-275

Metallic implants have some limitations related to bioactivity and bacteria colonization leading to infections. In this regard, calcium phosphate coatings can be used as carrier for drug delivery in order to improve the mentioned drawbacks. The present work proposes the introduction of an antibacterial agent in the course of a pulsed and reverse pulsed electrodeposition. Calcium phosphate coatings were prepared in 30 min using different pulse waveforms (unipolar-bipolar), current densities (2–5 mA/cm2) and temperatures (40–60 °C). Mechanical stability of the as-coated surfaces was studied in order to select the optimal electrodeposition conditions. Subsequently, selected coatings were loaded with an antiseptic agent, chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), via a single-step co-deposition procedure. CHX concentration added to the electrolyte was adjusted to 3 mM based on the antibacterial efficacy of the loaded coatings evaluated in vitro with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria strains. Whereas the same chlorhexidine concentration was added to the electrolyte, results showed that the amount of CHX loaded was different for each condition while release kinetics was maintained. The results of this work demonstrate that a pulsed co-deposition strategy has great potential to modulate local delivery of antibacterial agents such as chlorhexidine digluconate, which may prevent early phase infections of metallic implants after insertion.

JTD Keywords: Antibacterial agent, Calcium phosphate, Characterization, Coating, Pulse electrodeposition, Titanium


Crespo, Anna, Blanco-Cabra, N., Torrents, Eduard, (2018). Aerobic vitamin B12 biosynthesis is essential for pseudomonas aeruginosa class II ribonucleotide reductase activity during planktonic and biofilm growth Frontiers in Microbiology 9, (986), Article 986

P. aeruginosa is a major pathogenic bacterium in chronic infections and is a model organism for studying biofilms. P. aeruginosa is considered an aerobic bacterium, but in the presence of nitrate, it also grows in anaerobic conditions. Oxygen diffusion through the biofilm generates metabolic and genetic diversity in P. aeruginosa growth, such as in ribonucleotide reductase activity. These essential enzymes are necessary for DNA synthesis and repair. Oxygen availability determines the activity of the three-ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) classes. Class II and III RNRs are active in the absence of oxygen; however, class II RNRs, which are important in P. aeruginosa biofilm growth, require a vitamin B12 cofactor for their enzymatic activity. In this work, we elucidated the conditions in which class II RNRs are active due to vitamin B12 concentration constraints (biosynthesis or environmental availability). We demonstrated that increased vitamin B12 levels during aerobic, stationary and biofilm growth activate class II RNR activity. We also established that the cobN gene is essentially responsible for B12 biosynthesis under planktonic and biofilm growth. Our results unravel the mechanisms of dNTP synthesis by P. aeruginosa during biofilm growth, which appear to depend on the bacterial strain (laboratory-type or clinical isolate).

JTD Keywords: Vitamin B12, Adenosylcobalamin, Ribonucleotide Reductases, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, NrdJ, Bacterial growth, Biofilm,Anaerobiosis


Hoyos-Nogués, Mireia, Buxadera-Palomero, Judit, Ginebra, Maria-Pau, Manero, José María, Gil, F. J., Mas-Moruno, Carlos, (2018). All-in-one trifunctional strategy: A cell adhesive, bacteriostatic and bactericidal coating for titanium implants Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 169, 30-40

Strategies to inhibit initial bacterial adhesion are extremely important to prevent infection on biomaterial surfaces. However, the simultaneous attraction of desired eukaryotic cells remains a challenge for successful biomaterial-host tissue integration. Here we describe a method for the development of a trifunctional coating that repels contaminating bacteria, kills those that adhere, and promotes osteoblast adhesion. To this end, titanium surfaces were functionalized by electrodeposition of an antifouling polyethylene glycol (PEG) layer and subsequent binding of a peptidic platform with cell-adhesive and bactericidal properties. The physicochemical characterization of the samples via SEM, contact angle, FTIR and XPS analysis verified the successful binding of the PEG layer and the biomolecules, without altering the morphology and topography of the samples. PEG coatings inhibited protein adsorption and osteoblast-like (SaOS-2) attachment; however, the presence of cell adhesive domains rescued osteoblast adhesion, yielding higher values of cell attachment and spreading compared to controls (p < 0.05). Finally, the antibacterial potential of the coating was measured by live/dead assays and SEM using S. sanguinis as a model of early colonizer in oral biofilms. The presence of PEG layers significantly reduced bacterial attachment on the surfaces (p < 0.05). This antibacterial potential was further increased by the bactericidal peptide, yielding values of bacterial adhesion below 0.2% (p < 0.05). The balance between the risk of infection and the optimal osteointegration of a biomaterial is often described as “the race for the surface”, in which contaminating bacteria and host tissue cells compete to colonize the implant. In the present work, we have developed a multifunctional coating for a titanium surface that promotes the attachment and spreading of osteoblasts, while very efficiently inhibits bacterial colonization, thus holding promise for application in bone replacing applications.

