by Keyword: activation

Witzdam L, Vosberg B, Große-Berkenbusch K, Stoppelkamp S, Wendel HP, Rodriguez-Emmenegger C, (2023). Tackling the Root Cause of Surface-Induced Coagulation: Inhibition of FXII Activation to Mitigate Coagulation Propagation and Prevent Clotting Macromolecular Bioscience , e2300321

Factor XII (FXII) is a zymogen present in blood that tends to adsorb onto the surfaces of blood-contacting medical devices. Once adsorbed, it becomes activated, initiating a cascade of enzymatic reactions that lead to surface-induced coagulation. This process is characterized by multiple redundancies, making it extremely challenging to prevent clot formation and preserve the properties of the surface. In this study, a novel modulatory coating system based on C1-esterase inhibitor (C1INH) functionalized polymer brushes, which effectively regulates the activation of FXII is proposed. Using surface plasmon resonance it is demonstrated that this coating system effectively repels blood plasma proteins, including FXII, while exhibiting high activity against activated FXII and plasma kallikrein under physiological conditions. This unique property enables the modulation of FXII activation without interfering with the overall hemostasis process. Furthermore, through dynamic Chandler loop studies, it is shown that this coating significantly improves the hemocompatibility of polymeric surfaces commonly used in medical devices. By addressing the root cause of contact activation, the synergistic interplay between the antifouling polymer brushes and the modulatory C1INH is expected to lay the foundation to enhance the hemocompatibility of medical device surfaces.© 2023 The Authors. Macromolecular Bioscience published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: C1-esterase-inhibitor, Fxii activation, Hemocompatibility, Hemocompatible surface modification, Polymer brushes, Β-fxiia

Lopes VR, Birgersson U, Manivel VA, Hulsart-Billström G, Gallinetti S, Aparicio C, Hong J, (2023). Human Whole Blood Interactions with Craniomaxillofacial Reconstruction Materials: Exploring In Vitro the Role of Blood Cascades and Leukocytes in Early Healing Events J Funct Biomater 14, 361

The present study investigated early interactions between three alloplastic materials (calcium phosphate (CaP), titanium alloy (Ti), and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) with human whole blood using an established in vitro slide chamber model. After 60 min of contact with blood, coagulation (thrombin-antithrombin complexes, TAT) was initiated on all test materials (Ti > PEEK > CaP), with a significant increase only for Ti. All materials showed increased contact activation, with the KK-AT complex significantly increasing for CaP (p < 0.001), Ti (p < 0.01), and PEEK (p < 0.01) while only CaP demonstrated a notable rise in KK-C1INH production (p < 0.01). The complement system had significant activation across all materials, with CaP (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001) generating the most pronounced levels of C3a and sC5b-9, followed by Ti (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) and lastly, PEEK (p < 0.001, p < 0.01). This activation correlated with leukocyte stimulation, particularly myeloperoxidase release. Consequently, the complement system may assume a more significant role in the early stages post implantation in response to CaP materials than previously recognized. Activation of the complement system and the inevitable activation of leukocytes might provide a more favorable environment for tissue remodeling and repair than has been traditionally acknowledged. While these findings are limited to the early blood response, complement and leukocyte activation suggest improved healing outcomes, which may impact long-term clinical outcomes.

JTD Keywords: activation, biomaterial, calcium phosphate, coagulation, complement, cranioplasty, human whole blood, platelets, receptors, surface, titanium, Biomaterials, Calcium phosphate, Coagulation, Complement, Human whole blood, Peroxidase enzymes

Brewer MK, Torres P, Ayala V, Portero-Otin M, Pamplona R, Andrés-Benito P, Ferrer I, Gentry MS, Guinovart JJ, Duran J, (2023). Glycogen accumulation modulates life span in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Journal Of Neurochemistry ,

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord. Glial cells, including astrocytes and microglia, have been shown to contribute to neurodegeneration in ALS, and metabolic dysfunction plays an important role in the progression of the disease. Glycogen is a soluble polymer of glucose found at low levels in the central nervous system that plays an important role in memory formation, synaptic plasticity, and the prevention of seizures. However, its accumulation in astrocytes and/or neurons is associated with pathological conditions and aging. Importantly, glycogen accumulation has been reported in the spinal cord of human ALS patients and mouse models. In the present work, using the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS, we show that glycogen accumulates in the spinal cord and brainstem during symptomatic and end stages of the disease and that the accumulated glycogen is associated with reactive astrocytes. To study the contribution of glycogen to ALS progression, we generated SOD1G93A mice with reduced glycogen synthesis (SOD1G93A GShet mice). SOD1G93A GShet mice had a significantly longer life span than SOD1G93A mice and showed lower levels of the astrocytic pro-inflammatory cytokine Cxcl10, suggesting that the accumulation of glycogen is associated with an inflammatory response. Supporting this, inducing an increase in glycogen synthesis reduced life span in SOD1G93A mice. Altogether, these results suggest that glycogen in reactive astrocytes contributes to neurotoxicity and disease progression in ALS.© 2023 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society for Neurochemistry.

JTD Keywords: activation, astrocytes, brain, contributes, expression, glycogen, impairment, mice, motor neurons, neurodegeneration, reactive astrocytes, spinal cord, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Astrocytes, Glycogen, Motor neurons, Motor-neuron degeneration, Neurodegeneration, Spinal cord

Abenza JF, Rossetti L, Mouelhi M, Burgués J, Andreu I, Kennedy K, Roca-Cusachs P, Marco S, García-Ojalvo J, Trepat X, (2023). Mechanical control of the mammalian circadian clock via YAP/TAZ and TEAD Journal Of Cell Biology 222, e202209120

Autonomous circadian clocks exist in nearly every mammalian cell type. These cellular clocks are subjected to a multilayered regulation sensitive to the mechanochemical cell microenvironment. Whereas the biochemical signaling that controls the cellular circadian clock is increasingly well understood, mechanisms underlying regulation by mechanical cues are largely unknown. Here we show that the fibroblast circadian clock is mechanically regulated through YAP/TAZ nuclear levels. We use high-throughput analysis of single-cell circadian rhythms and apply controlled mechanical, biochemical, and genetic perturbations to study the expression of the clock gene Rev-erbα. We observe that Rev-erbα circadian oscillations are disrupted with YAP/TAZ nuclear translocation. By targeted mutations and overexpression of YAP/TAZ, we show that this mechanobiological regulation, which also impacts core components of the clock such as Bmal1 and Cry1, depends on the binding of YAP/TAZ to the transcriptional effector TEAD. This mechanism could explain the impairment of circadian rhythms observed when YAP/TAZ activity is upregulated, as in cancer and aging.© 2023 Abenza et al.