JTD Keywords: Polyethylene glycol, Antibacterial, Osteointegration, Multifunctionality, Peptides, Titanium


Pujol, E., Blanco-Cabra, N., Julián, E., Leiva, R., Torrents, E., Vázquez, S., (2018). Pentafluorosulfanyl-containing triclocarban analogs with potent antimicrobial activity Molecules 23, (11), 2853

Concerns have been raised about the long-term accumulating effects of triclocarban, a polychlorinated diarylurea widely used as an antibacterial soap additive, in the environment and in human beings. Indeed, the Food and Drug Administration has recently banned it from personal care products. Herein, we report the synthesis, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of novel N,N′-diarylureas as triclocarban analogs, designed by reducing one or more chlorine atoms of the former and/or replacing them by the novel pentafluorosulfanyl group, a new bioisostere of the trifluoromethyl group, with growing importance in drug discovery. Interestingly, some of these pentafluorosulfanyl-bearing ureas exhibited high potency, broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacterial pathogens, and high selectivity index, while displaying a lower spontaneous mutation frequency than triclocarban. Some lines of evidence suggest a bactericidal mode of action for this family of compounds.

JTD Keywords: Antibacterial, Gram-positive, N,N'-diarylureas, Pentafluorosulfanyl, Staphylococcus aureus, Triclocarban


Venkova, Tatiana, Juárez, Antonio, Espinosa, Manuel, (2017). Editorial: Modulating prokaryotic lifestyle by DNA-binding proteins: Learning from (apparently) simple systems Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences 3, Article 86

Within the research in Molecular Biology, one important field along the years has been the analyses on how prokaryotes regulate the expression of their genes and what the consequences of these activities are. Prokaryotes have attracted the interests of researchers not only because the processes taking place in their world are important to cells, but also because many of the effects often can be readily measured, both at the single cell level and in large populations. Contributing to the interest of the present topic is the fact that modulation of gene activity involves the sensing of intra- and inter-cellular conditions, DNA binding and DNA dynamics, and interaction with the replication/transcription machinery of the cell. All of these processes are fundamental to the operation of a biological entity and they condition its lifestyle. Further, the discoveries achieved in the bacterial world have been of ample use in eukaryotes. In addition to the fundamental interest of understanding modulation of prokaryotic lifestyle by DNA-binding proteins, there is an added interest from the healthcare point of view. As it is well-known the antibiotic-resistance strains of pathogenic bacteria are a major world problem, so that there is an urgent need of innovative approaches to tackle it. Human and animal infectious diseases impose staggering costs worldwide in terms of loss of human life and livestock, diminished productivity, and the heavy economic burden of disease. The global dimension of international trade, personal travel, and population migration expands at an ever-accelerating rate. This increasing mobility results in broader and quicker dissemination of bacterial pathogens and in rapid spread of antibiotic resistance. The majority of the newly acquired resistances are horizontally spread among bacteria of the same or different species by processes of lateral (horizontal) gene transfer, so that discovery of new antibiotics is not the definitive solution to fighting infectious diseases. There is an absolute need of finding novel alternatives to the “classical” approach to treat infections by bacterial pathogens, and these new ways must include the exploration and introduction of novel antibacterials, the development of alternative strategies, and the finding of novel bacterial targets. However, all these approaches will result in a stalemate if we, researchers, are not able to achieve a better understanding of the mechanistic processes underlying bacterial gene expression. It is, then, imperative to continue gaining insight into the basic mechanisms by which bacterial cells regulate the expression of their genes. That is why our Research Topic hosted by Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences was timely, and the output of it offers novel and up-to-date points of view to the “simple” bacterial world.