JTD Keywords: activation, dynamics, forces, growth, hippo pathway, liver, platform, time, transcription, Gene-expression

Heras‐Parets, Aina, Ginebra, Maria‐Pau, Manero, Jose Maria, Guillem‐Marti, Jordi, (2023). Guiding Fibroblast Activation Using an RGD‐Mutated Heparin Binding II Fragment of Fibronectin for Gingival Titanium Integration Advanced Healthcare Materials 12, e2203307

The formation of a biological seal around the neck of titanium (Ti) implants is critical for ensuring integration at the gingival site and for preventing bacterial colonization that may lead to periimplantitis. This process is guided by activated fibroblasts, named myofibroblasts, which secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and ECM-degrading enzymes resolving the wound. However, in some cases, Ti is not able to attract and activate fibroblasts to a sufficient extent, which may compromise the success of the implant. Fibronectin (FN) is an ECM component found in wounds that is able to guide soft tissue healing through the adhesion of cells and attraction of growth factors (GFs). However, clinical use of FN functionalized Ti implants is problematic because FN is difficult to obtain, and is sensitive to degradation. Herein, functionalizing Ti with a modified recombinant heparin binding II (HBII) domain of FN, mutated to include an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence for promoting both fibroblast adhesion and GF attraction, is aimed at. The HBII-RGD domain is able to stimulate fibroblast adhesion, spreading, proliferation, migration, and activation to a greater extent than the native HBII, reaching values closer to those of full-length FN suggesting that it might induce the formation of a biological sealing.© 2023 The Authors. Advanced Healthcare Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: alpha-4-beta-1, beta, cell-binding, collagen, extracellular-matrix, fibroblast activation, fibronectin, growth factors, integrins, metalloproteinases, myofibroblasts, proliferation, soft-tissue integration, titanium, Biological-activities, Fibroblast activation, Titanium

Ortiz, Cristina, Klein, Sabine, Reul, Winfried H., Magdaleno, Fernando, Gröschl, Stefanie, Dietrich, Peter, Schierwagen, Robert, Uschner, Frank E., Torres, Sandra, Hieber, Christoph, Meier, Caroline, Kraus, Nico, Tyc, Olaf, Brol, Maximilian, Zeuzem, Stefan, Welsch, Christoph, Poglitsch, Marco, Hellerbrand, Claus, Alfonso-Prieto, Mercedes, Mira, Fabio, Keller, Ulrich auf dem, Tetzner, Anja, Moore, Andrew, Walther, Thomas, Trebicka, Jonel, (2023). Neprilysin-dependent neuropeptide Y cleavage in the liver promotes fibrosis by blocking NPY-receptor 1 Cell Reports 42, 112059

Development of liver fibrosis is paralleled by contraction of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the main profibrotic hepatic cells. Yet, little is known about the interplay of neprilysin (NEP) and its substrate neuropeptide Y (NPY), a potent enhancer of contraction, in liver fibrosis. We demonstrate that HSCs are the source of NEP. Importantly, NPY originates majorly from the splanchnic region and is cleaved by NEP in order to terminate contraction. Interestingly, NEP deficiency (Nep-/-) showed less fibrosis but portal hypertension upon liver injury in two different fibrosis models in mice. We demonstrate the incremental benefit of Nep-/- in addition to AT1R blocker (ARB) or ACE inhibitors for fibrosis and portal hypertension. Finally, oral administration of Entresto, a combination of ARB and NEP inhibitor, decreased hepatic fibrosis and portal pressure in mice. These results provide a mechanistic rationale for translation of NEP-AT1R-blockade in human liver fibrosis and portal hypertension.Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: activation, cirrhosis, cirrhotic rats, cp: cell biology, expression, hepatic stellate cell, identification, inhibition, mechanisms, modulation, neprilysin, neuropeptide y, neuropeptide y receptor 1, portal hypertension, portal-hypertension, web server, Renin-angiotensin system

Mesquida-Veny, Francina, Martínez-Torres, Sara, Del Río, José Antonio, Hervera, Arnau, (2022). Genetic control of neuronal activity enhances axonal growth only on permissive substrates Molecular Medicine 28, 97

Abstract Background Neural tissue has limited regenerative ability. To cope with that, in recent years a diverse set of novel tools has been used to tailor neurostimulation therapies and promote functional regeneration after axonal injuries. Method In this report, we explore cell-specific methods to modulate neuronal activity, including opto- and chemogenetics to assess the effect of specific neuronal stimulation in the promotion of axonal regeneration after injury. Results Opto- and chemogenetic stimulations of neuronal activity elicited increased in vitro neurite outgrowth in both sensory and cortical neurons, as well as in vivo regeneration in the sciatic nerve, but not after spinal cord injury. Mechanistically, inhibitory substrates such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans block the activity induced increase in axonal growth. Conclusions We found that genetic modulations of neuronal activity on both dorsal root ganglia and corticospinal motor neurons increase their axonal growth capacity but only on permissive environments.

JTD Keywords: activation, chemogenetics, electrical-stimulation, expression, functional recovery, increases, injury, motor cortex, neuronal activity, optogenetics, permissive substrate, promotes recovery, regeneration, Optogenetics, Regeneration, Spinal-cord

Blanco-Almazan, Dolores, Groenendaal, Willemijn, Lijnen, Lien, Onder, Rana, Smeets, Christophe, Ruttens, David, Catthoor, Francky, Jane, Raimon, (2022). Breathing Pattern Estimation Using Wearable Bioimpedance for Assessing COPD Severity Ieee Journal Of Biomedical And Health Informatics 26, 5983-5991

Breathing pattern has been shown to be different in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients compared to healthy controls during rest and walking. In this study we evaluated respiratory parameters and the breathing variability of COPD patients as a function of their severity. Thoracic bioimpedance was acquired on 66 COPD patients during the performance of the six-minute walk test (6MWT), as well as 5 minutes before and after the test while the patients were seated, i.e. resting and recovery phases. The patients were classified by their level of airflow limitation into moderate and severe groups. We characterized the breathing patterns by evaluating common respiratory parameters using only wearable bioimpedance. Specifically, we computed the median and the coefficient of variation of the parameters during the three phases of the protocol, and evaluated the statistical differences between the two COPD severity groups. We observed significant differences between the COPD severity groups only during the sitting phases, whereas the behavior during the 6MWT was similar. Particularly, we observed an inverse relationship between breathing pattern variability and COPD severity, which may indicate that the most severely diseased patients had a more restricted breathing compared to the moderate patients.

JTD Keywords: 6mwt, activation, breathing pattern, burden, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exercise, muscles, pressure, pulmonary, signals, variability, volumes, wearables, Bioimpedance, Impedance pneumography

Quandt, Jonas, GaraySarmiento, Manuela, Witzdam, Lena, Englert, Jenny, Rutsch, Yannik, Stöcker, Cornelia, Obstals, Fabian, Grottke, Oliver, RodriguezEmmenegger, Cesar, (2022). Interactive Hemocompatible Nanocoating to Prevent SurfaceInduced Coagulation in Medical Devices Advanced Materials Interfaces 9, 2201055

Zambarda C, Pérez González C, Schoenit A, Veits N, Schimmer C, Jung R, Ollech D, Christian J, Roca-Cusachs P, Trepat X, Cavalcanti-Adam EA, (2022). Epithelial cell cluster size affects force distribution in response to EGF-induced collective contractility European Journal Of Cell Biology 101, 151274

Several factors present in the extracellular environment regulate epithelial cell adhesion and dynamics. Among them, growth factors such as EGF, upon binding to their receptors at the cell surface, get internalized and directly activate the acto-myosin machinery. In this study we present the effects of EGF on the contractility of epithelial cancer cell colonies in confined geometry of different sizes. We show that the extent to which EGF triggers contractility scales with the cluster size and thus the number of cells. Moreover, the collective contractility results in a radial distribution of traction forces, which are dependent on integrin β1 peripheral adhesions and transmitted to neighboring cells through adherens junctions. Taken together, EGF-induced contractility acts on the mechanical crosstalk and linkage between the cell-cell and cell-matrix compartments, regulating collective responses.Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: actin, activation, actomyosin, adherens junctions, adhesion, e-cadherin, egf, maturation, mechanical regulation, micropatterning, migration, traction forces, transduction, transmission, Actomyosin, Adherens junctions, Collective contractility, Egf, Epidermal-growth-factor, Micropatterning, Traction forces

Lolo FN, Pavón DM, Grande A, Elósegui Artola A, Segatori VI, Sánchez S, Trepat X, Roca-Cusachs P, Del Pozo MA, (2022). Caveolae couple mechanical stress to integrin recycling and activation Elife 11, e82348

Cells are subjected to multiple mechanical inputs throughout their lives. Their ability to detect these environmental cues is called mechanosensing, a process in which integrins play an important role. During cellular mechanosensing, plasma membrane (PM) tension is adjusted to mechanical stress through the buffering action of caveolae; however, little is known about the role of caveolae in early integrin mechanosensing regulation. Here, we show that Cav1KO fibroblasts increase adhesion to FN-coated beads when pulled with magnetic tweezers, as compared to wild type fibroblasts. This phenotype is Rho-independent and mainly derived from increased active b1-integrin content on the surface of Cav1KO fibroblasts. FRAP analysis and endocytosis/recycling assays revealed that active b1-integrin is mostly endocytosed through the CLIC/GEEC pathway and is more rapidly recycled to the PM in Cav1KO fibroblasts, in a Rab4 and PM tension-dependent manner. Moreover, the threshold for PM tension-driven b1-integrin activation is lower in Cav1KO MEFs than in wild type MEFs, through a mechanism dependent on talin activity. Our findings suggest that caveolae couple mechanical stress to integrin cycling and activation, thereby regulating the early steps of the cellular mechanosensing response.© 2022, Lolo et al.

JTD Keywords: adhesion, alpha-v-beta-3, cell, integrin activation, internalization, kinase, mechanosensing, mediated endocytosis, mouse, stiffness, talin, trafficking, Cell biology, Integrin activation, Integrin recycling, Mechanosensing, Membrane tension, Mouse

Martínez-Miguel M, Castellote-Borrell M, Köber M, Kyvik AR, Tomsen-Melero J, Vargas-Nadal G, Muñoz J, Pulido D, Cristóbal-Lecina E, Passemard S, Royo M, Mas-Torrent M, Veciana J, Giannotti MI, Guasch J, Ventosa N, Ratera I, (2022). Hierarchical Quatsome-RGD Nanoarchitectonic Surfaces for Enhanced Integrin-Mediated Cell Adhesion Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces 14, 48179-48193

The synthesis and study of the tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), the binding site of different extracellular matrix proteins, e.g., fibronectin and vitronectin, has allowed the production of a wide range of cell adhesive surfaces. Although the surface density and spacing of the RGD peptide at the nanoscale have already shown a significant influence on cell adhesion, the impact of its hierarchical nanostructure is still rather unexplored. Accordingly, a versatile colloidal system named quatsomes, based on fluid nanovesicles formed by the self-assembling of cholesterol and surfactant molecules, has been devised as a novel template to achieve hierarchical nanostructures of the RGD peptide. To this end, RGD was anchored on the vesicle's fluid membrane of quatsomes, and the RGD-functionalized nanovesicles were covalently anchored to planar gold surfaces, forming a state of quasi-suspension, through a long poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain with a thiol termination. An underlying self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of a shorter PEG was introduced for vesicle stabilization and to avoid unspecific cell adhesion. In comparison with substrates featuring a homogeneous distribution of RGD peptides, the resulting hierarchical nanoarchitectonic dramatically enhanced cell adhesion, despite lower overall RGD molecules on the surface. The new versatile platform was thoroughly characterized using a multitechnique approach, proving its enhanced performance. These findings open new methods for the hierarchical immobilization of biomolecules on surfaces using quatsomes as a robust and novel tissue engineering strategy.

JTD Keywords: activation, arg-gly-asp (rgd), cell adhesion, extracellular-matrix, growth, integrins, ligands, nanopatterns, quatsomes, scaffolds, self-assembled monolayers, surface engineering, tissue engineering, Arg-gly-asp (rgd), Cell adhesion, Integrins, Nano-structured surfaces, Nanovesicles, Quatsomes, Self-assembled monolayers, Surface engineering, Tissue engineering

Hino N, Matsuda K, Jikko Y, Maryu G, Sakai K, Imamura R, Tsukiji S, Aoki K, Terai K, Hirashima T, Trepat X, Matsuda M, (2022). A feedback loop between lamellipodial extension and HGF-ERK signaling specifies leader cells during collective cell migration Developmental Cell 57, 2290-2304

Upon the initiation of collective cell migration, the cells at the free edge are specified as leader cells; however, the mechanism underlying the leader cell specification remains elusive. Here, we show that lamellipodial extension after the release from mechanical confinement causes sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation and underlies the leader cell specification. Live-imaging of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and mouse epidermis through the use of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors showed that leader cells exhibit sustained ERK activation in a hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-dependent manner. Meanwhile, follower cells exhibit oscillatory ERK activation waves in an epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling-dependent manner. Lamellipodial extension at the free edge increases the cellular sensitivity to HGF. The HGF-dependent ERK activation, in turn, promotes lamellipodial extension, thereby forming a positive feedback loop between cell extension and ERK activation and specifying the cells at the free edge as the leader cells. Our findings show that the integration of physical and biochemical cues underlies the leader cell specification during collective cell migration.Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: activation, c-met, contact inhibition, focal adhesions, heparan-sulfate, mechanical forces, morphogenesis, rho, stress fibers, Collective cell migration, Erk, Feedback regulation, Fret, Growth-factor receptor, Hgf, Lamellipodia, Leader cell specification, Signal transduction, Traction force, Wound healing