JTD Keywords: DNA-protein interactions, Gene regulation in Prokaryotes, Replication control, Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression, Global Regulatory Networks


Stanton, Morgan M., Sánchez, Samuel, (2017). Pushing bacterial biohybrids to in vivo applications Trends in Biotechnology , 35, (10), 910-913

Bacterial biohybrids use the energy of bacteria to manipulate synthetic materials with the goal of solving biomedical problems at the micro- and nanoscale. We explore current in vitro studies of bacterial biohybrids, the first attempts at in vivo biohybrid research, and problems to be addressed for the future.

JTD Keywords: Bacteria, Biohybrid, Microswimmers, Micromotors, Drug delivery


Matalonga, J., Glaria, E., Bresque, M., Escande, C., Carbó, J. M., Kiefer, K., Vicente, R., León, T. E., Beceiro, S., Pascual-García, M., Serret, J., Sanjurjo, L., Morón-Ros, S., Riera, A., Paytubi, S., Juarez, A., Sotillo, F., Lindbom, L., Caelles, C., Sarrias, M. R., Sancho, J., Castrillo, A., Chini, E. N., Valledor, A. F., (2017). The nuclear receptor LXR limits bacterial infection of host macrophages through a mechanism that impacts cellular NAD metabolism Cell Reports 18, (5), 1241-1255

Macrophages exert potent effector functions against invading microorganisms but constitute, paradoxically, a preferential niche for many bacterial strains to replicate. Using a model of infection by Salmonella Typhimurium, we have identified a molecular mechanism regulated by the nuclear receptor LXR that limits infection of host macrophages through transcriptional activation of the multifunctional enzyme CD38. LXR agonists reduced the intracellular levels of NAD+ in a CD38-dependent manner, counteracting pathogen-induced changes in macrophage morphology and the distribution of the F-actin cytoskeleton and reducing the capability of non-opsonized Salmonella to infect macrophages. Remarkably, pharmacological treatment with an LXR agonist ameliorated clinical signs associated with Salmonella infection in vivo, and these effects were dependent on CD38 expression in bone-marrow-derived cells. Altogether, this work reveals an unappreciated role for CD38 in bacterial-host cell interaction that can be pharmacologically exploited by activation of the LXR pathway.

JTD Keywords: Bacterial infection, CD38, Cytoskeleton, LXR, Macrophage, NAD, Nuclear receptor


Crespo, Anna, Pedraz, Lucas, Van Der Hofstadt, Marc, Gomila, Gabriel, Torrents, Eduard, (2017). Regulation of ribonucleotide synthesis by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa two-component system AlgR in response to oxidative stress Scientific Reports 7, (1), 17892

Ribonucleotide reductases (RNR) catalyze the last step of deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, and are therefore essential to DNA-based life. Three forms of RNR exist: classes I, II, and III. While eukaryotic cells use only class Ia RNR, bacteria can harbor any combination of classes, granting them adaptability. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa surprisingly encodes all three classes, allowing it to thrive in different environments. Here we study an aspect of the complex RNR regulation whose molecular mechanism has never been elucidated, the well-described induction through oxidative stress, and link it to the AlgZR two-component system, the primary regulator of the mucoid phenotype. Through bioinformatics, we identify AlgR binding locations in RNR promoters, which we characterize functionally through EMSA and physically through AFM imaging. Gene reporter assays in different growth models are used to study the AlgZR-mediated control on the RNR network under various environmental conditions and physiological states. Thereby, we show that the two-component system AlgZR, which is crucial for bacterial conversion to the mucoid phenotype associated with chronic disease, controls the RNR network and directs how the DNA synthesis pathway is modulated in mucoid and non-mucoid biofilms, allowing it to respond to oxidative stress.