Barbacena P, Dominguez-Cejudo M, Fonseca CG, Gómez-González M, Faure LM, Zarkada G, Pena A, Pezzarossa A, Ramalho D, Giarratano Y, Ouarné M, Barata D, Fortunato IC, Misikova LH, Mauldin I, Carvalho Y, Trepat X, Roca-Cusachs P, Eichmann A, Bernabeu MO, Franco CA, (2022). Competition for endothelial cell polarity drives vascular morphogenesis in the mouse retina Developmental Cell 57, 2321-2333

Blood-vessel formation generates unique vascular patterns in each individual. The principles governing the apparent stochasticity of this process remain to be elucidated. Using mathematical methods, we find that the transition between two fundamental vascular morphogenetic programs-sprouting angiogenesis and vascular remodeling-is established by a shift of collective front-to-rear polarity of endothelial cells in the mouse retina. We demonstrate that the competition between biochemical (VEGFA) and mechanical (blood-flow-induced shear stress) cues controls this collective polarity shift. Shear stress increases tension at focal adhesions overriding VEGFA-driven collective polarization, which relies on tension at adherens junctions. We propose that vascular morphogenetic cues compete to regulate individual cell polarity and migration through tension shifts that translates into tissue-level emergent behaviors, ultimately leading to uniquely organized vascular patterns.Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: activation, angiogenesis, dynamics, flow, forces, image, mechanisms, vinculin, Angiogenesis, Cell polarity, Fluid shear, Mechanobiology, Morphogenesis, Shear stress

Wauters, Annelies C., Scheerstra, Jari F., Vermeijlen, Irma G., Hammink, Roel, Schluck, Marjolein, Woythe, Laura, Wu, Hanglong, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Figdor, Carl G., Tel, Jurjen, Abdelmohsen, Loai KEA., van Hest, Jan CM., (2022). Artificial Antigen-Presenting Cell Topology Dictates T Cell Activation Acs Nano 16, 15072-15085

Nanosized artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs), synthetic immune cell mimics that aim to activate T cells ex or in vivo, offer an effective alternative to cellular immunotherapies. However, comprehensive studies that delineate the effect of nano-aAPC topology, including nanoparticle morphology and ligand density, are lacking. Here, we systematically studied the topological effects of polymersome-based aAPCs on T cell activation. We employed an aAPC library created from biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(d,l-lactide) (PEG-PDLLA) polymersomes with spherical or tubular shape and variable sizes, which were functionalized with αCD3 and αCD28 antibodies at controlled densities. Our results indicate that high ligand density leads to enhancement in T cell activation, which can be further augmented by employing polymersomes with larger size. At low ligand density, the effect of both polymersome shape and size was more pronounced, showing that large elongated polymersomes better activate T cells compared to their spherical or smaller counterparts. This study demonstrates the capacity of polymersomes as aAPCs and highlights the role of topology for their rational design.

JTD Keywords: antibody density, artificial antigen-presenting cells, biodegradable polymersomes, design, expansion, immunotherapy, nano-immunotherapy, nanoparticle morphology, t cell activation, Biodegradable polymersomes, Nanoparticle morphology, Synthetic dendritic cells

Rivas, Elisa I., Linares, Jenniffer, Zwick, Melissa, Gómez-Llonin, Andrea, Guiu, Marc, Labernadie, Anna, Badia-Ramentol, Jordi, Lladó, Anna, Bardia, Lídia, Pérez-Núñez, Iván, Martínez-Ciarpaglini, Carolina, Tarazona, Noelia, Sallent-Aragay, Anna, Garrido, Marta, Celià-Terrassa, Toni, Burgués, Octavio, Gomis, Roger R., Albanell, Joan, Calon, Alexandre, (2022). Targeted immunotherapy against distinct cancer-associated fibroblasts overcomes treatment resistance in refractory HER2+ breast tumors Nature Communications 13, 5310

About 50% of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ breast cancer patients do not benefit from HER2-targeted therapy and almost 20% of them relapse after treatment. Here, we conduct a detailed analysis of two independent cohorts of HER2+ breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab to elucidate the mechanisms of resistance to anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies. In addition, we develop a fully humanized immunocompetent model of HER2+ breast cancer recapitulating ex vivo the biological processes that associate with patients’ response to treatment. Thanks to these two approaches, we uncover a population of TGF-beta-activated cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) specific from tumors resistant to therapy. The presence of this cellular subset related to previously described myofibroblastic (CAF-S1) and podoplanin+ CAF subtypes in breast cancer associates with low IL2 activity. Correspondingly, we find that stroma-targeted stimulation of IL2 pathway in unresponsive tumors restores trastuzumab anti-cancer efficiency. Overall, our study underscores the therapeutic potential of exploiting the tumor microenvironment to identify and overcome mechanisms of resistance to anti-cancer treatment.

JTD Keywords: activation, cells, efficacy, enrichment analysis, expression, infiltrating lymphocytes, survival, therapy, trastuzumab, Her2-positive breast-cancer

Cascione M, Rizzello L, Manno D, Serra A, De Matteis V, (2022). Green Silver Nanoparticles Promote Inflammation Shutdown in Human Leukemic Monocytes Materials (Basel) 15,

The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in the biomedical field deserves a mindful analysis of the possible inflammatory response which could limit their use in the clinic. Despite the anti-cancer properties of Ag NPs having been widely demonstrated, there are still few studies concerning their involvement in the activation of specific inflammatory pathways. The inflammatory outcome depends on the synthetic route used in the NPs production, in which toxic reagents are employed. In this work, we compared two types of Ag NPs, obtained by two different chemical routes: conventional synthesis using sodium citrate and a green protocol based on leaf extracts as a source of reduction and capping agents. A careful physicochemical characterization was carried out showing spherical and stable Ag NPs with an average size between 20 nm and 35 nm for conventional and green Ag NPs respectively. Then, we evaluated their ability to induce the activation of inflammation in Human Leukemic Monocytes (THP-1) differentiated into M0 macrophages using 1 µM and 2 µM NPs concentrations (corresponded to 0.1 µg/mL and 0.2 µg/mL respectively) and two-time points (24 h and 48 h). Our results showed a clear difference in Nuclear Factor ?B (NF-?b) activation, Interleukins 6–8 (IL-6, IL-8) secretion, Tumor Necrosis Factor-? (TNF-?) and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression exerted by the two kinds of Ag NPs. Green Ag NPs were definitely tolerated by macrophages compared to conventional Ag NPs which induced the activation of all the factors mentioned above. Subsequently, the exposure of breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) to the green Ag NPs showed that they exhibited antitumor activity like the conventional ones, but surprisingly, using the MCF-10A line (not tumoral breast cells) the green Ag NPs did not cause a significant decrease in cell viability. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: activation, biosynthesis, gold nanoparticles, green route, inflammation response, mechanism, metal, nanotechnology, physico-chemical properties, raman-spectroscopy, resonance, silver nanoparticles, surface, Biomedical fields, Cell culture, Cell death, Chemical activation, Chemical routes, Conventional synthesis, Diseases, Green route, Inflammation response, Inflammatory response, Macrophages, Metal nanoparticles, Nf-kappa-b, Pathology, Physico-chemical properties, Physicochemical property, Property, Silver nanoparticles, Sodium compounds, Synthetic routes, Toxic reagents

Bravo, J, Ribeiro, I, Terceiro, AF, Andrade, EB, Portugal, CC, Lopes, IM, Azevedo, MM, Sousa, M, Lopes, CDF, Lobo, AC, Canedo, T, Relvas, JB, Summavielle, T, (2022). Neuron-Microglia Contact-Dependent Mechanisms Attenuate Methamphetamine-Induced Microglia Reactivity and Enhance Neuronal Plasticity Cells 11,

Exposure to methamphetamine (Meth) has been classically associated with damage to neuronal terminals. However, it is now becoming clear that addiction may also result from the interplay between glial cells and neurons. Recently, we demonstrated that binge Meth administration promotes microgliosis and microglia pro-inflammation via astrocytic glutamate release in a TNF/IP(3)R2-Ca2+-dependent manner. Here, we investigated the contribution of neuronal cells to this process. As the crosstalk between microglia and neurons may occur by contact-dependent and/or contact-independent mechanisms, we developed co-cultures of primary neurons and microglia in microfluidic devices to investigate how their interaction affects Meth-induced microglia activation. Our results show that neurons exposed to Meth do not activate microglia in a cell-autonomous way but require astrocyte mediation. Importantly, we found that neurons can partially prevent Meth-induced microglia activation via astrocytes, which seems to be achieved by increasing arginase 1 expression and strengthening the CD200/CD200r pathway. We also observed an increase in synaptic individual area, as determined by co-localization of pre- and post-synaptic markers. The present study provides evidence that contact-dependent mechanisms between neurons and microglia can attenuate pro-inflammatory events such as Meth-induced microglia activation.

JTD Keywords: cd200, contact-dependent, methamphetamine, neuron-to-microglia, psd95, Activation, Cd200, Contact-dependent, Expression, Glutamate, Methamphetamine, Neuron-to-microglia, Neuroprotection, Platform, Psd95

Gawish R, Starkl P, Pimenov L, Hladik A, Lakovits K, Oberndorfer F, Cronin SJF, Ohradanova-Repic A, Wirnsberger G, Agerer B, Endler L, Capraz T, Perthold JW, Cikes D, Koglgruber R, Hagelkruys A, Montserrat N, Mirazimi A, Boon L, Stockinger H, Bergthaler A, Oostenbrink C, Penninger JM, Knapp S, (2022). ACE2 is the critical in vivo receptor for SARS-CoV-2 in a novel COVID-19 mouse model with TNF-and IFNy-driven immunopathology Elife 11,

Despite tremendous progress in the understanding of COVID-19, mechanistic insight into immunological, disease-driving factors remains limited. We generated maVie16, a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2, by serial passaging of a human isolate. In silico modeling revealed how only three Spike mutations of maVie16 enhanced interaction with murine ACE2. maVie16 induced profound pathology in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, and the resulting mouse COVID-19 (mCOVID-19) replicated critical aspects of human disease, including early lymphopenia, pulmonary immune cell infiltration, pneumonia, and specific adaptive immunity. Inhibition of the proinflammatory cyto-kines IFN? and TNF substantially reduced immunopathology. Importantly, genetic ACE2-deficiency completely prevented mCOVID-19 development. Finally, inhalation therapy with recombinant ACE2 fully protected mice from mCOVID-19, revealing a novel and efficient treatment. Thus, we here present maVie16 as a new tool to model COVID-19 for the discovery of new therapies and show that disease severity is determined by cytokine-driven immunopathology and critically dependent on ACE2 in vivo. © Gawish et al.

JTD Keywords: covid-19 mouse model, covid-19 therapy, cytokine storm, immunology, inflammation, mavie16, mouse, mouse-adapted sars-cov-2, program, recombinant soluble ace2, tmprss2, Adaptive immunity, Angiotensin converting enzyme 2, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, Animal, Animal cell, Animal experiment, Animal model, Animal tissue, Animals, Apoptosis, Article, Bagg albino mouse, Breathing rate, Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, C57bl mouse, Cell composition, Cell infiltration, Controlled study, Coronavirus disease 2019, Coronavirus spike glycoprotein, Covid-19, Cytokeratin 18, Cytokine production, Dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase, Disease model, Disease models, animal, Disease severity, Drosophila-melanogaster, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, Expression vector, Flow cytometry, Gamma interferon, Gene editing, Gene expression, Gene mutation, Genetic engineering, Genetics, Glycosylation, High mobility group b1 protein, Histology, Histopathology, Immune response, Immunocompetent cell, Immunology, Immunopathology, Interferon-gamma, Interleukin 2, Metabolism, Mice, inbred balb c, Mice, inbred c57bl, Mouse-adapted sars-cov-2, Myeloperoxidase, Neuropilin 1, Nonhuman, Nucleocapsid protein, Pathogenicity, Peptidyl-dipeptidase a, Pyroptosis, Recombinant soluble ace2, Renin angiotensin aldosterone system, Rna extraction, Rna isolation, Sars-cov-2, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, Spike glycoprotein, coronavirus, T lymphocyte activation, Trabecular meshwork, Tumor necrosis factor, Virology, Virus load, Virus replication, Virus transmission, Virus virulence

Andreu, I, Granero-Moya, I, Chahare, NR, Clein, K, Molina-Jordan, M, Beedle, AEM, Elosegui-Artola, A, Abenza, JF, Rossetti, L, Trepat, X, Raveh, B, Roca-Cusachs, P, (2022). Mechanical force application to the nucleus regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport Nature Cell Biology 24, 896-+

Mechanical force controls fundamental cellular processes in health and disease, and increasing evidence shows that the nucleus both experiences and senses applied forces. Such forces can lead to the nuclear translocation of proteins, but whether force controls nucleocytoplasmic transport, and how, remains unknown. Here we show that nuclear forces differentially control passive and facilitated nucleocytoplasmic transport, setting the rules for the mechanosensitivity of shuttling proteins. We demonstrate that nuclear force increases permeability across nuclear pore complexes, with a dependence on molecular weight that is stronger for passive than for facilitated diffusion. Owing to this differential effect, force leads to the translocation of cargoes into or out of the nucleus within a given range of molecular weight and affinity for nuclear transport receptors. Further, we show that the mechanosensitivity of several transcriptional regulators can be both explained by this mechanism and engineered exogenously by introducing appropriate nuclear localization signals. Our work unveils a mechanism of mechanically induced signalling, probably operating in parallel with others, with potential applicability across signalling pathways.; Andreu et al. show that force regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport by weakening the permeability barrier of nuclear pore complexes, affecting passive and facilitated diffusion in different ways.