JTD Keywords: Bacterial genes, Bacteriology, Pathogens


Crespo, A., Gavaldà, J., Julián, E., Torrents, E., (2017). A single point mutation in class III ribonucleotide reductase promoter renders Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 inefficient for anaerobic growth and infection Scientific Reports 7, (1), 13350

Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 has become the reference strain in many laboratories. One enzyme that is essential for its cell division is the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) enzyme that supplies the deoxynucleotides required for DNA synthesis and repair. P. aeruginosa is one of the few microorganisms that encodes three different RNR classes (Ia, II and III) in its genome, enabling it to grow and adapt to diverse environmental conditions, including during infection. In this work, we demonstrate that a lack of RNR activity induces cell elongation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Moreover, RNR gene expression during anaerobiosis differs among P. aeruginosa strains, with class III highly expressed in P. aeruginosa clinical isolates relative to the laboratory P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain. A single point mutation was identified in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain class III RNR promoter region that disrupts its anaerobic transcription by the Dnr regulator. An engineered strain that induces the class III RNR expression allows P. aeruginosa PAO1 anaerobic growth and increases its virulence to resemble that of clinical strains. Our results demonstrate that P. aeruginosa PAO1 is adapted to laboratory conditions and is not the best reference strain for anaerobic or infection studies.

JTD Keywords: Bacterial genes, Cellular microbiology, Pathogens


Simmchen, Juliane, Baeza, Alejandro, Miguel-Lopez, Albert, Stanton, Morgan M., Vallet-Regi, Maria, Ruiz-Molina, Daniel, Sánchez, Samuel, (2017). Dynamics of novel photoactive AgCl microstars and their environmental applications ChemNanoMat 3, (1), 65-71

In the field of micromotors many efforts are taken to find a substitute for peroxide as fuel. While most approaches turn towards other toxic high energy chemicals such as hydrazine, we introduce an energy source that is widely used in nature: light. Light is an ideal source of energy and some materials, such as AgCl, have the inherent property to transform light energy for chemical processes, which can be used to achieve propulsion. In the case of silver chloride, one observed process after light exposure is surface modification which leads to the release of ions generating chemo-osmotic gradients. Here we present endeavours to use those processes to propel uniquely shaped micro objects of micro star morphology with a high surface to volume ratio, study their dynamics and present approaches to go towards real environmental applications.

JTD Keywords: Self-propellers, Silver chloride, Environmental applications, Photoactive colloids, Anti bacterial


Schwab, S., Lehmann, J., Lutz, P., Jansen, C., Appenrodt, B., Lammert, F., Strassburg, C. P., Spengler, U., Nischalke, H. D., Trebicka, J., (2017). Influence of genetic variations in the SOD1 gene on the development of ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in decompensated liver cirrhosis European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology , 29, (7), 800-804

Background The balance between generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species by superoxide dismutase (SOD) is crucially involved in the pathophysiology of liver cirrhosis. Reactive oxygen species damage cells and induce inflammation/fibrosis, but also play a critical role in immune defense from pathogens. As both processes are involved in the development of liver cirrhosis and its complications, genetic variation of the SOD1 gene was investigated. Patients and methods Two SOD1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1041740 and rs3844942) were analyzed in 49 cirrhotic patients undergoing liver transplantation. In addition, 344 cirrhotic patients with ascites were analyzed in a cohort of 521 individuals in terms of the relationship of these polymorphisms with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Results Although rs3844942 showed no associations with complications of cirrhosis, we observed a significant association between rs1041740 and the presence of ascites and SBP in the discovery cohort of patients with cirrhosis. Importantly, the association with SBP was not confirmed in the validation cohort of patients with ascites. By contrast, a trend toward lower SBP rates was observed in carriers of rs1041740. In this cohort, rs1041740 was not associated with survival. Conclusion These data suggest a complex role of SOD1 in different processes leading to complications of liver cirrhosis. rs1041740 might be associated with the development of ascites and possibly plays a role in SBP once ascites has developed.

JTD Keywords: Ascites, Genetic polymorphism, Liver cirrhosis, Reactive oxygen stress, Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, Superoxide dismutases


Noguera-Ortega, Estela, Secanella-Fandos, Silvia, Eraña, Hasier, Gasión, Jofre, Rabanal, Rosa M., Luquin, Marina, Torrents, Eduard, Julián, Esther, (2016). Nonpathogenic Mycobacterium brumae inhibits bladder cancer growth in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo European Urology Focus , 2, (1), 67-76