JTD Keywords: Activation, Inhibitor, Matrix, Mechanotransduction, Nesprins, Nucleoporins, Permeability barrier, Pore complex, Proteins, Transmission

Schroeder, Barbara, Vander Steen, Travis, Espinoza, Ingrid, Venkatapoorna, Chandra MKurapaty, Hu, Zeng, Silva, Fernando Martín, Regan, Kevin, Cuyàs, Elisabet, Meng, XWei, Verdura, Sara, Arbusà, Aina, Schneider, Paula A., Flatten, Karen S., Kemble, George, Montero, Joan, Kaufmann, Scott H., Menendez, Javier A., Lupu, Ruth, (2021). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) regulates the mitochondrial priming of cancer cells Cell Death & Disease 12, 977

Inhibitors of the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FASN) have attracted much attention in the last decade as potential targeted cancer therapies. However, little is known about the molecular determinants of cancer cell sensitivity to FASN inhibitors (FASNis), which is a major roadblock to their therapeutic application. Here, we find that pharmacological starvation of endogenously produced FAs is a previously unrecognized metabolic stress that heightens mitochondrial apoptotic priming and favors cell death induction by BH3 mimetic inhibitors. Evaluation of the death decision circuits controlled by the BCL-2 family of proteins revealed that FASN inhibition is accompanied by the upregulation of the pro-death BH3-only proteins BIM, PUMA, and NOXA. Cell death triggered by FASN inhibition, which causally involves a palmitate/NADPH-related redox imbalance, is markedly diminished by concurrent loss of BIM or PUMA, suggesting that FASN activity controls cancer cell survival by fine-tuning the BH3 only proteins-dependent mitochondrial threshold for apoptosis. FASN inhibition results in a heightened mitochondrial apoptosis priming, shifting cells toward a primed-for-death state “addicted” to the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2. Accordingly, co-administration of a FASNi synergistically augments the apoptosis-inducing activity of the dual BCL-XL/BCL-2 inhibitor ABT-263 (navitoclax) and the BCL-2 specific BH3-mimetic ABT-199 (venetoclax). FASN inhibition, however, fails to sensitize breast cancer cells to MCL-1- and BCL-XL-selective inhibitors such as S63845 and A1331852. A human breast cancer xenograft model evidenced that oral administration of the only clinically available FASNi drastically sensitizes FASN-addicted breast tumors to ineffective single-agents navitoclax and venetoclax in vivo. In summary, a novel FASN-driven facet of the mitochondrial priming mechanistically links the redox-buffering mechanism of FASN activity to the intrinsic apoptotic threshold in breast cancer cells. Combining next-generation FASNis with BCL-2-specific BH3 mimetics that directly activate the apoptotic machinery might generate more potent and longer-lasting antitumor responses in a clinical setting.

JTD Keywords: activation, apoptosis, bh3 mimetics, cytochrome-c, death, inhibition, metabolism, pathways, venetoclax, Bcl-2 family

Nyga, Agata, Muñoz, Jose J., Dercksen, Suze, Fornabaio, Giulia, Uroz, Marina, Trepat, Xavier, Baum, Buzz, Matthews, Helen K., Conte, Vito, (2021). Oncogenic RAS instructs morphological transformation of human epithelia via differential tissue mechanics Science Advances 7, eabg6467

Zañudo JGT, Mao P, Alcon C, Kowalski K, Johnson GN, Xu G, Baselga J, Scaltriti M, Letai A, Montero J, Albert R, Wagle N, (2021). Cell line-specific network models of er breast cancer identify potential pi3kainhibitor resistance mechanisms and drug combinations Cancer Research 81, 4603-4617

Durable control of invasive solid tumors necessitates identifying therapeutic resistance mechanisms and effective drug combinations. In this work, we used a network-based mathematical model to identify sensitivity regulators and drug combinations for the PI3Ka inhibitor alpelisib in estrogen receptor positive (ER) PIK3CAmutant breast cancer. The model-predicted efficacious combination of alpelisib and BH3 mimetics, for example, MCL1 inhibitors, was experimentally validated in ER breast cancer cell lines. Consistent with the model, FOXO3 downregulation reduced sensitivity to alpelisib, revealing a novel potential resistance mechanism. Cell line-specific sensitivity to combinations of alpelisib and BH3 mimetics depended on which BCL2 family members were highly expressed. On the basis of these results, newly developed cell line-specific network models were able to recapitulate the observed differential response to alpelisib and BH3 mimetics. This approach illustrates how network-based mathematical models can contribute to overcoming the challenge of cancer drug resistance.

JTD Keywords: activation, akt, feedback, foxo, leads, p27(kip1), phosphorylation, reveals, transcription factors, Dependent kinase inhibitor

Barbero-Castillo A, Riefolo F, Matera C, Caldas-Martínez S, Mateos-Aparicio P, Weinert JF, Garrido-Charles A, Claro E, Sanchez-Vives MV, Gorostiza P, (2021). Control of Brain State Transitions with a Photoswitchable Muscarinic Agonist Advanced Science 8, e2005027

The ability to control neural activity is essential for research not only in basic neuroscience, as spatiotemporal control of activity is a fundamental experimental tool, but also in clinical neurology for therapeutic brain interventions. Transcranial-magnetic, ultrasound, and alternating/direct current (AC/DC) stimulation are some available means of spatiotemporal controlled neuromodulation. There is also light-mediated control, such as optogenetics, which has revolutionized neuroscience research, yet its clinical translation is hampered by the need for gene manipulation. As a drug-based light-mediated control, the effect of a photoswitchable muscarinic agonist (Phthalimide-Azo-Iper (PAI)) on a brain network is evaluated in this study. First, the conditions to manipulate M2 muscarinic receptors with light in the experimental setup are determined. Next, physiological synchronous emergent cortical activity consisting of slow oscillations-as in slow wave sleep-is transformed into a higher frequency pattern in the cerebral cortex, both in vitro and in vivo, as a consequence of PAI activation with light. These results open the way to study cholinergic neuromodulation and to control spatiotemporal patterns of activity in different brain states, their transitions, and their links to cognition and behavior. The approach can be applied to different organisms and does not require genetic manipulation, which would make it translational to humans.