Background Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prevents tumour recurrence and progression in non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BC). However, common adverse events occur, including BCG infections. Objective To find a mycobacterium with similar or superior antitumour activity to BCG but with greater safety. Design In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo comparisons of the antitumour efficacy of nonpathogenic mycobacteria and BCG. Intervention The in vitro antitumour activity of a broad set of mycobacteria was studied in seven different BC cell lines. The most efficacious was selected and its ex vivo capacity to activate immune cells and its in vivo antitumour activity in an orthotopic murine model of BC were investigated. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Growth inhibition of BC cells was the primary outcome measurement. Parametric and nonparametric tests were use to analyse the in vitro results, and a Kaplan-Meier test was applied to measure survival in mycobacteria-treated tumour-bearing mice. Results and limitations Mycobacterium brumae is superior to BCG in inhibiting low-grade BC cell growth, and has similar effects to BCG against high-grade cells. M. brumae triggers an indirect antitumour response by activating macrophages and the cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood cells against BC cells. Although no significant differences were observed between BCG and M. brumae treatments in mice, M. brumae treatment prolonged survival in comparison to BCG treatment in tumour-bearing mice. In contrast to BCG, M. brumae does not persist intracellularly or in tumour-bearing mice, so the risk of infection is lower. Conclusions Our preclinical data suggest that M. brumae represents a safe and efficacious candidate as a therapeutic agent for non–muscle-invasive BC. Patient summary We investigated the antitumour activity of nonpathogenic mycobacteria in in vitro and in vivo models of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We found that Mycobacterium brumae effectively inhibits bladder cancer growth and helps the host immune system to eradicate cancer cells, and is a promising agent for antitumour immunotherapy.

JTD Keywords: Animal models, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, Cytokines, Immunomodulation, Immunotherapy, Mycobacteria, Urothelial cell line


Stanton, Morgan M., Simmchen, Juliane, Ma, Xing, Miguel-López, Albert, Sánchez, Samuel, (2016). Biohybrid Janus motors driven by Escherichia coli Advanced Materials Interfaces , 3, (2), 1500505

There has been a significant interest in the development of microswimmers for medical drug and cargo delivery, but the majority of current micromotors rely on toxic fuel sources and materials in their design making them irrelevant for biomedical applications. Bacteria represent an excellent motor alternative, as they are powered using their surrounding biological fluids. For a motile, biohybrid swimmer, Escherichia coli (E. coli) are integrated onto metal capped, polystyrene (PS) Janus particles. Fabrication of the biohybrid is rapid and simple for a microswimmer capable of magnetic guidance and ferrying an anticancer agent. Cell adhesion is regulated as E. coli adheres only to the particle's metal caps allowing the PS surface to be utilized for drug attachment, creating a multifunctional system. E. coli adhesion is investigated on multiple metal caps (Pt, Fe, Ti, or Au) and displays a strong preference to attach to Pt surfaces over other metals. Surface hydrophobicity and surface charge are examined to interpret the cell specific adhesion on the Janus particles. The dual capability of the biohybrid to have guided cell adhesion and localized drug attachment allows the swimmer to have multiple applications for biomedical microswimmers, future bacteria-interface systems, and micro-biorobots.

JTD Keywords: Bacteria adhesion, Biohybrids, Escherichia coli, Janus particles, Microswimmers


Páez-Avilés, C., Juanola-Feliu, E., Punter-Villagrasa, J., Del Moral Zamora, B., Homs-Corbera, A., Colomer-Farrarons, J., Miribel-Català , P. L., Samitier, J., (2016). Combined dielectrophoresis and impedance systems for bacteria analysis in microfluidic on-chip platforms Sensors 16, (9), 1514

Bacteria concentration and detection is time-consuming in regular microbiology procedures aimed to facilitate the detection and analysis of these cells at very low concentrations. Traditional methods are effective but often require several days to complete. This scenario results in low bioanalytical and diagnostic methodologies with associated increased costs and complexity. In recent years, the exploitation of the intrinsic electrical properties of cells has emerged as an appealing alternative approach for concentrating and detecting bacteria. The combination of dielectrophoresis (DEP) and impedance analysis (IA) in microfluidic on-chip platforms could be key to develop rapid, accurate, portable, simple-to-use and cost-effective microfluidic devices with a promising impact in medicine, public health, agricultural, food control and environmental areas. The present document reviews recent DEP and IA combined approaches and the latest relevant improvements focusing on bacteria concentration and detection, including selectivity, sensitivity, detection time, and conductivity variation enhancements. Furthermore, this review analyses future trends and challenges which need to be addressed in order to successfully commercialize these platforms resulting in an adequate social return of public-funded investments.

JTD Keywords: Bacteria, Dielectrophoresis, Impedance, Microfluidics, On-chip


Barniol-Xicota, M., Escandell, A., Valverde, E., Julián, E., Torrents, E., Vázquez, S., (2015). Antibacterial activity of novel benzopolycyclic amines Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry , 23, (2), 290-296

Staphylococcus aureus, especially strains resistant to multiple antibiotics, is a major pathogen for humans and animals. In this paper we have synthesized and evaluated the antibacterial activity of a new series of benzopolycyclic amines. Some of them exhibited μM MIC values against Staphylococcus aureus and other bacteria, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus MRSA. Compound 8 that displayed a good selectivity index, showed to be active in eliminating bacterial cells forming a preexisting biofilm.

JTD Keywords: Antibacterials, Minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration, Polycyclic compounds, Staphylococcus aureus


Van Der Hofstadt, M., Hüttener, M., Juárez, A., Gomila, G., (2015). Nanoscale imaging of the growth and division of bacterial cells on planar substrates with the atomic force microscope Ultramicroscopy , 154, 29-36

Abstract With the use of the atomic force microscope (AFM), the Nanomicrobiology field has advanced drastically. Due to the complexity of imaging living bacterial processes in their natural growing environments, improvements have come to a standstill. Here we show the in situ nanoscale imaging of the growth and division of single bacterial cells on planar substrates with the atomic force microscope. To achieve this, we minimized the lateral shear forces responsible for the detachment of weakly adsorbed bacteria on planar substrates with the use of the so called dynamic jumping mode with very soft cantilever probes. With this approach, gentle imaging conditions can be maintained for long periods of time, enabling the continuous imaging of the bacterial cell growth and division, even on planar substrates. Present results offer the possibility to observe living processes of untrapped bacteria weakly attached to planar substrates.

JTD Keywords: Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Living cell imaging, Bacteria division, Gelatine immobilization, Dynamic jumping mode


del Moral-Zamora, Beatriz, Punter-Villagrassa, Jaime, Oliva-Brañas, Ana M., Álvarez-Azpeitia, Juan Manuel, Colomer-Farrarons, Jordi, Samitier, Josep, Homs-Corbera, Antoni, Miribel-Català, Pere Ll, (2015). Combined dielectrophoretic and impedance system for on-chip controlled bacteria concentration: application to Escherichia coli Electrophoresis , 36, (9-10), 1130-1141

The present paper reports a bacteria autonomous controlled concentrator prototype with a user-friendly interface for bench-top applications. It is based on a micro-fluidic lab-on-a-chip and its associated custom instrumentation, which consists in a dielectrophoretic actuator, to pre-concentrate the sample, and an impedance analyser, to measure concentrated bacteria levels. The system is composed by a single micro-fluidic chamber with interdigitated electrodes and a instrumentation with custom electronics. The prototype is supported by a real-time platform connected to a remote computer, which automatically controls the system and displays impedance data used to monitor the status of bacteria accumulation on-chip. The system automates the whole concentrating operation. Performance has been studied for controlled volumes of Escherichia coli (E. coli) samples injected into the micro-fluidic chip at constant flow rate of 10 μL/min. A media conductivity correcting protocol has been developed, as the preliminary results showed distortion of the impedance analyser measurement produced by bacterial media conductivity variations through time. With the correcting protocol, the measured impedance values were related to the quantity of bacteria concentrated with a correlation of 0.988 and a coefficient of variation of 3.1%. Feasibility of E. coli on-chip automated concentration, using the miniaturized system, has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the impedance monitoring protocol had been adjusted and optimized, to handle changes in the electrical properties of the bacteria media over time.