JTD Keywords: brain states, light-mediated control, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, neuromodulation, Activation, Alternating/direct currents, Basal forebrain, Brain, Brain states, Clinical research, Clinical translation, Controlled drug delivery, Cortex, Forebrain cholinergic system, Genetic manipulations, Higher frequencies, Hz oscillation, Light‐, Light-mediated control, Mediated control, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, Muscarinic agonists, Muscarinic receptor, Neurology, Neuromodulation, Neurons, Noradrenergic modulation, Parvalbumin-positive interneurons, Photopharmacology, Receptor-binding, Slow, Spatiotemporal control, Spatiotemporal patterns

Oliveira LVF, Apostólico N, Uriarte JJ, Da Palma RK, Prates RA, Deana AM, Ferreira LR, Afonso JPR, De Paula Vieira R, De Oliveira Júnior MC, Navajas D, Farré R, Lopes-Martins RAB, (2021). Photodynamic Therapy in the Extracellular Matrix of Mouse Lungs: Preliminary Results of an Alternative Tissue Sterilization Process International Journal Of Photoenergy 2021,

Lung transplantation is one of the most difficult and delicate procedures among organ transplants. For the success of the procedure and survival of the new organ, the sterilization step for acellular lungs prior to recellularization is important to ensure that they are free of any risk of transmitting infections from the donor to the recipient subject. However, there are no available information concerning the lung mechanical parameters after sterilizing photodynamic therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extracellular matrix (ECM) and lung mechanical parameters of decellularized lungs undergoing sterilizing photodynamic therapy (PDT). Besides, we also analyzed the lung after controlled infection with C. albicans in order to evaluate the effectiveness of PDT. The lung mechanical evaluation parameters, resistance (RL) and elastance (EL), exhibited no significant differences between groups. In addition, there were no PDT-induced changes in lung properties, with maintenance of the viscoelastic behavior of the lung scaffold after 1 h exposure to PDT. The ECM components remained virtually unchanged in the acellular lungs of both groups. We also showed that there was a reduction in fungal infection population after 45 minutes of PDT. However, more studies should be performed to establish and verify the effectiveness of PDT as a possible means for sterilizing lung scaffolds. This manuscript was presented as a master thesis of Nadua Apostólico at the postgraduate program in rehabilitation sciences, University Nove de Julho - UNINOVE.

JTD Keywords: candida, combination, inactivation, infections, mechanics, Gamma-irradiation

Martí D, Torras J, Bertran O, Turon P, Alemán C, (2021). Temperature effect on the SARS-CoV-2: A molecular dynamics study of the spike homotrimeric glycoprotein Computational And Structural Biotechnology Journal 19, 1848-1862

Rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus have boosted the need of knowledge about inactivation mechanisms to minimize the impact of COVID-19 pandemic. Recent studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 virus can be disabled by heating, the exposure time for total inactivation depending on the reached temperature (e.g. more than 45 min at 329 K or less than 5 min at 373 K. In spite of recent crystallographic structures, little is known about the molecular changes induced by the temperature. Here, we unravel the molecular basis of the effect of the temperature over the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, which is a homotrimer with three identical monomers, by executing atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at 298, 310, 324, 338, 358 and 373 K. Furthermore, both the closed down and open up conformational states, which affect the accessibility of receptor binding domain, have been considered. Our results suggest that the spike homotrimer undergoes drastic changes in the topology of the hydrogen bonding interactions and important changes on the secondary structure of the receptor binding domain (RBD), while electrostatic interactions (i.e. salt bridges) are mainly preserved. The proposed inactivation mechanism has important implications for engineering new approaches to fight the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, as for example, cleaving or reorganizing the hydrogen bonds through chaotropic agents or nanoparticles with local surface resonant plasmon effect.

JTD Keywords: atomistic simulations, coronaviruses, denaturation, homotrimeric protein, inactivation, proteins, receptor binding domain, salt bridges, simulation, thermal inactivation, virus spike, Atomistic simulations, Homotrimeric protein, Receptor binding domain, Secondary-structure, Thermal inactivation, Virus spike

Pittolo, Silvia, Lee, Hyojung, Lladó, Anna, Tosi, Sébastien, Bosch, Miquel, Bardia, Lídia, Gómez-Santacana, Xavier, Llebaria, Amadeu, Soriano, Eduardo, Colombelli, Julien, Poskanzer, Kira E., Perea, Gertrudis, Gorostiza, Pau, (2019). Reversible silencing of endogenous receptors in intact brain tissue using two-photon pharmacology Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116, (27), 13680-13689

The physiological activity of proteins is often studied with loss-of-function genetic approaches, but the corresponding phenotypes develop slowly and can be confounding. Photopharmacology allows direct, fast, and reversible control of endogenous protein activity, with spatiotemporal resolution set by the illumination method. Here, we combine a photoswitchable allosteric modulator (alloswitch) and 2-photon excitation using pulsed near-infrared lasers to reversibly silence metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor activity in intact brain tissue. Endogenous receptors can be photoactivated in neurons and astrocytes with pharmacological selectivity and with an axial resolution between 5 and 10 µm. Thus, 2-photon pharmacology using alloswitch allows investigating mGlu5-dependent processes in wild-type animals, including synaptic formation and plasticity, and signaling pathways from intracellular organelles.

JTD Keywords: Photopharmacology, Photoactivation, Pharmacological selectivity, Functional silencing, 2-photon pharmacology

Lozano-García, M., Estrada-Petrocelli, L., Moxham, J., Rafferty, G. F., Torres, A., Jolley, C. J., Jané, R. , (2019). Noninvasive assessment of inspiratory muscle neuromechanical coupling during inspiratory threshold loading IEEE Access 7, 183634-183646

Diaphragm neuromechanical coupling (NMC), which reflects the efficiency of conversion of neural activation to transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi), is increasingly recognized to be a useful clinical index of diaphragm function and respiratory mechanics in neuromuscular weakness and cardiorespiratory disease. However, the current gold standard assessment of diaphragm NMC requires invasive measurements of Pdi and crural diaphragm electromyography (oesEMGdi), which complicates the measurement of diaphragm NMC in clinical practice. This is the first study to compare invasive measurements of diaphragm NMC (iNMC) using the relationship between Pdi and oesEMGdi, with noninvasive assessment of NMC (nNMC) using surface mechanomyography (sMMGlic) and electromyography (sEMGlic) of lower chest wall inspiratory muscles. Both invasive and noninvasive measurements were recorded in twelve healthy adult subjects during an inspiratory threshold loading protocol. A linear relationship between noninvasive sMMGlic and sEMGlic measurements was found, resulting in little change in nNMC with increasing inspiratory load. By contrast, a curvilinear relationship between invasive Pdi and oesEMGdi measurements was observed, such that there was a progressive increase in iNMC with increasing inspiratory threshold load. Progressive recruitment of lower ribcage muscles, serving to enhance the mechanical advantage of the diaphragm, may explain the more linear relationship between sMMGlic and sEMGlic (both representing lower intercostal plus costal diaphragm activity) than between Pdi and crural oesEMGdi. Noninvasive indices of NMC derived from sEMGlic and sMMGlic may prove to be useful indices of lower chest wall inspiratory muscle NMC, particularly in settings that do not have access to invasive measures of diaphragm function.