JTD Keywords: Autonomous Device, Bacteria Concentrator, Dielectrophoresis, Escherichia coli, Impedance Analysis


Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana G., Muñoz-Tabares, José, Godoy-Gallardo, Maria, Juárez, Antonio, Gil, Francisco-Javier, (2013). S. sanguinis adhesion on rough titanium surfaces: Effect of culture media Materials Science and Engineering: C 33, (2), 714-720

Bacterial colonization plays a key role in dental implant failure, because they attach directly on implant surface upon implantation. Between different types of bacteria associated with the oral environment, Streptococcus sanguinis is essential in this process since it is an early colonizer. In this work the relationship between titanium surfaces modified by shot blasting treatment and S. sanguinis adhesion; have been studied in approached human mouth environment. Bacteria pre-inoculated with routinary solution were put in contact with titanium samples, shot-blasted with alumina and silicon carbide, and adhesion results were compared with those obtained when bacteria were pre-inoculated with modified artificial saliva medium and on saliva pre-coated titanium samples. Our results showed that bacterial adhesion on titanium samples was influenced by culture conditions. When S. sanguinis was inoculated in routinary culture media, colonies forming unities per square millimeter presented an increment correlated with roughness and surface energy, but separated by the type of particle used during shot-blasting treatment; whereas in modified artificial saliva only a relationship between bacteria adhered and the increment in both roughness and surface energy were observed, regardless of the particle type. Finally, on human saliva pre-coated samples no significant differences were observed among roughness, surface energy or particle.

JTD Keywords: S. sanguinis, Bacterial adhesion, Titanium, Artificial saliva, Surface energy, Roughness


Sjoberg, B. M., Torrents, E., (2011). Shift in ribonucleotide reductase gene expression in pseudomonas aeruginosa during infection Infection and Immunity , 79, (7), 2663-2669

The roles of different ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) in bacterial pathogenesis have not been studied systematically. In this work we analyzed the importance of the different Pseudomonas aeruginosa RNRs in pathogenesis using the Drosophila melanogaster host-pathogen interaction model. P. aeruginosa codes for three different RNRs with different environmental requirements. Class II and III RNR chromosomal mutants exhibited reduced virulence in this model. Translational reporter fusions of RNR gene nrdA, nrdJ, or nrdD to the green fluorescent protein were constructed to measure the expression of each class during the infection process. Analysis of the P. aeruginosa infection by flow cytometry revealed increased expression of nrdJ and nrdD and decreased nrdA expression during the infection process. Expression of each RNR class fits with the pathogenicities of the chromosomal deletion mutants. An extended understanding of the pathogenicity and physiology of P. aeruginosa will be important for the development of novel drugs against infections in cystic fibrosis patients.

JTD Keywords: Broad-host-range, Anaerobic growth, Drosophila-melanogaster, Bacterial biofilms, Escherichia-coli, Cystic-fibrosis, Model host, Virulence, Promoter, Vectors


Paytubi, S., Garcia, J., Juarez, A., (2011). Bacterial Hha-like proteins facilitate incorporation of horizontally transferred DNA Central European Journal of Biology , 6, (6), 879-886

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), non-hereditary transfer of genetic material between organisms, accounts for a significant proportion of the genetic variability in bacteria. In Gram negative bacteria, the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS silences unwanted expression of recently acquired foreign DNA. This, in turn, facilitates integration of the incoming genes into the regulatory networks of the recipient cell. Bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae express an additional protein, the Hha protein that, by binding to H-NS, potentiates silencing of HGT DNA. We provide here an overview of Hha-like proteins, including their structure and function, as well as their evolutionary relationship. We finally present available information suggesting that, by expressing Hha-like proteins, bacteria such as Escherichia coli facilitate HGT incorporation and hence, the impact of HGT in their genetic diversity.

JTD Keywords: Hha, H-NS, HGT DNA, Enterobacteria, Nucleoid-associated proteins, Enterica serovar typhimurium, Histone-like protein, h-ns, Escherichia-coli, Yersinia-enterocolitica, Salmonella-enterica


Torrents, E., Sjoberg, B. M., (2010). Antibacterial activity of radical scavengers against class Ib ribonucleotide reductase from Bacillus anthracis Biological Chemistry , 391, (2-3), 229-234

Bacillus anthracis is a severe mammalian pathogen. The deoxyribonucleotides necessary for DNA replication and repair are provided via the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) enzyme. RNR is also important for spore germination and cell proliferation upon infection. We show that the expression of B. anthracis class Ib RNR responds to the environment that the pathogen encounters upon infection. We also show that several anti-proliferative agents (radical scavengers) specifically inhibit the B. anthracis RNR. Owing to the importance of RNR in the pathogenic infection process, our results highlight a promising potential to inhibit the growth of B. anthracis early during infection.