JTD Keywords: Cardiovascular system, Diaphragms, Diseases, Electromyography, Medical signal processing, Neurophysiology, Patient monitoring, Pneumodynamics, Inspiratory muscle neuromechanical coupling, Diaphragm neuromechanical coupling, Neural activation, Transdiaphragmatic pressure, Diaphragm function, Respiratory mechanics, Diaphragm NMC, Invasive measurements, Crural diaphragm electromyography, iNMC, Noninvasive assessment, nNMC, Lower chest wall inspiratory muscles, Inspiratory threshold loading protocol, Noninvasive sMMGlic measurements, sEMGlic measurements, oesEMGdi measurements, Inspiratory threshold load, Lower ribcage muscles, Lower intercostal plus costal diaphragm activity, Crural oesEMGdi, Noninvasive indices, sEMGlic sMMGlic, Lower chest wall inspiratory muscle NMC, Surface mechanomyography, Electromyography, Inspiratory threshold loading, Mechanomyography, Neuromechanical coupling, Respiratory muscles

Tekeli, I., Aujard, I., Trepat, X., Jullien, L., Raya, A., Zalvidea, D., (2016). Long-term in vivo single-cell lineage tracing of deep structures using three-photon activation Light: Science and Applications , 5, (6), e16084

Genetic labeling techniques allow for noninvasive lineage tracing of cells in vivo. Two-photon inducible activators provide spatial resolution for superficial cells, but labeling cells located deep within tissues is precluded by scattering of the far-red illumination required for two-photon photolysis. Three-photon illumination has been shown to overcome the limitations of two-photon microscopy for in vivo imaging of deep structures, but whether it can be used for photoactivation remains to be tested. Here we show, both theoretically and experimentally, that three-photon illumination overcomes scattering problems by combining longer wavelength excitation with high uncaging three-photon cross-section molecules. We prospectively labeled heart muscle cells in zebrafish embryos and found permanent labeling in their progeny in adult animals with negligible tissue damage. This technique allows for a noninvasive genetic manipulation in vivo with spatial, temporal and cell-type specificity, and may have wide applicability in experimental biology.

JTD Keywords: Multi-photon microscopy, Photoactivation, Three-photon microscopy, Zebrafish

Carulla, Patricia, Bribian, Ana, Rangel, Alejandra, Gavin, Rosalina, Ferrer, Isidro, Caelles, Carme, Antonio del Rio, Jose, Llorens, Franc, (2011). Neuroprotective role of PrP(C) against kainate-induced epileptic seizures and cell death depends on the modulation of JNK3 activation by GluR6/7-PSD-95 binding Molecular Biology of the Cell , 22, (17), 3041-3054

Cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein. When mutated or misfolded, the pathogenic form (PrP(SC)) induces transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. In contrast, PrP(C) has a number of physiological functions in several neural processes. Several lines of evidence implicate PrP(C) in synaptic transmission and neuroprotection since its absence results in an increase in neuronal excitability and enhanced excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, PrP(C) has been implicated in the inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-mediated neurotransmission, and prion protein gene (Prnp) knockout mice show enhanced neuronal death in response to NMDA and kainate (KA). In this study, we demonstrate that neurotoxicity induced by KA in Prnp knockout mice depends on the c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3) pathway since Prnp(%) Jnk3(%) mice were not affected by KA. Pharmacological blockage of JNK3 activity impaired PrP(C)-dependent neurotoxicity. Furthermore, our results indicate that JNK3 activation depends on the interaction of PrP(C) with postsynaptic density 95 protein (PSD-95) and glutamate receptor 6/7 (GluR6/7). Indeed, GluR6-PSD-95 interaction after KA injections was favored by the absence of PrP(C). Finally, neurotoxicity in Prnp knockout mice was reversed by an AMPA/KA inhibitor (6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione) and the GluR6 antagonist NS-102. We conclude that the protection afforded by PrP(C) against KA is due to its ability to modulate GluR6/7-mediated neurotransmission and hence JNK3 activation.

JTD Keywords: Ischemic brain-injury, Prion protein PrP(C), Stress-inducible protein-1, Synaptic plasticity, Neurite outgrowth, Signaling module, Caspase-3 activation, Organotypic cultures, Cerebral-ischemia

Roca-Cusachs, P., Gauthier, N. C., del Rio, A., Sheetz, M. P., (2009). Clustering of alpha(5)beta(1) integrins determines adhesion strength whereas alpha(v)beta(3) and talin enable mechanotransduction Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106, (38), 16245-16250

A key molecular link between cells and the extracellular matrix is the binding between fibronectin and integrins alpha(5)beta(1) and alpha(v)beta(3). However, the roles of these different integrins in establishing adhesion remain unclear. We tested the adhesion strength of fibronectin-integrin-cytoskeleton linkages by applying physiological nanonewton forces to fibronectin-coated magnetic beads bound to cells. We report that the clustering of fibronectin domains within 40 nm led to integrin alpha(5)beta(1) recruitment, and increased the ability to sustain force by over six-fold. This force was supported by alpha(5)beta(1) integrin clusters. Importantly, we did not detect a role of either integrin alpha(v)beta(3) or talin 1 or 2 in maintaining adhesion strength. Instead, these molecules enabled the connection to the cytoskeleton and reinforcement in response to an applied force. Thus, high matrix forces are primarily supported by clustered alpha(5)beta(1) integrins, while less stable links to alpha(v)beta(3) integrins initiate mechanotransduction, resulting in reinforcement of integrin-cytoskeleton linkages through talin-dependent bonds.

JTD Keywords: Cell-adhesion, Mechanical force, Vinculin-binding, Fibronectin, Activation, Dynamics, Domain, Alpha-v-beta-3, Translocation, Bonds

Gorostiza, P., Isacoff, E. Y., (2008). Optical switches for remote and noninvasive control of cell signaling Science 322, (5900), 395-399

Although the identity and interactions of signaling proteins have been studied in great detail, the complexity of signaling networks cannot be fully understood without elucidating the timing and location of activity of individual proteins. To do this, one needs a means for detecting and controlling specific signaling events. An attractive approach is to use light, both to report on and control signaling proteins in cells, because light can probe cells in real time with minimal damage. Although optical detection of signaling events has been successful for some time, the development of the means for optical control has accelerated only recently. Of particular interest is the development of chemically engineered proteins that are directly sensitive to light.

JTD Keywords: Ion channels, Acetylcholine receptor, Glutamate-receptor, Potassium channel, K+ channel, Light, Neurons, Channelrhodopsin-2, Manipulation, Activation