JTD Keywords: Anthrax, Antibacterial drug, Antibacterial target, Enzyme inhibition


Jaramillo, M. D., Torrents, E., Martinez-Duarte, R., Madou, M. J., Juarez, A., (2010). On-line separation of bacterial cells by carbon-electrode dielectrophoresis Electrophoresis , 31, (17), 2921-2928

Dielectrophoresis (DEP) represents a powerful approach to manipulate and study living cells. Hitherto, several approaches have used 2-D DEP chips. With the aim to increase sample volume, in this study we used a 3-D carbon-electrode DEP chip to trap and release bacterial cells. A continuous flow was used to plug an Escherichia coli cell suspension first, to retain cells by positive DEP, and thereafter to recover them by washing with peptone water washing solution. This approach allows one not only to analyze DEP behavior of living cells within the chip, but also to further recover fractions containing DEP-trapped cells. Bacterial concentration and flow rate appeared as critical parameters influencing the separation capacity of the chip. Evidence is presented demonstrating that the setup developed in this study can be used to separate different types of bacterial cells.

JTD Keywords: Bacteria, Carbon electrode, Dielectrophoresis, E. coli, Separation


Barreiros dos Santos, M., Sporer, C., Sanvicens, N., Pascual, N., Errachid, A., Martinez, E., Marco, M. P., Teixeira, V., Samiter, J., (2009). Detection of pathogenic Bacteria by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy: Influence of the immobilization strategies on the sensor performance Procedia Chemistry 23rd Eurosensors Conference (ed. Brugger, J., Briand, D.), Elsevier Science, BV (Lausanne, Switzerland) 1, 1291-1294

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is applied to detect pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 bacteria via a label free immunoassay-based detection method. Polyclonal anti-E.coli antibodies (PAb) are immobilized onto gold electrodes following two different strategies, via chemical bond formation between antibody amino groups and a carboxylic acid containing self-assembled molecular monolayer (SAM) and alternatively by linking a biotinylated anti-E. coli to Neutravidin on a mixed-SAM. Impedance spectra for sensors of both designs for increasing concentrations of E. coli are recorded in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The Nyquist plots can be modeled with a Randle equivalent circuit, identifying the charge transfer resistance RCT as the relevant concentration dependent parameter. Sensors fabricated from both designs are able to detect very low concentration of E. coli with limits of detection as low as 10-100 cfu/ml. The influence of the different immobilization protocols on the sensor performance is evaluated in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range and resistance against nonspecific absorption.

JTD Keywords: Bacteria detection, Biosensors, E-coli, Impedance spectroscopy


Banos, R. C., Pons, J. I., Madrid, C., Juarez, A., (2008). A global modulatory role for the Yersinia enterocolitica H-NS protein Microbiology , 154, (5), 1281-1289

The H-NS protein plays a significant role in the modulation of gene expression in Gram-negative bacteria. Whereas isolation and characterization of hns mutants in Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella represented critical steps to gain insight into the modulatory role of H-NS, it has hitherto not been possible to isolate hns mutants in Yersinia. The hns mutation is considered to be deleterious in this genus. To study the modulatory role of H-NS in Yersinia we circumvented hns lethality by expressing in Y. enterocolitica a truncated H-NS protein known to exhibit anti-H-NS activity in E. coli (H-NST(EPEC)). Y. enterocolitica cells expressing H-NST(EPEC) showed an altered growth rate and several differences in the protein expression pattern, including the ProV protein, which is modulated by H-NS in other enteric bacteria. To further confirm that H-NST(EPEC) expression in Yersinia can be used to demonstrate H-NS-dependent regulation in this genus, we used this approach to show that H-NS modulates expression of the YmoA protein.

JTD Keywords: Bacterial Proteins/biosynthesis/genetics/ physiology, DNA-Binding Proteins/biosynthesis/genetics/ physiology, Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial, Genes, Essential, Proteome/analysis, RNA, Bacterial/biosynthesis, RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Sequence Deletion, Yersinia enterocolitica/chemistry/genetics/growth & development/ physiology